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ATOLL 

RESEARCH 
BULLETIN 



Issued by 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SM1TH5J.MIAN INSTITUTION 
WASHINGTON, D.C. ti . s . A . 
FEBRUARY 19 9 1 




CONTENTS LIST AND INDEXES FOR 



THE ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 



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ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



The Atoll Research Bulletin is issued by the Smithsonian Institution, to provide an outlet for 
information on the biota of tropical islands and reefs, and on the environment that supports the 
biota. The Bulletin is supported by the National Museum of Natural History and is produced by the 
Smithsonian Press. This issue is financed with funds from the Atherton Seidell Endowment. 

The Bulletin was founded in 1951 and the first 117 numbers were issued by the Pacific Science 
Board, National Academy of Sciences, with financial support from the Office of Naval Research. Its 
pages were devoted largely to reports resulting from the Pacific Science Board's Coral Atoll 
Program. 

All statements made in papers published in the Atoll Research Bulletin are the sole responsibility 
of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Smithsonian nor of the editors of the 
Bulletin. 



Articles submitted for publication in the Atoll Research Bulletin should be original papers in a 
format similar to that found in recent issues of the Bulletin. First drafts of manuscripts should be 
typewritten double spaced. After the manuscript has been reviewed and accepted, the author will be 
provided with a page format with which to prepare a single-spaced camera-ready copy of the 
manuscript. 

EDITORS 

F. Raymond Fosberg National Museum of Natural History 

Mark M. Littler Smithsonian Institution 

Ian G.Macintyre Washington, D. C. 20560 
Joshua I. Tracey, Jr. 

David R. Stoddart Department of Geography 

University of California 
Berkeley, CA 94720 

Bernard Salvat Laboratoire de Biologie & Ecologie 

Tropicale et Mediterraneenne 
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes 
Labo. Biologie Marine et Malacologie 
Universite de Perpignan 
66025 Perpignan Cedex, France 

BUSINESS MANAGER 



Royce L. Oliver National Museum of Natural History 

Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 20560 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 

NO. 347 



CONTENTS LIST AND INDEXES FOR 

THE ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 

BY 

Mary McCutcheon 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON, D.C., U.S.A. 

February 1991 



CONTENTS LIST AND INDEXES FOR THE 
ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Sections page 

Introduction 1 

Contents of the 

Atoll Research Bulletin 7 

Index by Location and Topic 67 

Index by Geologic Feature 

and Topic 97 

Index by Topic 

and Location/Geologic Feature 103 



CONTENTS LIST AND INDEXES FOR THE ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 

By: Mary McCutcheon l 

Introduction 

Not counting this issue, there have been 346 numbers in the Atoll Research 
Bulletin and 595 authored contributions. The accumulation of material has made 
it almost impossible to locate articles pertaining to specific islands or subjects 
without some sort of search tool. It seemed appropriate at this point to do a 
comprehensive bibliography and group of indexes which, after 40 years of 
publication, can also serve as a retrospective of the journal. Upon looking at the 
indexes, even the editors were amazed to note just how much information there is 
in the Atoll Research Bulletin 1 . 

The History of the Atoll Research Bulletin 

In June, 1946, the United States was preparing for its new role as 
administrator, under a U.N. Trusteeship agreement, of the large part of the 
Pacific that had been under Japanese domination before the War. As a way of 
collecting information, George Peter Murdock and Harold J. Coolidge 
representing the National Research Council of the National Academy of Science 
held a conference to discuss the current state of knowledge about Pacific Islands. 
The participants recommended establishing a Pacific Science Board which would 
be composed of scientists specializing in a range of fields and geographic areas. It 
would be dedicated to aiding scientists, advising policy makers, and furthering 
international cooperation. The Pacific Science Board formally came into 
existence later that year and remained active until 1969 when Harold Coolidge, its 
executive director, retired. 

The Pacific Science Board was recognized immediately as a valuable 
research organization. Among the significant projects it sponsored were the 
Coordinated Investigations of Micronesian Anthropology (CIMA), Scientific 
Investigations in Micronesia (SIM), Insect Control For Micronesia (ICCM), 
Scientific Investigation of Ryukyus (SIRI), Pacific Island Rat Ecology (PIRATE), 
Biological Investigation of Pacific Area (BIPA), and surveys of Indonesia, Malaya, 



1 Island Biogeography Files, Stop 166 
National Museum of Natural History 
Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 20560 



In the meantime, the South Pacific Commission under Dr. H.G. MacMillan 
established project E-6, "Economic Development of Coral Islands," in May 1949. 
Recognizing the advantages of working in collaboration with the Pacific Science 
Board, MacMillan requested the Pacific Science Board to set up a survey of coral 
islands with the object of identifying resources with development potential. The 
Pacific Science Board agreed and set up the Coral Atoll Program under the 
umbrella of Scientific Investigations of Micronesia. 

In addition to the South Pacific Commission work, the Coral Atoll Program 
undertook various other projects specifically related to low coral islands. It 
fostered research on Arno, Ifalik, Onotoa, Kapingamarangi and Raroia, and its 
participants drafted a handbook for atoll research and a bibliography of coral 
atolls. To plan this work, the Coral Atoll Program sponsored two symposia in 
1951--the first in Washington and the second in Honolulu. 

The Atoll Research Bulletin was not initially part of the master plan for the 
Coral Atoll Program. But, following the two coral atoll symposia of early 1951, F. 
Raymond Fosberg who was affiliated with the Pacific Science Board and a 
participant at the symposia, had the idea of setting up a mechanism for the 
disseminating information about coral islands. He wrote a memo entitled 
"Distribution of Atoll Project Information" (March 30, 1951) in which he said, "In 
an investigation of the magnitude of the Atoll Project, and involving such a 
number of people in one way or another, it is obvious that much information must 
be duplicated and circulated." His concern was twofold: first, that information be 
disseminated quickly, and second, that there be no bibliographic headaches 
generated by the production of substantive but informal mimeographed papers. 
Fosberg mused, "It would be a pity if the Atoll Project were remembered as the 
source of bibliographic difficulties" and added, "My suggestion as a way of 
avoiding such difficulties would be to issue a definitely numbered and dated , 
actually published bulletin of preliminary information, perhaps to be termed the 
Atoll Research Bulletin." 

Thus the early numbers of the Atoll Research Bulletin were composed 
mainly of Atoll Project reports: the symposium papers of 1951 (numbers 1 and 
2), preliminary research results from the work done on Arno (numbers 3-10), 
Onotoa (numbers 12-13), Ifalik (numbers 44 and 77), and Raroia (numbers 31- 
36), and an early draft of the Atoll Research Handbook (number 17). 

There was a growing demand, though, for a journal where researchers other 
than those supported through the Pacific Science Board could submit their 
articles. Harold Maude, in a 1958 letter, encouraged the Pacific Science Board to 
branch out into demographics, linguistics, and history, to solicit more articles, and 
to turn the Atoll Research Bulletin into a final publication, not just an interim way 
of getting timely research results out. He pointed out that for many researchers 



"there is no other area journal at all likely to publish the results of their work." 
Before long the Atoll Research Bulletin began to broaden its scope by publishing 
more articles on atolls in the Indian Ocean and cays in the Caribbean. By 1966 
even articles on tropical high islands began to appear. 

The first issue of the Atoll Research Bulletin was mimeographed and sent to 
only 300 recipients (individuals, research institutions, and libraries). Now the 
circulation is almost three times that number with an additional 200 copies going 
to Federal Repositories. 

In the beginning, F. Raymond Fosberg was the official editor, but his 
assistant at the time, Marie-Helene Sachet, assumed more and more 
responsibility over the editing and assembly of the journal. As long as Sachet 
worked part time at the National Academy of Science, the Atoll Research Bulletin 
was issued by that institution. When she and Ray Fosberg both moved over to 
the Smithsonian under the auspices of the Tropical Biology Program, the journal 
followed them. In 1969 David R. Stoddart, then of Cambridge University, became 
an editor and then in 1979 Ian Macintyre of the Department of Paleobiology in 
the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian joined the editorial 
team. Royce Oliver, meanwhile, took over production responsibilities for the 
journal as the business manager. This continued until 1986 when Marie-Helene 
Sachet died. Since then, Ian Macintyre has served as coordinating editor with 
Royce Oliver continuing as business manager. Meanwhile, a board of editors 
composed of F. Raymond Fosberg, Mark Littler, Ian Macintyre, Joshua Tracey, 
David Stoddart, and Bernard Salvat now reviews submissions and maintains high 
publication standards. 

While produced by the National Academy of Science, the Atoll Research 
Bulletin was usually funded by a grant from the Office of Naval Research. 
Because of the link with the South Pacific Commission, though, Rene Catala's 
report on the Gilberts (number 59) was funded by the South Pacific Commission. 
Since 1966, it has usually been supported by the Director's Office of the 
Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. In some 
exceptional cases, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has funded numbers 
pertaining to their Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program. Recently, though, 
during these times of budgetary uncertainty, Royce Oliver has has to delve into 
the Bulletin's own small savings account to pay for production. 

The Atoll Research Bulletin has always been distributed free of charge to 
interested people, research organizations and libraries, but over the last 25 years, 
donations have been solicited as a cushion against the risk of budget cuts. There 
have been bleak times for the Atoll Research Bulletin (including the present time), 
and the board of editors has been grateful for this little nest egg. This particular 
issue was funded by a grant from the Atherton Seidell Endowment which provides 



funds for making already published information more widely accessible. We are 
very grateful for their generous support. 



The Atoll Research Bulletin comes out irregularly with an average of two 
issues per year. An issue may contain between one and 14 numbers each of 
which is composed of either one authored work or several papers in an edited 
collection. 

The List of Contents of the Atoll Research Bulletin 

The first part of this volume (pp 7 to 65) is the contents list in alphabetical 
order by first author. Those articles which are part of edited works are listed 
separately. Even appendices and short notes in the "Atoll News and Comment" 
and "Island News and Comment" sections are included as long as they have by- 
lines. There are two unauthored works. One is listed under "Anonymous" and 
the other, which is a list based on the mollusk collections of H.J. Morgan is listed 
with Morgan as author. "Atoll News and Comment" and "Island News and 
Comment" are listed under "Editor (Fosberg F.R. and M-H Sachet)". 

Each reference has an annotation. Rather than summarizing the conclusion 
of an article, an annotation is simply a quick description of its contents in 
incomplete sentences with a list of supplementary material, such as maps, 
bibliographies, and photographs. It is intended to help a researcher determine 
whether the article is likely to be helpful for his or her purposes. 

The Index Terms 

Each article was assigned index terms to allow easy retrieval. The only 
exceptions are commemorative articles on Marie-Helene Sachet and certain 
"Atoll News and Comment" and "Island News and Comment" sections which 
contain too little information on too many subjects to be really useful to 
researchers. 

These index terms fall into three categories: A) geographic region; B) 
geologic feature, and C) topic. 

A) Most articles pertain to specific islands or island groups. Geographic 
region index terms were assigned at two levels of abstraction: the more general 
being nearest continent, ocean or sea (e.g. "Australia", "Pacific" or "Caribbean") 
and the more specific being the island group and, if given, the specific island (e.g. 
"Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group", "Tuamotus, Raroia" or "Amirantes, 
Alphonse Island"). 



B) There are a few articles that discuss geologic features, such as atolls, 
reefs, high islands, in general without referring to any particular place. These 
were indexed by the geologic feature. 



C) All articles were indexed by the topic at two levels of abstraction: 
general subject matter (e.g. "Zoology" or "Ecology") and specific topic and taxon, 
if relevant (e.g. "Insects, Odonata" or "Mangroves"). Often several index terms 
were assigned to a given article. 

Articles were indexed in anticipation of the needs of the user (a fictional 
composite character who is our image of the typical reader of the Atoll Research 
Bulletin). Even though my policy was to create an index that was generally 
hierarchical, perfect adherence to this was compromised in cases where I felt it 
would not have made searches easier. To make an effective search tool, of 
course, an index to a bibliography has to create artificial groupings of references. 
It requires some judgment to determine the "best fit" for references and terms. I 
tried to use index terms that were neither so general they were meaningless nor 
so specific that the intention of grouping was lost. In the end, as can be seen 
from the indexes themselves, I practiced some retrofitting to make them most 
useful. 

Index by Location and Topic 

Following the alphabetical "Contents of the Atoll Research Bulletin" (on 
page 67) is the first of three indexes. This is for people who are searching 
primarily for information from a geographic region or a specific island and 
secondarily for a topic. 

Index by Geologic Feature and Topic 

The second index (page 97) is designed to accommodate those ARB 
articles that pertain to geological features globally without reference to a specific 
location. It includes these types of features followed, secondarily by general and 
specific topics. 

Index by Topic and Location/Geologic Feature 

If a researcher is primarily interested in a topic (Pumice scatters, 
Acanthaster planci or Fresh water) then he or she should start with the third index 
(page 103). Here articles are sorted first by the general and specific topics and 
then by the geographic region or geologic feature. 



6 
Acknowledgments 

A great many people helped to put this issue together. 

Thanks go to F. Raymond Fosberg of the Botany Department, National 
Museum of Natural History and to Janice Goldblum and her staff in the National 
Academy of Sciences archives for information and recollections about the history 
of the journal. 

Royce Oliver and Ian Macintyre solved production problems, and 
Constance Barut Rankin and Mary Parrish applied their graphics design skills to 
the introductory pages of each section. Warren L. Wagner and Laurence Skog of 
the Department of Botany gave support and guidance. 

For help with plant and animal systematics and much other substantive 
advice, I thank Barrett Brooks, Stephen Cairns, Michael Carleton, Roger Clapp, 
Ray Fosberg, Suzanne Fredericq, Diane Littler, Mark Littler, Ian Macintyre, Ray 
Manning, Gustav Paulay, Warren Steiner, and Joshua Tracey. 



CONTENTS OF THE 
ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 




CONTENTS OF THE ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
1951 THROUGH 1990 



Abbott, Isabella A. 

1961. A Check List of Marine Algae from Ifaluk Atoll, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 77:1-5. 

Checklist of marine algae collected from Ifalik (Micronesia) by Donald P. Abbott in 1953. Bibliography. 

Adams, C. C. 

1969. A Botanical Description of Big Pelican Cay, a Little Known Island off the South Coast of 
Jamaica. Ai?.£. No. 130:1-10. 

General description and vegetation of Big Pelican Cay off south coast of Jamaica. Map, bibliography, and 

photographs. 

Adey, Walter H. 

1975. The Algal Ridges and Coral Reefs of St. Croix. A.R.B. No. 187:1-67. 

Analysis of cores drilled through St. Croix's algal ridges for paleoecological study. Results of C14 dating and 
identification of algae responsible for ridge building. Charts, diagrams, maps, photographs, and bibliography. 

Adey, Walter, Patricia Adey, Randolph Burke and Leslie Kaufman 

1977. The Holocene Reef Systems of Eastern Martinique, French West Indies. 

A.R.B. No. 218:1-40. 

Description of reefs and colonies of fleshy algae of Martinique. Discussion of whole reef ecosystem (fish, benthic 
algae, coral) and environmental determinants of fleshy algae abundance. Bibliography, maps, diagrams, tables. 

Allen, Melinda 

1989. Artifacts from 1987 Excavations on Henderson Island. A.R.B. No. 325:15-18. 

Description of artifacts (fishhooks, modified shells, coral cobbles, and a coral abrader (?)) found in cave sites on 
Henderson Island (Pitcairn Group, Southeastern Pacific). Illustrations. 

Amerson, A. Binion 

1969. Ornithology of the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 127:1-348. 

Summary of environmental and geographic conditions on 50 atolls in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands with bird lists 
for each. History of ornithological explorations. Analysis of bird distribution. Annotated sea bird list. Maps, tables, 
and bibliography. 

1971. The Natural History of French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 

A.R.B. No. 150:1-383. 

History of French Frigate Shoals (Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian chain). Vegetation, terrestrial fauna, and 
description of individual islands. Emphasis on bird species. Bibliography and list of scientific collections made. 

Amerson, A. Binion, Roger B. Clapp and William O. Wirtz 

1974. The Natural History of Pearl and Hermes Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 174:1-306. 

General description of Pearl and Hermes Reefs including geology, climate, history, vegetation, and terrestrial 
vertebrates (especially birds). Reference to the endangered Laysan Duck (Anas laysaneiisis). Photographs, charts, 
and bibliography. 

Amerson, A. Binion and K. C. Emerson 

1971. Records of Mallophaga from Pacific Birds. A.R.B. No. 146:1-30. 

List of Mallophaga parasites on bird hosts from the central Pacific with list of birds and their locations. 



10 

Amerson, A. Binion and Philip Shelton 

1976. The Natural History of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean. A.R.B. No. 192:1-479. 

Physical environment, history, and biota of Johnston Island with plant and animal lists. Special mention of ciguatera 
in fishes and detailed description of avifauna and nesting behavior. Photographs, charts and bibliography. 

Anderson, Donald 

1951. The Plants of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 7:1-4. 

List of flora of Arno Atoll with native names of vascular terrestrial plants. 

Anonymous 

1987. Tributes to Marie-Helene Sachet. In Introduction to Marie-Helene Sachet 
Commemorative. Issue. A.R.B. No. 293:8-10. 

Antonius, Arnfried 

1972. Hurricane Laura, Witnessed in British Honduras. In Island News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 162:11-12. 

Account of effects of Hurricane Laura (1971) in British Honduras (Belize). 

Antonius, Arnfried, Georg Scheer, and Claude Bouchon 

1990. Corals of the Eastern Red Sea. A.R.B. No. 334:1-22. 

Analysis of coral collections from all parts and depths of the Red Sea. Description of coral ecosystems in Red Sea 
and each collecting site. Systematic list of species collected. Map, bibliography. 

Apfelbaum, Steven I., James P. Ludwig and Catherine E. Ludwig 

1983. Ecological Problems Associated with Disruption of Dune Vegetation Dynamics by 
Casuarina equisetifolia L. at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. A.R.B. No. 261:1-19. 

Account of undesirable consequences of the introduction of Casuarina on Midway Atoll (Leeward islands in the 
Hawaiian chain). Discussion of Casuarina ecology. Charts, graphs, bibliography, plant list. 

Arnow, Ted 

1954. The Hydrology of the Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 30:1-7. 
Description of climate, tides and water supplies for Arno Atoll. Graphs, bibliography, charts. 

1955. The Hydrology of Ifalik Atoll, Western Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 44:1-15. 

General description of Ifalik (Micronesia) including climate and tides. Specific discussion of fresh water from rain 
and ground with chemical analyses. Charts, maps, and bibliography. 

Askew, R. R. 

1980. The Insect Fauna of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:97-114. 

Preliminary analysis of insects collected from Little Cayman (Caribbean) and description of general characteristics of 

insect fauna. Chart and bibliography. 

1980. Odonata, of the Cayman Islands. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and Ecology 
of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:115-120. 

Dragonflies observed on Little Cayman Island (Caribbean). Bibliography. 

1980. The Butterfly (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) Fauna of the Cayman Islands. In Stoddart and 
Giglioli (editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:121-138. 

Butterflies observed on Little Cayman Island (Caribbean) and comparisons with nearby islands. Bibliography, maps 
and graphs. 



11 

Askew, R. R. (cont) 

1980. Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) 
Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:139-140. 

Short list of hawkmoths known for Little Cayman Island (Caribbean). Bibliography. 

Bakus, Gerald J. 

1975. Marine Zonation and Ecology of Cocos Island, off Central America. A.R.B. No. 179:1-8. 
Description of underwater biotic zones on the leeward side of Cocos Island (Costa Rica). Bibliography and 
photographs. 

Bakus, Gerald J. (editor) 

1972. Marine Studies on the North Coast of Jamaica. A.R.B. No. 152:1-6. 

Abstracts of papers on marine biology of the north coast of Jamaica by students in an Organization for Tropical 
Studies (OTS) course on tropical marine biology. Bibliography. 

Balazs, George H. 

1975. Marine Turtles in the Phoenix Islands. A.R.B. No. 184:1-7. 

Observations of marine turtles on Canton Island (Central Pacific): their status, their nesting behavior and predators. 
Bibliography and map. 

Balazs, George H. 

1983. Sea Turtles and Their Traditional Usage in Tokelau. A.R.B. No. 279:1-30. 

Status, ecology and human usage of sea turtles at the three Polynesian atolls of Tokelau. Goal to work with local 
people to promote conservation. Maps, photographs, and bibliography. 

Balazs, George H. 

1985. Status and Ecology of Marine Turtles at Johnston Atoll. A.R.B. No. 285:1-46. 

Documentation of available information on marine turtles on Johnston Atoll (northeastern Pacific) and results of a 
short- term tagging study. Maps, tables, bibliography. 

Banner, Albert H. 

1961. Submarine Effects of the Typhoon. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects 
Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:75-78. 

Effects of typhoon Ophelia on the reefs of Jaluit (Marshall Islands). 

Banner, Albert H., Judd C. Nevenzel and Webster R. Hudgins 

1969. Marine Toxins from the Pacific II. The Contamination of Wake Island Lagoon. 
A.R.B. No. 122:1-9. 

Narrative of infestation of Wake Island lagoon with noxious smelling, toxic substance on June 20, 1965. Results of 

lab analyses and speculations of cause. Bibliography, photographs, and tables. 

Banner, Albert H. and John E. Randall 

1952. Preliminary Report on Marine Biology Study, Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 13:1-62. 

Ecology of Onotoa's (Kiribati) windward and lagoon reefs. Gilbertese use of and names for marine invertebrates. 

Study of fish. Maps. 

Barrett, Kimball L. and Ralph W. Schreiber 

1988. The Birds of Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands: May 1986. A.R.B. No. 314:1-46. 

Observations of birds on Bikini with recommendations concerning future monitoring, radioactive clean-up, and 
conservation. Species list, maps, bibliography, charts. 



12 

Battistini, R. and G. Cremers, G. 

1972. Geomorphology and Vegetation of lies Glorieuses. A.R.B. No. 159:1-10. 

Geomorphology, botanical history, vegetation, and flora of Grande Glorieuse and He du Lys (Indian Ocean). 
Bibliography, maps, diagrams, and photographs. 

Battistini, R. and C. Jouannic 

1979. Recherches sur la Geomorphologie de PAtoll Farquhar (Archipel des Seychelles). 

A.R.B. No. 230:1-20. 

History, general description, and geomorphology of Farquhar Atoll in the Seychelles with mention of the large 
lagoon embankments and alignments which make Farquhar so unusual. In French. Maps, graphs, photographs, and 
bibliography. 

Battistini, R. and M. Petit 

1979. Recifs Coralliens, Constructions Alguaires, et Arrecifes a la Guadeloupe, Marie Galante 

et la Desirade. A.R.B. No. 234:1-7. 

Short inventory of reefs of Guadeloupe and its two dependencies, Marie Galante and Desirade. Description of reef 
morphology and identification of unique features. In French. Maps, charts and bibliography. 

Bayne, C.J., B.H. Cogan, A.W. Diamond, J. Frazier, P. Grubb, A. Hutson, 
M.E.D. Poore, David R. Stoddart and J.D. Taylor 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Cosmoledo Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:37-56. 

History of scientific research on Cosmoledo. Description of geomorphology, vegetation, fauna, and human 
settlement. Bibliography and map. 

Bayne, C.J., B.H. Cogan, A.W. Diamond, J. Frazier, P. Grubb, A. Hutson, 
M.E.D. Poore, David R. Stoddart and J.D. Taylor 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Astove. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian 
Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:83-100. 

History of scientific research on Astove. Descriptions of island geomorphology, vegetation, fauna, and human 

settlements. Map and bibliography. 

Benson, A. A., J. S. Patton and S. Abraham 

1978. Energy Exchange in Coral Reef Ecosystems. In Smith (editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: 
Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. 
A.R.B. No. 220:33-54. 

Study of the wax accumulation in corals with mention of coral feeders such as Acanthaster and of commensal 

relationships with coral. Bibliography. 

Benson, C. W. 

1967. The Birds of Aldabra and Their Status. A.R.B. No. 118:62-111. 

Systematic list of land and sea birds of Aldabra (Western Indian Ocean). Bibliography. 

1970. Land (including shore) Birds of Cosmoledo. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:67-82. 

Extensively annotated list of land and shore birds of Cosmoledo. Bibliography. 

1970. Land (including shore) Birds of Astove. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western 
Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:115-120. 

List of land and shore birds of Astove. Bibliography. 



13 

Benson, C. W. (cont) 

1970. An Introduction of Streptopelia picturata into the Amirantes. In Stoddart (editor) Coral 
Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:195-196. 

Observation of the introduced Malagasy turtledove on St. Joseph Atoll in the Amirantes. Bibliography. 

1972. Some Land Bird Migrants in the Western Indian Ocean. In Island News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 162:10-11. 

Account of sighting of Phylloscopus species on African Banks. Two other migrants also mentioned. 

Benson, C. W., H. H. Beamish, C. Jouanin, J. Salvan and G. E. Watson 

1975. The Birds of lies Glorieuses. A.R.B. No. 176:1-34. 

Detailed annotated list of birds observed in the lies Glorieuses (Gloriosa in the Western Indian Ocean). Maps and 
bibliography. 

Birkeland, Charles 

1981. Acanthaster in the Cultures of High Islands. A.R.B. No. 255:55-59. 

Occurrence of Acanthaster in traditional history, folklore and cultures of high islands of Polynesia, Micronesia and 
Melanesia. Speculation that Acanthaster outbreaks are nothing new. Native names and bibliography. 

Blackmore, S. 

1981. Penetration of Host Plant Tissues by the Stylets of the Coccoid Icerya seychellarwn 
(Coccoidea: Margaroidea) on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 255:33-38. 

Microscopic study of the path of penetration of stylets of Icerya seychellarum through tissues of host plants on 
Aldabra (Western Indian Ocean). Bibliography. 

Blumenstock, David I. 

1961. Wind, Wave, and Storm Conditions at Jaluit, January 7-8, 1958. In Blumenstock (editor) A 
Report on the Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:5-20. 

Native accounts of Typhoon Ophelia on Jaluit. Reconstruction of events and summary of evidence. Maps. 

Blumenstock, David I. (editor) 

1961. A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:1-105. 

Documentation of wind, wave, and storm conditions at Jaluit in the Marshall Islands 1/7-8/1958 (Typhoon Ophelia) 
with accounts by natives. Charts and map. 

Blumenstock, David I. Daniel F. Rex and Irwin E. Lane 

1960. Microclimatic Observations at Eniwetok with a Special Section on Vegetation. 
A.R.B. No. 71:1-158. 

Data on climate of Enewetak (Marshall Islands) including hydrography, topography, vegetation and detailed charts 

of meteorological conditions. Maps and photographs. 

Bourne, W. R. P. 

1971. The birds of the Chagos Group, Indian Ocean. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography 
and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:175-207. 

Description of each island in Chagos group. Notes on species of birds found regularly and occasionally there with 
observation that Chagos group may already have experienced decline in bird populations and diversity. Bibliography. 

1981. Rats as Avian Predators: Discussion. A.R.B. No. 255:69-72. 

Response to F.I. Norman (ARB #182) on subject of rat's role as an avian predator. Examples of extermination of 
birds by rats on Amsterdam Island, New Zealand, Bermuda, and British Isles. 



14 

Boyden, Alan 

1953. Collecting Serological Samples. A.R.B. No. 17:96-99. 

How to collect serological samples from various animals for the Serological Museum at Rutgers University. How to 
make serological collections without specialized equipment. 

Brooke, R. K. 

1981. Layard's Bird Hunting Visit to Tromelin or Sandy Island in December 1856. 
A.R.B. No. 255:73-82. 

Observations made by Edgar Leopold Layard (1856) on bird breeding habits in Southern Indian Ocean. Eight page 

passage taken from his published notebook. Bibliography. 

Brown, B. E., M. C. Holley, L. Sya'rani and M. le Tissier 

1983. Coral Assemblages of Reef Flats Around Pulau Pari, Thousand Islands, Indonesia. 
A.R.B. No. 281:1-14. 

Comparison of distribution of corals among the sheltered southern reefs and the exposed northern reefs around 

Pulau Pari in Indonesia. Tables, map and bibliography. 

Bruce, A. J. 

1977. The Hosts of the Coral-Associated Indo-West-Pacific Pontoniine Shrimps. 
A.R.B. No. 205:1-19. 

Description of the association between shrimps of the subfamily Pontoniinae and Scleractinian corals in the Indo- 
West Pacific region. Bibliography. 

1981. Pontoniine Shrimps of Heron Island. A.R.B. No. 245:1-33. 

Annotated systematic list of shrimp in the subfamily Pontoniinae from Heron Island of the Great Barrier Reef. 
Discussion of commensal associations with other marine invertebrates. Charts and bibliography. 

Bryan, E. H. 

1951. Coral Atoll Bibliography. A.R.B. No. 2:14. 

Importance, scope and progress of atoll bibliography. No bibliography included. 

1953. Intoduction to the Geography of Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:1-9. 

Summary of features of coral atolls and theories of their formation. List of geographic subjects in need of 
investigation. Bibliography. 

1953. Check List of Atolls. A.R.B. No. 19:1-38. 

List of islands that qualify as "atolls" according to Coral Atoll Symposium (1951) definition. Includes synonymous 
names, longitudes and latitudes, informative notes, and references to U.S. Hydrographic Office charts. 

1959. Notes on the Geography and Natural History of Wake Island. A.R.B. No. 66:1-22. 

Summary of observations made of Wake Island (North Pacific) through history. Notes on rats and pest control (by 
Fosberg). List of land and freshwater vertebrates. Bibliography. 

Buckley, Ralf 

1985. Vegetation and Flora of the Lowendal Islands, Western Australia. A.R.B. No. 292:75-82. 
Botanical observations from islands off Western Australian coast. Maps, species lists, bibliography. 

Buddemeier, R. W. 

1978. Sclerochronology: A Data Source for Reef Systems Models. In Smith (editor) Coral Reef 
Ecosystems: Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. 
A.R.B. No. 220:25-32. 

Investigation of the extent to which scleractinian coral growth patterns may provide useful data for modelling efforts 
in coral-reef ecosystems. Bibliography. 



15 

Buggeln, Richard G. 

1965. A Preliminary List of the Algal Flora of the Midway Islands. A.R.B. No. 109:1-11. 

Annotated list of marine algae collected from Eastern and Sand Islands making up the Midway Islands (Leeward 
Islands of the Hawaiian chain). Bibliography. 

Buggeln, Richard G. and Roy T. Tsuda 

1969. A Record of Benthic Marine Algae from Johnston Atoll. A.R.B. No. 120:1-20. 
Annotated list of marine benthic algae from Johnston Atoll (north central Pacific). Bibliography. 

Bussing, William A. 

1972. Recolonization of a Population of Supratidal Fishes at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 154:1-4. 

Pattern of recolonization of fish at Enewetak Island of Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands) to ascertain rate and 

manner of succession. Charts and bibliography. 

Butler, George D. and Robert L. Usinger 

1963. Insects and Other Invertebrates from Laysan Island. A.R.B. No. 98:1-30. 

Annotated list of insects and other arthropods found on Laysan (Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian chain). Discussion 
of relationships between birds and arthropods (ectoparasites) and between plants and insects. Description of lake 
ecology. Bibliography. 

Byrne, Roger 

1980. Man and the Variable Vulnerability of Island Life: A Study of Recent Vegetation Change 
in the Bahamas. A.R.B. No. 240:1-200. 

Study of the impact of human settlement and introductions on the vegetation of Cat Island in the Bahamas. 

Photographs, maps, charts, systematic plant list, and bibliography. 

Carroll, Dorothy [with John C. Hathaway] 

1965. Laboratory Examination of Unconsolidated Sediments. In Fosberg and Carroll (editors) 
Terrestrial Sediments and Soils of the Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:31-42. 

Study of beach sands and soils from Northern Marshalls: size, biotic composition, mineral composition (by John C. 

Hathaway). Photographs, maps, graphs, and charts. 

Carroll, Vern 

1964. Place Names on Nukuoro Atoll. A.R.B. No. 107:1-11. 

Nukuoro (Polynesian outlier in Micronesia) native concepts of geography and island classes — including man-made 
islands. Local place names and their etymologies. 

Catala, Ren6 L. A. 

1957. Report on the Gilbert Islands: Some Aspects of Human Ecology. A.R.B. No. 59:1-187. 
Description of subsistence, resource use, agriculture, insects, and general human ecology of Onotoa in the Gilberts. 
Includes recommendations for economic development. Gilbertese vocabular, bibliography, photographs, illustrations, 
charts. 

Cheke, A. S. and J. C. Lawley, 

1983. Biological History of Agalega, with Special Reference to Birds and Other Land 
Vertebrates. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian 
Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:65-108. 

Exploration and study of Agalega, geologic history, climate, vegetation, list of land vertebrates and sea turtles with 
comments on past observations and present status. Introduction and disappearance of coconut crabs. Bibliography 
and photographs. 



k 



16 



Child, Peter 

I960. Birds of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony. A.R.B. No. 74:1-38. 

Lists of resident and migratory birds in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands. List of trees commonly associated with birds. 
Bibliography. 

Chock, Alvin K. and Dean C. Hamilton 

1962. Plants of Christmas Island. A.R.B. No. 90:1-7. 

Checklist of plants found on Christmas Island (central Pacific). Short history of island, map and bibliography. 

Clapp, Roger B. 

1972. The Natural History of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 163:1-25. 

General description of Gardner Pinnacles with emphasis on geology, botany, and vertebrate fauna. Maps, 

bibliography, and photographs 

1977. Notes on the Vertebrate Fauna of Tongareva Atoll. A.R.B. No. 198:.l-7. 

Notes on reptiles and mammals of Tongareva Atoll (central Pacific) with more extensive annotated species list of 
birds. Bibliography. 

1987. Status of the Red-Footed Booby Colony on Little Cayman Island. A.R.B. No. 304:1-15. 

Description of the colony of red-footed boobies on Little Cayman (Caribbean). Recommendations for its protection. 
Photographs, bibliography, maps, tables. 

1990. Notes on the Birds of Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 342:1-94. 

Survey of birds fr ,m several islets in Kwajalein Atoll. Description of islets and detailed annotated bird list. 
Recommendation that bird populations on Legan, Enewetak and Gellinam islets be protected. Bibliography, 
photographs, map and tables. 

Clapp, Roger B. and Eugene Kridler 

1977. The Natural History of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 206:1-102. 

Geology, history, prehistory, vegetation (by Derral Herbst), birds, reptiles, near-shore mammals of Necker Island. 

Photographs and bibliography. 

Clapp, Roger B., Eugene Kridler and Robert R. Fleet 

1977. The Natural History of Nihoa Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. A.R.B. No. 207:1-147. 
Geology, history, prehistory, vegetation (by Derral Herbst), birds, reptiles, near-shore mammals of Nihoa Island. 
Reference to endangered Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephaliis familiaris) and Nihoa Finch {Telespyza ultima). 
Photographs and bibliography. 

Clapp, Roger B. and Fred C. Sibley 

1971. The Vascular Flora and Terrestrial Vertebrates of Vostok Island, South-Central Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 144:1-9. 

Observations of vascular plants, fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, and avian ectoparasites from Vostok in the Line 

Islands. Map, bibliography, and photographs. 

1971. Notes on the Vascular Flora and Terrestrial Vertebrates of Caroline Atoll Southern Line 
Islands. A.R.B. No. 145:1-18. 

Observations of vascular plants, fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, and avian ectoparasites from Caroline Atoll in the 
Southern Line Islands. Map, bibliography, and photographs. 



17 

Clapp, Roger B. and William O. Wirtz 

1975. The Natural History of Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 186:1-196. 

General description, geology, history, vegetation and fauna of Lisianski (Leeward Islands of Hawaiian chain). 

Detailed discussion of birds and their behavior. Bibliography, photographs, and tables. 

Clark, A. M. and J. D. Taylor 

1971. Echinoderms from Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology 
of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:89-92. 
Annotated list of echinoderms from Diego Garcia. Bibliography. 

Clay, Horace F. 

1961. Narrative Report of Botanical Field Work on Kure Islands, 3 October 1959 to 9 October 
1959. A.R.B. No. 78:1-4. 

List of plants found on Kure atoll (mainly Green Island) during 1959 Navy survey (Leeward islands of Hawaiian 
chain) to build albatross "runways". Aerial photos before and after runway construction. 

Cloud, Preston E. 

1952. Preliminary Report on Geology and Marine Environments of Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 12:1-73. 

Geology and biology of Onotoa lagoon with discussions of beachrock, coral, hydrology, and atoll formation. 
Bibliography. 

Clough, Barrett C. and George Fulk 

1971. The Vertebrate Fauna and the Vegetation of East Plana Cay, Bahama Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 138:1-17. 

General characteristics of East Plana Cay in the Bahamas. Description of lizards, birds, vegetation, and the rodent, 

Geocapromys ingrahami. Bibliography and photographs. 

Coblentz, Bruce E. and Dirk Van Vuren 

1987. Effects of Feral Goats (Capra hircus) on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 306:1-6. 

History of goat introductions on oceanic islands and comments on the ensuing extinctions and destruction of native 
vegetation. Bibliography. 

Coblentz, Bruce E., Dirk Van Vuren, and Martin B. Main 

1990. Control of Feral Goats on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 337:1-10. 

Discussion of harmful role of feral goats on Aldabra, recommendation of extermination, discussion of ecological 
dominance of feral goats and histoiy of their establishment in the Seychelles. Bibliography, map, charts. 

Cohic, F. 

1959. Report on a Visit to the Chesterfield Islands, September 1957. A.R.B. No. 63:1-11. 
Description of history, vegetation, flora, and fauna of the Chesterfield Islands, maps and bibliography. 

Connor, Judith and Walter H. Adey 

1977. The Benthic Algal Composition, Standing Crop, and Productivity of a Caribbean Algal 
Ridge. A.R.B. No. 211:1-15. 

Description of algal ridges off St. Croix with estimates of reef productivity. Lists of algae species. Bibliography, 
maps, tables, and graphs. 



18 

Coolidge, Harold J. 

1951. Introduction. A.R.B. No. 1:2-5. 

Introduction to the Coral Atoll Project (Pacific Science Board of the National Research Council) and Research 
Project E6 (South Pacific Commission). List of participants in Arno pilot project and summary of economic 
development options on atolls. 

Cortes, Jorge 

1990. The Coral Reefs of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica: Distribution and Community Structure. 

A.R.B. No. 344:1-37. 

Description of Golfo Dulce on Costa Rica's Pacific coast comparing deteriorating inner gulf reefs with healthy outer 
gulf reefs. Difference explained by tectonics and siltation due to deforestation and poor land use. Bibliography, 
photographs, map. 

Cox, Doak C. 

1951. The Hydrology of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 8:1-31. 

Description of climate, tides, rain catchment and ground water of Ine Islet, Arno Atoll. Illustrations, sections, graphs. 

1953. Hydrology. A.R.B. No. 17:24-37. 

Ways of estimating the mean head, salinity, hardness, and density of fresh ground water on atolls. Based on 
experience on Arno. 

Cox, Doak, Dan A. Davis and Chester K. Wentworth 

1951. Geology and Ground Water of Atolls. A.R.B. No. 2:3-4. 

Importance of geologic research and study of ground water on atolls. Summary of main data needs. 

Crocombe, R. G. 

1961. Land Tenure in the Cook Islands. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 85:55-60. 

Social, and political aspects of indigenous land tenure of Cook Islands. Comments on the 1961 situation and agrarian 

reform. 

Crombie, Ronald I., David W. Steadman and John C. Barber 

1983. A Preliminary Survey of the Vertebrates of Cabarita Island, St. Mary Parish, Jamaica. 

A.R.B. No. 280:1-12. 

Survey of vertebrate fauna of Cabarita Island off Jamaica to investigate degree of endemism and rate of destruction 
of fauna on a small island in the Antilles. Annotated list of terrestrial vertebrates. Bibliography, photographs, and 
map. 

Cubit, John and Suelynn Williams 

1983. The Invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): A Species List and Bibliography. 
A.R.B. No. 269:1-45. 

List of species of invertebrates found off Caribbean Panama. Map, diagram, bibliography. 

D'Arcy, W. G. 

1971. The Island of Anegada and its Flora. A.R.B. No. 139:1-21. 

General description of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Vegetation and check list of flora. Bibliography, 
photographs, and maps. 

1975. Anegada Island: Vegetation and Flora. A.R.B. No. 188:1-40. 

Physical description, vegetation, and check list of plants of Anegada, Virgin Islands. Map and bibliography. 



19 

Dahl, Arthur L. 

1978. Spatial Modelling of Coral Reefs. In Smith (editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings of 
Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:13-20. 

Analysis of the spatial arrangement of component parts of coral reefs with intention to link such a physical structure 
model to models of energy and material flows. Bibliography. 

Dahl, Arthur L., Ian G. Macintyre and Arnfried Antonius 

1974. A Comparative Survey of Coral Reef Research Sites. In Sachet and Dahl (editors) 
Comparative Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated Coral 
Reef Program. 
A.R.B. No. 172:38-120. 

Brief comparison of coral reef regions in the Caribbean and Pacific in order to choose the optimum research site. 

Maps, diagrams, and bibliography. 

Dahl, Arthur L., B. C. Patten, S. V. Smith and J. C. Zieman 

1974. A Preliminary Coral Reef Ecosystem Model. In Sachet and Dahl (editors) Comparative 
Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated Coral Reef Program. 
A.R.B. No. 172:7-37. 

Attempt to design a computer model of a coral reef ecosystem. Bibliography and diagrams. 

Dana, Thomas F. 

1979. Species Numbers Relationships in an Assemblage of Reef-Building Corals: McKean Island, 
Phoenix Islands. A.R.B. No. 228:1-27. 

Investigation of species-numbers relationships in the McKean Island assemblage of reef-building corals to discover 
how they changed along environmental gradients of the reef. Bibliography, lists of coral species, charts, graphs, and 
photographs. 

Danielsson, Bengt and Aurora Natua 

1954. Raroian Culture. A.R.B. No. 32:1-109. 

Five parts: Economy of Raroia, Native topographical terms, native coconut palm terms, bird names (coauthored by 
Aurora Natua), and check list of native names of fishes. Sections on demography, land tenure, subsistence, labor. 
Bibliography, maps, charts. 

Darwin, Charles (with editorial comments by David R. Stoddart) 

1962. Coral Islands. A.R.B. No. 88:1-20. 

Introduction, map and remarks by David Stoddart. Excerpts relating to theories of coral island origins taken from 
such sources as Darwin's autobiography, The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, and Journal and 
Researches: 1832-1836. Bibliography. 

Dawson, E. Yale 

1959. Some Marine Algae from Canton Atoll. A.R.B. No. 65:1-6. 

Annotated list of marine algae (green, brown, and red algae) from Canton. Bibliography. 

DeFilipps, Robert A. 

1987. A Bibliography of Plant Conservation in the Pacific Islands: Endangered Species, Habitat 
Conversion, Introduced Biota. A.R.B. No. 311:1-195. 

Annotated bibliography of plant conservation with indices by subject and geographic region, map. 



20 

DeFilipps, Robert A., Shirley L. Maina and Leslie A. Pray 

1988. The Palauan and Yap Medicinal Plant Studies of Masayoshi Okabe, 1941-1943. 

A.R.B. No. 317:1-25. 

Edited translation of Masayoshi Okabe's work on Palauan and Yapese medicinal plants with biographical 
information about Okabe and a review of other literature pertaining to medicinal flora of Palau and Yap. Plant lists 
and bibliography. 

Degener, Otto and Isa Degener 

1959. Canton Island, South Pacific (Resurvey of 1958). A.R.B. No. 64:1-24. 

Resurvey of plants of Canton Island following introduction of exotics. Description of climate and soils, and list of 
plants observed. Bibliography. 

Degener, Otto and Edwin Gillaspy 

1955. Canton Island, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 41:1-51. 

Results of a survey of Canton for purposes of planning the revegetation of areas effected by human activity. 
Description of climate, topography, history, land and aquatic flora, and land fauna. Recommendation of importing 
plant species. 

Delesalle, B. and colleagues 

1985. Environmental Survey of Mataiva Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia. 

A.R.B. No. 286:1-34. 

Explanation of the partitioning of lagoons on Mataiva as a result of alternating subsidence and uplifting in geologic 
history. Description of hydrological environment and ecology of the distinct pools. Bibliography, species lists, figures, 
photographs. 

Devaney, Dennis M. and John E. Randall 

1973. Investigations of Acanthaster planci of Southeastern Polynesia during 1970-1971. 
A.R.B. No. 169:1-21. 

Survey for Acanthaster planci in Tuamotus, Gambier Group, Pitcairn Group, Rapa, The Australs, the Cooks, the 

Society Islands, the Marquesas and American Samoa. Charts, photographs, and maps. 

Diamond, A. W. 

1980. Ecology and Species Turnover of the Birds of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli 
(editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:141-164. 

Description and systematic list of avifauna in Cayman Islands, Little Cayman in particular. Discussion of habitat and 
breeding behavior and need for conservation. Bibliography. 

1980. The Red-footed Booby Colony on Little Cayman: Size, Structure and Significance. In 
Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:165-170. 

Size of population and distribution of Red Footed Boobies (Sula sula) on Little Cayman. Possible ecological 
implications of economic development on booby habitats. Map, charts, and bibliography. 

Diamond, E. P. 

1981. An Early Report of the Flora and Fauna of the Aldabra Group. A.R.B. No. 255:1-10. 
Summary of report made by Sgt. F. Rivers in 1878 which sheds light on changes on islands in the Aldabra Group 
over 100 years. Bibliography. 

DiSalvo, Louis H. 

1972. Bacterial Counts in Surface Open Waters of Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 151:1-3. 

Bacterial counts for samples from coral reefs of Encwetak Atoll. Charts and bibliography. 



21 

Domm, S. B. 

1971. The Uninhabited Cays of the Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 
A.R.B. No. 142:1-27. 

Description of unihabited cays of the Capricorn Group on the Great Barrier Reef with special attention to birds and 

human interference. Bibliography and photographs. 

1971. The Safe Use of Open Boats in the Coral Reef Environment. A.R.B. No. 143:1-10. 

How to navigate around the Great Barrier Reef. The choice of the proper boat and guidelines to gauging tides, reef 
access, water depth, and bearings. 

1971. Mapping Reefs and Cays, a Quick Method for the Scientist Working Alone 
Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 148:15-17. 

How to map reefs and cays with minimal equipment, time, and manpower. 

Domm, Steven and John Messersmith 

1990. Feral Cat Eradication on a Barrier Reef Island, Australia. A.R.B. No. 338:1-4. 

Predation by feral cats on wedge-tailed shearwaters on North West Island, Great Barrier Reef. Generally harmful 
role of cats in relation to defenseless birds. Description of eradication of cats from North West Island. Bibliography. 

Donaldson, A. and B. A. Whitton 

1977. Chemistry of Freshwater Pools on Aldabra. A.R.B. No. 213:1-25. 

Analysis of fresh water in pools on Aldabra from 1972-1973 with discussion of the unusually high levels of dissolved 
phosphate and ammonia-N in the water. Bibliography, photographs, and tables. 

1977. Algal Flora of Freshwater Habitats on Aldabra. A.R.B. No. 215:1-18. 

List of algae in freshwater pools on Aldabra with observations on distribution of species, seasonality, habitat 
adaptation, and grazing by planktonic animals. Bibliography and chart. 

Doran, Edwin 

1960. Report on Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 72:1-54. 

Summary of living conditions — environmental, social, political, medical, etc. — on Tarawa in the Gilberts. 
Appendices, photographs. 

1961. Gilbert Islands Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:5-8. 

Description of rainfall, vegetation, population, and atoll land mass of Gilbert Islands and Tarawa, in particular. 
Suggests that rainfall limits food production and hence population, but cannot demonstrate this statistically. Table, 
maps. 

1961. Marshall Islands Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 85:11-16. 

Comparison of Gilberts and Marshalls with discussion of land tenure and tenure of lagoons and marine resources. 

Maps. 

1961. Malaita Island Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 85:25-26. 

Climate, population, agricultural conditions on the high island of Malaita. Contrast with atolls. Maps. 

1961. Fiji Islands Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:33-34. 
Precipitation and population of Fiji. Maps. 



wmm 



22 

Doran, Edwin (cont) 

1961. Tonga Islands Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 85:43-44. 

Temperature and vegetation of Tonga. Maps. 

1961. Cook Islands Landscape. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 

A.R.B. No. 85:51-54. 

Description of Cook Islands, precipitation, population distribution, comparative note on the interrelationship 
between physical landscape, the configuration of land parcels and population density. Maps. 

Doran, Edwin (editor) 

1961. Land Tenure in the Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:1-60. 

Papers presented at the 10th Pacific Science Congress Symposium. Attempt to limit study areas to non-Westernized 
islands with representation from the entire Pacific. 12 papers, 6 localities. Map. 

Doty, Maxwell S. 

1953. Instructions for Collecting Algae. A.R.B. No. 17:62. 

Types of algae it is most important to collect. How to preserve and ship algae. 

1954. Floristic and Ecological Notes on Raroia. A.R.B. No. 33:1-41. 

Floristic and ecological notes on Myxophyta, Mycophyta, Lichens, Algae, and Spermatophyta of Raroia. Key to 
vascular plants and descriptions of their habitats, map. 

Doty, Maxwell S. and J. P. E. Morrison 

1954. Interrelationships of the Organisms on Raroia Aside from Man. A.R.B. No. 35:1-61. 

Comparison of six transect profiles from Raroia to derive data on organisms and ecological zones. Maps, transect 
diagrams, and aerial photo. 

Drew, Edward A. 

1977. A Photographic Survey Down the Seaward Reef-front of Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 193:1-7. 
Description of photographic transect method to study reef- front of Aldabra Atoll. Charts, maps, diagrams, 
photographs, and bibliography. 

Dunne, R. P. and B. E. Brown 

1979. Some Aspects of the Ecology of Reefs Surrounding Anegada, British Virgin Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 236:1-80. 

Description, history, geology, and reef structure of Anegada. List of algae, coral, and fish inhabiting coral reefs with 

discussion of reef zonation. Photographs, maps, charts, and 4 bibliographies. 

Dustan, Phillip 

1985. Community Structure of Reef-Building Corals in the Florida Keys: Carysfort Reef, Key 

Largo and Long Key Reef, Dry Tortugas. A.R.B. No. 288:1-17. 

Line transects reveal the species composition and zonation patterns of two coral communities off the Florida Keys 
which have been exposed to different environmental and biological pressures ~ especially prevailing ocean currents. 
Photographs and figures. 

Easton, W. H. 

1981. A Submersible, Rechargeable, Electric Drill. A.R.B. No. 255:83-90. 

Model for a light weight, cordless, rechargeable, electric hand drill mounted in a submersible plastic case to use for 
setting survey points or taking core samples. Bibliography. 



23 

Editors [Fosberg, F.R. and M.-H. Sachet] 

1959. Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 70:1-7. 
News of recent expeditions and publications. 

1961. Atoll News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 84:1-14. 

Recent and current research on Christmas Island, the Leeward Hawaiian Islands, Midway, Wake, Jaluit, Caroline 
Islands, Laccadives, Alacran Reef, atolls off British Honduras, and Rongelap (Report on vegetation by Blumberg 
and Conard). Recent literature. 

1962. Atoll News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 94:1-19. 

Atomic bomb tests on Christmas. Contents of Bulletin of the Christmas I. Natural History Society. Account of 
shipwreck on Clipperton. Book review of Herold J. Wiens, Atoll Environment and Ecology. Bibliographic and 
research news. 

1963. Atoll News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 100:1-16. 

News of expeditions to the Society Islands, Melanesian atolls, the Phoenix Islands, Christmas Island, Wake, the 
Leeward Hawaiian Islands, the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, and the Caroline Islands. Announcements of new books. 

1964. Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 108:1-8. 

News about the displaced island communities study, the Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program's research on sea 
birds, research in the Line Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Maldives, and the Bahamas. New publications reviews. 

1965. Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 112:1-14. 

News of Sea bird survey (Pacific Ocean Biological Survey Program), research on Enewetak, the Tokelaus, the 
Maldives, the Bahamas, Jamaica, and the British Honduras cays. New publications reviews. 

1967. Atoll News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 117:1-8. 

Report on the demise of Unesco Humid Tropics Research Program, field work in the Carolines and the Persian 
Gulf. Recent publications. 

1969. Atoll Notes and Comments. A.R.B. No. 119:1-6. 

News of current research in the Caroline Islands and on Islands in the Indian Ocean, especially Diego Garcia. Short 
research notes on Heron Island rats by F.I. Norman (with bibliography). Reviews of recent publications. 

1969. Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 126:1-19. 

News on expeditions to Albabra, Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Clipperton, British Honduras, Rennell and 
Bellona, and Bikini. Honors to E.H. Bryan and research reports by Keith Marshall and Andrew Goudie. Recent 
publications. 

1970. Atoll News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 135:1-17. 

News of conservation programs and symposia, nuclear tests, anthropological research, Acanthaster reports, and 
recent publications. 

1971. Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 148:1-38. 

News about research on Aldabra, bomb tests in the Tuamotus, C14 dates from Ifalik, Research on environmental 
systems of Enewetak, Research on corai reefs off the east coast of New Guinea, and studies of birds of the 
Comoros. 

1972. Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 162:1-26. 

News of current research, conservation progress, symposia, laboratories and publications. 

1975. Island News and Comments. A.R.B. No. 185:1-39. 

News of the Special Working Committee on South Pacific Coral Reefs, News of the Atoll Populations Conference, 
and book reviews. Short papers by WR. Taylor, C.B. Frith, and I.G. Macintyre. 



24 

Editors [Fosberg, F.R. and M.-H. Sachet] (cont) 

1977. Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 219:1-30. 

News of 3rd international Coral Reef Symposium, Mid-Pacific Marine Lab, and Phoenix Island Expedition. 
Comment on definition of "Atoll" and shameful events surrounding Line Islands Expedition. 

Ellison, Joanna C. 

1990. Vegetation and Floristics of the Tongatapu Outliers. A.R.B. No. 332:1-36. 

Identification of species of terrestrial flora, description of vegetation units and geomorphological features from 21 
small islands in Tongatapu outliers. Discussion of factors effecting floristic variability. Bibliography, maps, charts, 
photographs. 

Ely, Charles A. and Roger B. Clapp 

1973. The Natural History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 

A.R.B. No. 171:1-361. 

General description of Laysan Island with emphasis on terrestrial vertebrates. Reference to endangered Laysan duck 
(Anas laysanensis) and Laysan finch (Telespyza cantans). Photographs and bibliography. 

Emery, Kenneth O. 

1953. Beachrock. Ai?.£. No. 17:19. 

Theories concerning the origin of beachrock. 

1953. Submarine Geology. A.R.B. No. 17:20-21. 

Submarine geology research problems that can be addressed with makeshift equipment: steepness of outer slopes, 
depth of lagoon terrace, mapping coral masses, nature of lagoonal sediments. 

Emory, Kenneth P. 

1953. Investigation of Material Culture. A.R.B. No. 17:122. 

How to collect artifacts and information on manufacture and preparation on atolls. Review of scarce literature. 

Endean, R. and W. Stablum 

1973. A Study of Some Aspects of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) Infestations 
of Reefs of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. A.R.B. No. 167:1-62. 

Description of distribution of Acanthaster planci in coral reefs and documentation of spread and population increase 

on the Great Barrier Reef. Bibliography. 

1973. The Apparent Extent of Recovery of Reefs of Australia's Great Barrier Reef Devastated by 
the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish. A.R.B. No. 168:1-26. 

Revisit 4 to 8 years after Acantltaster planci plague on Great Barrier Reef to monitor the rate and manner of reef 
recovery. Charts, photographs, and bibliography. 

Enders, Robert K. 

1951. Rats. A.R.B. No. 1:20. 

Concern that R. mindanensis and R. noivegicus get onto coral atolls. 

Engbring, John 

1983. Avifauna of the Southwest Islands of Palau. A.R.B. No. 267:1-22. 

Description of the SW Islands of Palau. List of 47 species of birds recorded there with comments on their habitats 
and ecology. Bibliography. 

Falanruw, M. V. C 

1971. Conservation in Micronesia. In Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 148:18-20. 
The importance of implementing a conservation policy for Micronesia 



25 

Farrell, Terence M., Christopher F. D'Elia, Lawrence Lubbers and Lawrence 
Pastor 

1983. Hermatypic Coral Diversity and Reef Zonation at Cayos Areas, Campeche, Gulf of Mexico. 

A.R.B. No. 270:1-7. 

Study of coral reefs in Campeche Bank region reveal greater diversity of scleractinian coral and fewer calcareous 
algae than expected. Description of reef zonation, bibliography, diagrams, maps, photographs. 

Faure, Gerard 

1977. Annotated Check List of Corals in the Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 203:1-25. 

Annotated check list including 135 species of coral known to come from the Mascarene Archipelago (Reunion, 

Mauritius, and Rodriguez Islands). Bibliography. 

1977. Annotated Check List of Octocorallia in the Mascarene Archipelago, Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 204:1-13. 

Annotated check list including 112 species of Octocorallia known to come from the Mascarene Archipelago 
(Reunion, Mauritius, and Rodriguez Islands). Bibliography. 

Feare, Christopher J. 

1979. Ecology of Bird Island, Seychelles. A.R.B. No. 226:1-29. 

Recent history, climate, geomorphology, vegetation, invertebrate and vertebrate fauna of Bird Island in the 
Seychelles. Bird lists, maps, photographs, and bibliography. 

1979. Ecological Observations on African Banks, Amirantes. A.R.B. No. 227:1-7. 
Vegetation and fauna of African Banks, Amirantes. Bird list and bibliography. 

Flanigan, John M. and Austin E. Lamberts 

1981. Acanthaster as a Recurring Phenomenon in Samoan History. A.R.B. No. 255:59-62. 
Occurrence of Acanthaster in traditional history of Samoa as evidence that outbreaks there are nothing new. 
Bibliography. 

Flood, P. G. 

1977. Coral Cays of the Capricorn and Bunker Groups, Great Barrier Reef Province, Australia. 
A.R.B. No. 195:1-7. 

Description of the islands in the Capricorn and Bunker groups of the Great Barrier Reef with explanations for 

morphological changes. Bibliography, maps, and photographs. 

Folk, Robert L. and Augustus S. Cotera 

1971. Carbonate Sand Cays of Alacran Reef, Yucatan, Mexico: Sediments. A.R.B. No. 137:1-16. 
Analysis of beach sediments from Alacran Reef, Yucatan, Mexico including grain size distribution, composition and 
roundness of sediments from six of the cays. Map, graphs, photographs, and bibliography. 

Forbes-Watson, A. D. 

1969. Notes on Birds Observed in the Comoros on Behalf of the Smithsonian Institution. 
A.R.B. No. 128:1-23. 

Lists of birds recorded from the Comoros with notes on individual species. Reference to endangered Madagascar 
Heron (Ardea humbloti) and Grand Comoro Drongo (Dicrnrus fuscipennis). Suggestions for further focussed work. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 

1951. Ecological Research on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 1:6-8. 
The significance of Coral Atoll research. 



26 

Fosberg, F. Raymond (cont) 

1951. Flora and Vegetation on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 1:13-14. 

The current state of knowledge about vascular plants, bryophytes, soil flora, and marine algae from coral atolls. 

1951. Literature on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 1:23-25. 

Efforts to produce bibliographies of Coral Atolls. Credit to M-H Sachet, W.M. Davis. 

1951. Land Ecology of Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 2:7-11. 

Outline of history of ecological research on atolls, outstanding characteristics of the atoll habitat, and processes that 
altered this habitat. 

1953. Directions for Studying Vegetation and Flora. A.R.B. No. 17:44-56. 

Basic classification of typical atoll plant communities and how to describe an island's vegetation. How to prepare 
various types of herbarium specimens. Information to accompany collections of economic plants. List of equipment 
for plant collections. 

1953. Vegetation of Central Pacific Atolls, A Brief Summary. A.R.B. No. 23:1-25. 

Description of Central Pacific atoll habitat, colonization by plants, succession and vegetational changes due to 
various causes, principal types and patterns of vegetation, and recommendations for future studies. Bibliography. 

1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Narrative. A.R.B. No. 38:1-37. 
Narrative of two trips to the Northern Marshall Islands, collection documentation, maps, itinerary. 

1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Land Biota: Vascular Plants. 
A.R.B. No. 39:1-22. 

Documentation of plant collections from Northern Marshall Islands. Marshallese plant names. 

1957. Slicks on Ocean Surface Downwind from Coral Reefs. A.R.B. No. 53:1-4. 

Description of narrow elongate strips of smooth water suggesting a film of something extending downwind from 
coral reefs. Noted from Ujae, Wotho, and Bikar. Bibliography. 

1957. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 58:1-37. 

Brief report on a trip to Male Atoll of the Maldives in 1956 with summary of the history of scientific research and a 
systematic list of plants found there. 

1959. Long-term Effects of Radioactive Fallout on Plants?. A.R.B. No. 61:1-11. 

Observations of abnormal appearances of plants exposed to radioactive fallout following atmospheric bomb tests in 
the Marshalls. Chart, bibliography. 

1959. Vegetation and Flora of Wake Island. A.R.B. No. 67:1-20. 

Description of climate, soils, vegetation, and flora of Wake. Comparison with 1953 observations. Bibliography. 

1959. Additional Records of Phanerogams from the Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 68:1-9. 
List of phanerogams from the Northern Marshalls with unannotated list of cultivated plants from a nursery. 

1961. Soils. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. 
A.R.B. No. 75:47-50. 

The erosion of the soils on Jaluit as a result of Typhoon Ophelia. 

1961. Flora and Vegetation. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit 
Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:51-56. 

Damage to vegetation as a result of typhoon Ophelia and quick recovery. 



27 

Fosberg, F. Raymond (cont) 

1961. Typhoon Effects on Individual Species of Plants. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on 
Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:57-68. 

Systematic list of species of plants on Jaluit and their specific responses to typhoon Ophelia. 

1961. Table of Plant Species by Islets. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects 
Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:95-104. 

Species of plants known from Jaluit by islets as reported since 1946. In table form. 

1961. Qualitative Description of the Coral Atoll Ecosystem. A.R.B. No. 81:1-11. 

Description of coral atoll ecosystem in terms of energy and material transfer or transformation, with minimal 
reference to actual organisms. Bibliography. 

1961. Description of Heron Island. A.R.B. No. 82:1-4. 

General description of Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef with special reference to vegetation. Map. 

1962. A Brief Survey of the Cays of Arrecife Alacran, A Mexican Atoll. A.R.B. No. 93:1-25. 
Description of Alacran. Tabular chart of plants observed by botanists on 4 islets showing past vegetation changes. 
List of flowering plants, terrestrial vertebrates and insects. Comparison of Alacran and Pokak in the Marshalls. 
Bibliography, charts. 

1965. Introduction. In Fosberg and Carroll (editors) Terrestrial Sediments and Soils of the 
Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:1-6. 

General physical description of Northern Marshall atolls, climate, tides, cross-sections. 

1965. Geology. In Fosberg and Carroll (editors) Terrestrial Sediments and Soils of the Northern 
Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:7-20. 

Description of reefs, lagoons and islets in Northern Marshalls. Special discussion of reef development, beachrock 
and marginal ridges. Diagrams and photographs. 

1966. Northern Marshall Islands Land Biota: Birds. A.R.B. No. 114:1-35. 
Descriptions of Wake and Islands of the Northern Marshalls. Report of birds observed. 

1969. Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 132:1-13. 
Vegetation and plant list from Satawal in the Caroline Islands with native plant names. 

1970. Observations on the Green Turtle in the Marshall Islands. In Atoll News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 135:9-12. 

Observations of green turtles from Jemo and Bikar in the Northern Marshalls with notes on egg laying and hatching. 

1972. List of Vascular Plants from the reef islands of Rarotonga. A.R.B. No. 160:9-14. 

List of plants collected in 1969 by W.R. Philipson from the reef islands of Rarotonga. Bibliography, maps and 
photographs 

1972. Morotiri (Bass Rocks) Austral Islands. In Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 162:9-10. 
Brief description of flora and fauna found on Morotiri in the Austral Islands. 

1975. Vascular Plants of Aitutaki. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef 
Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:73-84. 

List of vascular plants collected from the main island of Aitutaki and also from some of the reef islands. Map and 

bibliography. 



28 

Fosberg, F. Raymond (cont) 

1983. Natural History of Cousin Island. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) Floristics and 
Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:7-38. 

Geology and geography of Cousin Island, fauna, original and existing vegetation, and comments on conservation and 

maintenance of bird sanctuary. Systematic list of plants. Bibliography and maps. 

1985. Classification of Emergent Reef Surfaces. A.R.B. No. 292:29-38. 

Proposal of classification scheme for emergent reefs which facilitates analysis and comparison. Classification diagram 
and. short bibliography. 

1985. Botanical Visits to Krakatau in 1958 and 1963.. A.R.B. No. 292:39-48. 

Observations on three visits between 1951 and 1971 to Anak Krakatau showing recolonization by plants. Plant lists. 

1987. Marie-H61ene Sachet: Islands, Atolls and Reefs. In Introduction to Marie-Helene Sachet 
Commemorative Issue. A.R.B. No. 293:1-7. 

Eulogy to Marie-Helene Sachet. Biography and account of her research activities. 

1987. Flora of the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, Checklist. A.R.B. No. 295:1-33. 
Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of the Gilbert Islands. 

1988. The Vegetation of Bikini Atoll 1985. A.R.B. No. 315:1-28. 

Comparison of vegetation before the nuclear tests with vegetation in 1985 noting the reestablishment of much native 
forest and scrub vegetation and the luxuriance of some species. Plant lists, maps, and bibliography. 

1989. Henderson Island: Dedicated to S. Dillon Ripley. A.R.B. No. 321:1-2. 

Background of the 1984 Smithsonian Henderson Island Expedition. 

1990. A Review of the Natural History of the Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 330:1-100. 

Summary of knowledge about natural phenomena in the Marshall Islands. Geography, geologic history, climate, soils, 
hydrology, vegetation, and descriptions of each atoll and island. Bibliography. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and A. A. Bullock 

1971. List of Diego Garcia Vascular Plants. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:143-160. 

Account of the vascular plants from Diego Garcia examined by the Authors with records from the Willis and 
Gardiner (1931) list. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and Dorothy Carroll 

1965. Unconsolidated Sediments Considered as Soils. In Fosberg and Carroll (editors) Terrestrial 
Sediments and Soils of the Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:43-67. 

General character of atoll soils, soil forming factors, biological factors, composition, soil categories, chemical analyses 
of profiles. Maps, graphs, photographs. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and Dorothy Carroll (editors) 

1965. Terrestrial Sediments and Soils of the Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:1-156. 

Investigation of geology, islet formation, sedimentation, and the physical and chemical nature of sediments in the 
Northern Marshalls. Bibliography, sample information, soil profiles descriptions, synonymy of Marshall Islands place 
names. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and Michael Evans 

1969. A Collection of Plants from Fais, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 133:1-15. 

Vegetation and plant list from Fais in the Caroline Islands with native plant names. 



29 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, E. W. Groves and D. C. Sigee 

1966. List of Addu Vascular Plants. In Stoddart (editor) Reef Studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive 
Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. A.R.B. No. 116:75-92. 
List of vascular plants from Addu - mainly Gan and Hitaddu Islets. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, Gustav Paulay, T. Spencer, and Royce Oliver 

1989. New Collections and Notes on the Plants of Henderson, Pitcairn, Oeno and Ducie Islands. 

A.R.B. No. 329:1-18. 

Annotated list of plants found in the Pitcairn Group. Updates earlier list (Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 1983) by 
including plants not previously noted, by making adjustments in nomenclature, and by commenting on variability. 
Bibliography. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and S. A. Renvoize 

1970. Plants of Farquhar Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:27-34. 

Plant list of Farquhar Atoll with collections references. 

1970. Plants of Cosmoledo Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:57-66. 

List of plants of Cosmoledo Atoll with reference to prior collections. 

1970. Plants of Astove. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:101-112. 

List of plants from Astove with reference to prior collections. 

1970. Plants of Assumption Island. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian 
Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:147-154. 

List of plants of Assumption with reference to prior collections. 

1970. Plants of Desroches. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:167-170. 

List of plants from Desroches with reference to prior collections. 

1970. Plants of Remire (Eagle) Island Amirantes. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:183-186. 

List of plants of Remire with reference to prior collections. 

1970. Plants of African Banks (lies Africaines). In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western 
Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:193-194. 

List of plants from African Banks with reference to prior collections. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and Marie-H61ene Sachet 

1962. Vascular Plants Recorded From Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 92:1-39. 

History of botanical work on Jaluit. List of plant collections in herbaria. Bibliography. 

1969. Wake Island Vegetation and Flora, 1961-1963. A.R.B. No. 123:1-15. 

Vegetation and Flora of Wake Island with observations concerning the vegetational recovery 10 years following the 
typhoon of 1952. 

1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. A.R.B. No. 294:1-70. 

Description of vegetation of Maupiti showing that there is practically nothing left of its original natural vegetation. 
Plant list. 



30 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and Marie-Helene Sachet (editors) 

1953. Handbook for Atoll Research (Second Preliminary Edition). A.R.B. No. 17:1-129. 
Collection of 32 papers offering guidelines for research on Atolls covering geography, meteorology, geology, 
hydrology, soil science, botany, zoology, marine ecology, anthropology, and field work conditions. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, Marie-HSlene Sachet and David R. Stoddart 

1983. Henderson Island (Southeastern Polynesia): Summary of Current Knowledge. 

A.R.B. No. 272:1-47. 

History, vegetation, flora, birds, mammals, reptiles, terrestrial arthropods of Henderson Island. Reference to 
endangered Henderson Rail (Porzana atra) and Henderson lorikeet (J/ini stepheni). Bibliography, photographs. 

1983. List of the Recorded Vascular Flora of Agalega. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) 
Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:109-142. 
Preliminary list of vascular plants noted in literature for Agalega. Bibliography. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond, David R. Stoddart, Marie-H61ene Sachet and David L. 

Spellman 

1982. Plants of the Belize Cays. A.R.B. No. 258:1-77. 

Annotated list of vascular plants known from sand and mangrove cays off Belize with classification of cays. 
Bibliography and indices by plant name and islands cited. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond and R. F. Thorne 

1961. Vascular Plants of Heron Island. A.R.B. No. 82:5-14. 

List of plants collected by Fosberg and Thorne with reference to previous collections by MacGillivray and Rodway 
from Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. 

Fosberg, F. Raymond [with J.W. Wells, M.S. Doty, and Ruth Todd] 

1965. Other Features. In Fosberg and Carroll (editors) Terrestrial Sediments and Soils of the 
Northern Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 113:23-30. 

Description of soils, drainage, vegetation and principal reef-forming animals and plants (Coral by J.W. Wells, 

Foraminifera by Ruth Todd, Algae by M.S. Doty) Charts and photographs. 

Francis, M. P. 

1981. Distribution and Abundance of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci) around 
Tongatapu Island, Tonga. A.R.B. No. 255:63-68. 

Survey of Acanthaster planci around Tongatapu Island. Bibliography. 

Frankel, E. 

1978. Evidence from the Great Barrier Reef of Ancient Acanthaster Aggregations. In Smith 
(editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science 
Congress, Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:75-94. 

Report on search for early aggregations of Acanthaster planci on the Great Barrier Reef. Photographs, tables, and 

bibliography. 

Frith, C. B. 

1975. Predation upon Hatchlings and Eggs of the Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, on Aldabra 
Atoll, Indian Ocean. In Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 185:11-12. 
Pattern of predation on turtle eggs and hatchlings observed on Aldabra. Bibliography. 

1977. Life History Notes on Some Aldabran Land Birds. A.R.B. No. 201:1-15. 

Observations on land birds of Aldabra — not including endemic weaverbird — and their ecology, habitats, and 
breeding behavior. Bibliography. 



31 

Frith, D. W. 

1979. A List of Insects Caught in Light Traps on West Island, Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 225:1-12. 

List of insects collected from West Island, Aldabra during 1971-1972. Chronology of earlier entomological 

collections. Bibliography. 

Galzin, Ren6 

1985. Non-selective Fishing Methods of Futuna (Horn Archipelago, West Polynesia). 
A.R.B. No. 292:1-10. 

Description of two fishing methods used by women of Futuna. Suggestion that fishing techniques may endanger fish 
fauna. Bibliography, map, tables. 

1987. Potential Fisheries Yield of a Moorea Fringing Reef (French Polynesia) by the Analysis of 

Three Dominant Fishes. A.R.B. No. 305:1-17. 

Presentation of data on the biology, biomass and growth of three species of reef fish: Ctenochaetus striatus, Stegastes 
nigricans, and Sargocentron. Estimate of the productivity of reef fishery on Moorea. Bibliography, tables, map. 

Gaymer, R. 

1967. Observations on the Birds of Aldabra in 1964 and 1965. A.R.B. No. 118:112-125. 

Observations of land birds and brief notes on sea and shore birds from Bristol Seychelles Expedition of 1964-1965. 
Bibliography. 

Gerber, Ray P. 

1981. Species Composition and Abundance of Lagoon Zooplankton at Eniwetak Atoll, Marshall 
Islands. A.R.B. No. 247:1-22. 

Study of species composition and abundance of lagoon zooplankton of Enewetak Atoll comparing winter and 

summer diversity. Map, bibliography, and chart. 

Gerhard, Lee C. 

1977. Submarine Cementation of Grainstone Fabric, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 196:1-5. 

Occurrence and explanations for submarine cemented carbonate sand nodules off St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin 
Islands. Bibliography, photographs, charts. 

1981. Origin and Evolution of the Candlelight Reef Sand Cay System, St. Croix. 
A.R.B. No. 242:1-11. 

Study of origins and evolution of Candlelight Reef and Cay system off St. Croix using two coring methods. Results 
of analysis of core contents. Bibliography, photographs, and maps. 

Gerlach, Sebastian A. 

1961. The Tropical Coral Reef as a Biotope. A.R.B. No. 80:1-6. 

Study of microfauna in coral reef ecosystems of the Red Sea and the Maldives. Categorization of macrofauna of 
coral reefs according to feeding strategy. Bibliography. 

Gibbs, P. E. 

1975. A Survey of the Macrofauna Inhabiting the Lagoon Deposits on Aitutaki, Cook Islands. In 
Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South 
Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:123-132. 

Macrofauna inhabiting the littoral and sub-littoral deposits in the Aitutaki lagoon. Bibliography, tables, and maps. 



32 

Gibbs, P. E., H. G. Vevers and David R. Stoddart 

1975. The Marine Fauna of the Cook Islands: A Check-List of the Species Collected During the 
Cook Bicentenary Expedition in 1969. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: 
Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:133-148. 
Check list of marine fauna based on collections taken in 1969. Bibliography. 

Gilbert, William J. 

1983. Some Marine Benthic Algae from Christmas Island, Line Islands. A.R.B. No. 265:1-6. 
List of algae from Christmas Island from Gilbert's own collections and from those of Maxwell Doty. Bibliography. 

Gillett, Robert 

1988. A Tokelau Fisheries Bibliography. A.R.B. No. 319:9-18. 

Bibliography of literature pertaining to fisheries in the Tokelau Islands with references to the source libraries. 

Gillham, Mary E. 

1977. Observations on Vegetation of Blue-Faced Booby Colonies on Cosmoledo Atoll, Western 

Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 199:1-11. 

Observations on the ecology and habitats of sea birds of Cosmoledo Atoll with comments on the vegetative 
degeneration- regeneration cycle associated with nesting birds. Comparison between Cosmoledo and Aldabra. 
Bibliography. 

1977. Vegetation of Sea and Shore-bird Colonies on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 200:1-19. 

Observations on the ecology and habitats of sea birds of Aldabra Atoll with mention of exotics observed there. 
Bibliography. 

Gillis, William T. 

1977. Remarks on the Botany and Statistics of the Bahama Islands. In Island News and 
Comment. A.R.B. No. 219:12-16. 

Discussion of vegetation and plant distribution patterns in the Bahamas: suggestion of phytogeographic hypotheses 

relating to Bahama flora. Tables. 

Gillis, William T., Roger Byrne and Wyman Harrison 

1975. Bibliography of the Natural History of the Bahama Islands. A.R.B. No. 191:1-123. 

Bibliography of literature about the Bahamas divided by subject area. Includes anthropology and folklore, public 
health and fiction as well as strict natural history. 

Goldberg, Walter M. 

1983. Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas: A Biologically Impoverished, Physically Controlled Environment. 
A.R.B. No. 271:1-17. 

Physical and biological structure of the bank lagoon of Cay Sal Bank. Description of major zones. Plant and 

invertebrate list, bibliography, photographs, charts, maps. 

Goudie, Andrew 

1969. A Note on Mediterranean Beachrock: Its History. In Atoll News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 126:11-14. 

Speculation concerning the age of beachrock at Viransehir in Southern Turkey. 

Gould, Margaret S., M. Garry Hill and David McC. Newbery 

1983. The Goat and the Coccid: Interactions Between two Introduced Herbivores and the 
Vegetation of Aldabra Atoll. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) Floristics and Ecology of 
Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:247-253. 

Study of combined effects of two species introduced onto Aldabra (Western Indian Ocean) who feed on overlapping 

sets of plants. Goat feeding preferences and Iceiya feeding preferences. Bibliography. 



33 

Green, Owen 

1989. Foraminiferal Composition of Henderson Island Beach Sand. A.R.B. No. 324:7-8. 
List of Superfamilies and Families of Foraminifera represented in beach sands of Henderson Island. 

Grelet, Y., C. Falconetti, B. A. Thomassin, P. Vitiello and A. H. Abu Hilal 

1987. Distribution of the Macro- and Meiobenthic Assemblages in the Littoral Soft-Bottoms of 
the Gulf of Aqaba (Jordan). A.R.B. No. 308:1-14. 

Summary of spatial distribution of macro- and meiobenthic assemblages in sandy bottoms of Gulf of Aqaba. Tables, 

figures and bibliography. 

Gressitt, J. Linsley 

1952. Description of Kayangel Atoll, Palau Islands. A.R.B. No. 14:1-7. 

Brief description of Kayangel Atoll in the Palau group. Vegetation, fauna, fresh water. Maps. 

1953. Notes on Ngeruangl and Kayangel Atolls, Palau Islands. A.R.B. No. 21:1-5. 

Short description of two atolls in the Palau group with list of plants collected by Gressitt from Kayangel. 

1961. Terrestrial Fauna. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit 
Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:69-74. 

Impact of typhoon Ophelia on terrestrial animals with observation that losses were low. 

Grosenbaugh, Deborah A. 

1981. Qualitative Assessment of Asteroids, Echinoids and Holothurians in Yap Lagoon. 
A.R.B. No. 255:49-54. 

Survey of echinoderms in Yap Lagoon resulting from concern about Acanthaster planci. Bibliography. 

Gross, A. O., J. M. Moulton and C. E. Huntington 

1963. Notes on the Wedge-Tailed Shearwater at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. 
A.R.B. No. 99:1-11. 

Study of the behavior and nesting activities of wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus chlororhynchus) including 
description of songs. Bibliography and photographs. 

Groves, E. W. 

1966. A Brief History of Botanical Observations and Collections Made in the Maldive Islands, 
Indian Ocean. In Stoddart (editor) Reef Studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands: Preliminary 
Results of an Expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. A.R.B. No. 116:57-60. 

History of botanical observations in the Maldives. 

Grovhoug, J. G. and R. S. Henderson 

1978. Distribution of Inshore Fishes at Canton Atoll. In Smith and Henderson (editors) Phoenix 
Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon, 1973. A.R.B. No. 221:99-158. 

Survey of abundance and diversity of fish in various localities around Canton Atoll. Explanation for the high 
diversity and number of fish close to the pass into the lagoon. Transects, maps, bibliography. 

Guinther, E. B. 

1978. Observations on Terrestrial Surface and Subsurface Water as Related to Island Morphology 
at Canton Atoll. In Smith and Henderson (editors) Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental 
Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon, 1973. A.R.B. No. 221:171-184. 

Study of water samples on Canton Island revealing patterns of salinity in relation to island physiography and 
variations in nutrients. Map, bibliography. 



34 

Gwynne, M. D. and D. Wood 

1969. Plants Collected on Islands in the Western Indian Ocean During a Cruise of the M.F.R.V. 
"Manihine," Sept-Oct 1967. A.R.B. No. 134:1-15. 

Plant lists and collection numbers from Remire, Daros, Desroches, Coetivy, Farquhar, Cosmoledo, Astove, and 

Assumption in the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Bibliography. 

Hackett, H. E. 

1977. Marine Algae Known From the Maldive Islands. A.R.B. No. 210:1-29. 

Description of the reefs of the Maldives and algal habitats. Systematic list of algae collected. Bibliography and 
diagram. 

Hambler, C, K. Hambler and J. M. Newing 

1985. Some Observations on Nesillas aldabranus, the Endangered Brush Warbler of Aldabra 

Atoll, with Hypotheses on its Distribution. A.R.B. No. 290:1-19. 

Observations of the endangered Aldabran brush warbler, Nesillas aldabranus and its habitat, especially association 
with Dracaena reflexa. Hypotheses to guide future research and recommendations concerning conservation. Maps, 
bibliography, tables. 

Harry, Robert R. 

1953. Ichthyological Field Data of Raroia Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 18:1-190. 

Ichthyological study of Raroia. Description of ecological zones, checklist of fishes previously recorded from 
Tuamotus, systematic account of fish observed, gazeteer of Tuamotus, ethnoichthyology, bibliography, maps, 
diagrams. 

Hass, Hans 

1962. Central Subsidence. A New Theory of Atoll Formation. A.R.B. No. 91:1-4. 

Results of research on atoll formation in the Maldives and Nicobars. Summary of theoretical issues and presentation 
of theory of central subsidence due to instability of inner structure of branching corals. Photographs, maps, 
diagrams. 

Hatheway, William H. 

1953. The Land Vegetation of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 16:1-68. 

Description of vegetation of Arno with emphasis on economic plants, vegetation change, and history. Bibliography 
and many maps. 

1955. The Natural Vegetation of Canton Island, An Equatorial Pacific Atoll. A.R.B. No. 43:1-9. 
Description of physical environment, and vegetation zones of Canton. Bibliography and map of plant habitats. 

1957. Agricultural Notes on the Southern Marshall Islands, 1952. A.R.B. No. 55:1-9. 

Discussion of several blights infecting coconut and breadfruit plantations, and general remarks on agriculture of the 
Southern Marshalls. 

Heatwole, Harold 

1975. Biogeography of Reptiles on some of the Islands and Cays of Eastern Papua - New 

Guinea. A.R.B. No. 180:1-32. 

General description of islands east of Papua New Guinea. Lists of terrestrial and aquatic reptiles. Ecology of 
herpetofauna with suggestions of relationships among island area, island form and species numbers. Bibliography, 
maps, charts and photographs. 

Heatwole, Harold, Richard Levins and Michael D. Byer 

1981. Biogeography of the Puerto Rican Bank. A.R.B. No. 251:1-55. 

Survey of 141 of the islands in the Puerto Rican Bank. Description of climate, vegetation, geology, and island forms. 
Comments on environmental degradation. Bibliography, maps, dbn of spider and scorpion species, flora and 
herpetofauna lists. 



35 

Henderson, R. S., P. L. Jokiel, S. V. Smith and J. G. Grovhoug 

1978. Canton Atoll Lagoon Physiography and General Oceanographic Observations. In Smith and 
Henderson (editors) Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll 
Lagoon, 1973. A.R.B. No. 221:5-14. 

Study of four major physiographic zones of Canton Atoll's lagoon. Discussion of wind drift and tidal flow. 
Bibliography, map, aerial photograph. 

Herbst, Derral 

1977. Vegetation. In Clapp and Kridler (authors) The Natural History of Necker Island, 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. A.R.B. No. 206:25-31. 
Vegetation and list of plants found on Necker. 

1977. Vegetation. In Clapp and Kridler (authors) The Natural History of Nihoa Island, 
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. A.R.B. No. 207:26-38. 
Vegetation and list of plants found on Nihoa. 

Hiatt, Robert W. 

1951. Marine Ecology. A.R.B. No. 2:5-6. 

Marine ecology studies directed toward improving native welfare, encouraging conservation, increasing commercial 
exploitation of marine resources, and understanding biological problems. 

1951. Marine Zoology Study of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 4:1-13. 

Summary of marine resource utilization on Arno. 

1953. Methods of Collecting Marine Invertebrates on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:78-89. 
How to collect, document, preserve, and transport marine invertebrates. 

1953. Instructions for Marine Ecological Work on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:100-108. 

Instructions for studying marine ecology with minimal resources. Check-list of essential equipment. How to choose, 
survey and describe (physically and biologically) a reef. Bibliography for faunal identification. 

Hinckley, Alden D. 

1969. The Ecology of Terrestrial Arthropods on the Tokelau Atolls. A.R.B. No. 124:1-18. 

Analysis of arthropod communities in the Tokelaus with comments on establishment, extinction and displacement of 
certain insects like rhinoceros beetles, lygaeid bugs and sphinx moths. List of arthropods from Atafu, Nukunono, and 
Fakaofo. Bibliography. 

Hnatiuk, R. J. and L. F. H. Merton 

1979. Vegetation of Aldabra, a Reassessment. A.R.B. No. 239:1-21. 

History of vegetation studies of Aldabra with comparison of alternative classificatory systems of vegetation zones. 
Presentation of comprehensive classification and synthesis of Aldabra vegetation. Bibliography. 

Hogue, Charles L. and Scott E. Miller 

1981. Entomofauna of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. A.R.B. No. 250:1-29. 

General description of Cocos Island, Costa Rica. History of scientific expeditions and systematic list of insects 
identified during 1978 trip. Bibliography. 

Holthuis, L. B. 

1953. Enumeration of the Decapod and Stomatopod Crustacea from Pacific Coral Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 24:1-66. 

Systematic list of decapod and stomatopod Crustacea from the Pacific with collection and habitat information. 
Appendix contains collection data for specimens taken by R.W. Hiatt from Arno. Maps of Arno. 



■H 



36 

Hong, Goh Ah and A. Sasekumar 

1981. The Community Structure of the Fringing Coral Reef, Cape Rachado, Malaya. 
A.R.B. No. 244:1-11. 

Observations of coral and microalgae species diversity and abundance on the coral reef at Cape Rachado, Malaya 

with explanations of differences. Bibliography, graphs and diagrams. 

Hounsome, M. V. 

1980. Terrestrial Fauna (Excluding Birds and insects) of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli 
(editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:81-90. 

List of terrestrial fauna (excluding birds and insects) from Little Cayman with reference to various habitat types and 

to habitats deserving special conservation consideration. Bibliography. 

Hounsome, M. V. and R. R. Askew 

1980. Cerion nanus (Maynard) (Mollusca: Cerionidae) on Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli 
(editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:91-96. 

Zoogeographic value of studies of Cerion. Distribution of Cerion nanus. Relationship between C. pannosum and C. 
nanus. Bibliography and photographs. 

Hutson, A. M. 

1975. Observations on the Birds of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago with notes on other 
1 vertebrates. A.R.B. No. 175:1-25. 

Systematic list of birds of Diego Garcia (Western Indian Ocean), with brief mention of reptiles and mammals. Map 
and bibliography. 

1981. A Preliminary List of Insects of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. 
A.R.B. No. 243:1-29. 

List of insects collected on Diego Garcia (Western Indian Ocean) in 1971 with reference to earlier collections and 
records. Bibliography. 

Ineich, Ivan and Charles P. Blanc 

1988. Distribution des Reptiles Terrestres en Polynesie Orientale. A.R.B. No. 318:1-75. 

An account of terrestrial reptiles occurring in Eastern Polynesia including a description of their biogeographic 
characteristics, species distributions, and the present state of knowledge. In French. Species lists, tables, bibliography, 
and gazetteer. 

Ing, Bruce and R. J. Hnatiuk 

1981. Myxomycetes of Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 249:1-10. 

List of myxomycetes from Aldabra with ecological notes. Map and bibliography. 

Irwin, J. 

1985. The Underwater Morphology of Palmerston and Suwarrow Atolls. A.R.B. No. 292:109-113. 
Results of echo sounding surveys conducted in Palmerston and Suwarrow lagoons. Maps, graphs, bibliography. 

Johnson, Clifford Ray 

1972. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Kume-Jima and O-Jima, Ryukyu Islands 
Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 162:7-9. 
List of herpetofauna from the Ryukyus. Bibliography. 

Johnson, J. Harlan 

1953. Suggestions for Collecting Modern and Fossil Calcareous Algae. A.R.B. No. 17:63-64. 
How to collect modern and fossil algae and related field data. 



37 

Jokiel, P. L. and J. E. Maragos 

1978. Reef Corals of Canton Atoll: II. Local Distribution. In Smith and Henderson (editors) 
Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon 1973. 
A.R.B. No. 221:71-98. 

Study of distribution and abundance of species of reef corals at Canton with reference to ecological conditions. 

Maps, charts, bibliography. 

Jordan, Eric and Eduardo Martin 

1987. Chinchorro: Morphology and Composition of a Caribbean Atoll. A.R.B. No. 310:1-20. 
Description of morphology of Chinchorro and its leeward and windward reefs with an account of Scleractinian and 
Gorgonian corals, algae and sponges. Photographs, charts, maps and bibliography. 

Kay, E. Alison 

1978. Molluscan Distribution Patterns at Canton Atoll. In Smith and Henderson (editors) 
Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon, 1973. 
A.R.B. No. 221:159-170. 

Description of assemblages of micromollusks and gastropods from three parts of Canton Atoll lagoon. Suggestion 
that water chemistry accounts for differences in distribution. 

Keplin, P. A. and P. A. Pirazzoli 

1988. A Geomorphological Reconnaissance of Coetivy Atoll (Seychelles, Indian Ocean). 
A.R.B. No. 319:1-8. 

A preliminary geomorphological description of Coetivy Atoll with a discussion of its history and the continuity of sea 
levels. Photographs, maps, figures, and bibliography 

Kinzie, R. A. 

1978. An Evaluation of Coral Reef Survey Methods by Computer Simulation. In Smith (editor) 
Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, 
Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:21-24. 

Use of computer program to simulate coral distribution on a reef and test of several sampling strategies to 
determine the relative costs in time and effort vs the relative benefits in accuracy. Bibliography. 

Kochi, John 

1971. Objectives and Importance of Conservation. In Island News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 148:21-22. 

Guidelines to promote conservation in Palau. 

Kohn, Alan J 

1964. Notes on Indian Ocean Atolls Visited by the Yale Seychelles Expedition. 
A.R.B. No. 101:1-12. 

Observations and notes on collections made from reefs of islands in the Maldives. Bibliography, charts, photographs. 

1964. Notes on Reef Habitats and Gastropod Molluscs of a Lagoon Island at North Male Atoll, 
Maldives. A.R.B. No. 102:1-5. 

Theories on the formation of lagoon islands, such as Funidu, of Mate Atoll, Maldives. Description of Funidu. Notes 
on gastropod mollusks found there. Map and bibliography. 

1971. Inshore Marine Habitats of Some Continental Islands in the Eastern Indian Ocean. 

A.R.B. No. 140:1-29. 

Description of features of habitats at 15 stations on islands off Thailand and Sumatra. Special attention to 
geomorphology, zonation, and reef plants and invertebrates. Maps, charts, photographs, and bibliography. 



38 

Kondo, Yoshio 

1961. Gastropod Molluscs Collected by J.L. Gressitt. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on 
Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:105. 

List of land and marine species of gastropod mollusks collected by Gressitt. 

Kurashina, Hiro, D. Ballendorf, K. Carriveau, M. Driver, B. Karolle, T. McGrath 
and A. Williams 

1987. Recent Activities of the Micronesian Research Center (MARC). In Introduction to 
Marie-H61ene Sachet Commemorative Issue. A.R.B. No. 293:11-14. 

Brief description of the range of research, collections management and educational activities undertaken at MARC. 

Lamberts, Austin E. 

1983. An Annotated Check List of the Corals of American Samoa. A.R.B. No. 264:1-19. 

List of scleractinian and non-scleractinian corals collected from American Samoa and now in the Smithsonian and 
the Hessisches Landesmuseum, W. Germany. Lists include frequency of occurrence and habitat. Bibliography. 

Lamoureux, Charles H. 

1961. Botanical Observations on Leeward Hawaiian Atolls. A.R.B. No. 79:1-10. 

Systematic plant list from Green Island and Tern Island, French Frigate Shoal and Kure Atoll following construction 
of two Loran Coast Guard stations and exotic plant introductions. Aerial photo of Green Island. 

1963. The Flora and Vegetation of Laysan Island. A.R.B. No. 97:1-14. 

Vegetation and list of plants noted from Laysan emphasizing changes over time. Bibliography and photographs. 

Lathrop, C. J. 

1953. Hints on Tropical Photography. A.R.B. No. 17:123-124. 

How to beat the impediments to taking good black and white pictures in tropical humid conditions. 

Lavoie, Ronald L. 

1963. Some Aspects of the Meteorology of the Tropical Pacific viewed from an Atoll. 
A.R.B. No. 96:1-80. 

Detailed climatological study of Enewetak. Maps, charts, graphs, bibliography. 

Leopold, Luna B. 

1951. Pacific Meteorological Problems. A.R.B. No. 1:11. 
Suggestions for meteorological data that need to be collected. 

1953. Notes on the Collection of Meteorological Information on Tropical Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 17:10-13. 

How to collect data on rainfall, wind velocity and direction, and water temperature on coral atolls. 

Lewis, John B. 

1975. A Preliminary Description of the Coral Reefs of the Tobago Cays, Grenadines, West 
Indies. A.R.B. No. 178:1-9. 

Description of coral reefs of the Tobago Cays and their biotic communities. Bibliography, maps and diagrams. 

Lionnet, J. F. G. 

1970. Note on the Lepidoptera of Astove Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western 
Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:113-114. 

List of butterflies from Astove with reference to prior collections. Bibliography. 



39 

Lionnet, J. F. G. (cont) 

1970. Names of the Islands. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:221-224. 

Origins of island names in Western Indian Ocean. Bibliography. 

Littler, M. M., P. R. Taylor, D. S. Littler, R. H. Sims and J. N. Norris 

1985. The Distribution, Abundance and Primary Productivity of Submerged Macrophytes in a 
Belize Barrier-Reef Mangrove System. A.R.B. No. 289:1-16. 

Comparison of macrophyte assemblages in turbulent and sheltered mangrove systems. Bibliography and tables 

1987. Dominant Macrophyte Standing Stocks, Productivity and Community Structure on a 
Belizean Barrier Reef. A.R.B. No. 302:1-18. 

Description of the macrophyte zonational patterns and primary productivity of dominant plant life for the seaward 
margin of Carrie Bow Cay. Bibliography, maps, photographs, figures, and tables 

Macintyre, Ian G. 

1975. A Diver-operated Hydraulic Drill for Coring Submerged Substrates. In Island News and 
Comment. A.R.B. No. 185:21-24. 

Design and specifications for a new portable, submersible drill useful for sampling underwater substrates. 

Bibliography and photographs. 

Macintyre, Ian G. and Walter H. Adey 

1990. Buck Island Bar, St. Croix, USVI: A Reef that Cannot Catch up with Sea Level. 
A.R.B. No. 336:1-7. 

Discussion of coral growth rates on Buck Island Bar near St. Croix as a function of frequency of storms. Maps, 

photograph, bibliography. 

Macintyre, Ian G., Bill Raymond and Robert Stuckenrath 

1983. Recent History of a Fringing Reef, Bahia Salina del Sur, Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. 

A.R.B. No. 268:1-6. 

Study of cores from a reef on Bahia Salina del Sur which show that framework communities of many sea-level reefs 
are migrating leeward. Radiocarbon dates, charts, aerial photos, diagrams, photographs. 

Mackenzie, J. B. 

1961. Marine Resources. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit 
Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:79-80. 

Effect of typhoon Ophelia on fisheries and potential for toxicity of lagoon species. 

MacMillan, H. G. 

1951. Economic Development of Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 2:2. 

Progress and future plans of the South Pacific Commission on Tarawa. Work of Rend and Mme Catala. 

Maina, Shirley L., Leslie Pray and Robert A. DeFilipps 

1988. A Historical Note on the Endangered Santalum boninensis (Santalaceae) of the Ogasawara 
Islands: Early Reports by Takasi Tuyama. A.R.B. No. 319:19-24. 

Edited translation of Takasi Tuyama's report on Santalum boninensis and the needs for its conservation. 
Bibliography 

Maragos, J. E. and P. L. Jokiel 

1978. Reef Corals of Canton Atoll: I. Zoogeography. In Smith and Henderson (editors) Phoenix 
Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll 1973.. A.R.B. No. 221:55-70. 

Description of coral found on Canton Atoll. Distribution and abundance of coral species and comparison with 

similar distributions from the Indian Ocean. Bibliography. 



40 

Marsh, James A. and Roy T. Tsuda 

1973. Population Levels of Acanthaster planci in the Mariana and Caroline Islands, 1969-1972. 
A.R.B. No. 170:1-16 

Survey of Acanthaster planci in Mariana Islands, Palau, Yap, Central Caroline Islands, Pohnpei, and outer islands. 

Results of A. planci symposium 1970. Bibliography and charts. 

Marshall, J. T. 

1951. Vertebrate Ecology of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 3:1-38. 

Summary of terrestrial vertebrate fauna on Arno. Remarks about human parasites and termites. Thoughts on 
carrying capacity concept. Distribution maps. 

1953. Suggestions as to Collecting Land Vertebrates on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:65-68. 
How to document, catalog, label, and preserve land vertebrates with advice on valuable related observations and 
collections. 

1957. Atolls Visited During the First Year of the Pacific Islands Rat Ecology Project. 
A.R.B. No. 56:1-11. 

Survey of rats on atolls close to Pohnpei with remarks about other aspects of the fauna and flora. Tables. 

Marshall, Keith 

1969. A New Method for Sewage Treatment on Coral Atolls. In Atoll News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 126:10-11. 

A method for sewage disposal and treatment on coral atolls requiring minimal equipment, adaptable to animal 

wastes, and providing fertilizer and methane gas. 

Marshall, Mac 

1975. The Natural History of Namoluk Atoll, Eastern Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 189:1-54. 

Physical description of Namoluk with description of flora and fauna of island. Special mention of Acanthaster planci. 
Native plant and bird names. Bird, mollusk and plant lists. Photographs and bibliography. 

Mason, Leonard 

1951. Man in the Culture-Environment Relationship. A.R.B. No. 2:12-13. 

Practical and theoretical utility of research on human adaptations to coral atolls, and proposed future research. 

1952. Anthropology-Geology Study of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 10:1-21. 

Description of the natural resources and demographic situation of Arno with comments on acculturation, war effects, 
commerce, political authority, and land. Map and proposed orthography (by Elbert) appended. 

1953. Suggestions for Investigating the Cultures of Atoll Peoples. A.R.B. No. 17:111-115. 
Basic cultural and demographic features to describe in atoll communities with a sample census card from Arno. 

Mason, Leonard and Harry Uyehara 

1953. A Quantitative Study of Certain Aspects of the Man-Land Relationship in Marshallese 

Economy, at Arno Island. A.R.B. No. 17:116-121. 

Description of Uyehara's economic anthropology research on Arno with recommendations that additional research 
pertaining to demographics and the economics of production and consumption be done. Sample survey questionnaire 
from Arno. 

Mason, R. R. 

1960. Some Aspects of Agriculture on Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 73:1-17. 

Description of soils, hydrology, animal husbandry, agriculture and agricultural technology on Tarawa. Suggestions for 
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41 



Mathis, Wayne N. 

1989. Diptera (Insecta) or True Flies of the Pitcairn Group (Ducie, Henderson, Oeno, and 
Pitcairn Islands). A.R.B. No. 327:1-15. 

Annotated checklist of Diptera of Pitcairn Group with speculation about origins of this fauna. Bibliography. 

McKee, Edwin D. 

1956. Geology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 50:1-38. 

Description of the geology, petrology, soils, phosphorite deposits, and ground water of Kapingamarangi. Maps, 
charts, tables, and bibliography. 

1961. Island Structures and Their Modification. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon 
Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:37-40. 

Description of Typhoon Ophelia's effect on island structures. Charts and diagrams. 

1961. Removal of Fine Sediments from Islets. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon 
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Typhoon Ophelia's destruction of sediments. 

1961. Ground Water. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. 
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Typhoon Ophelia's effect on ground water quality with analyses of water from various wells. 

Mergner, Hans 

1985. Initial Recolonization of Funafuti Atoll Coral Reefs Devastated by Hurricane "Bebe". 

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Recolonization and succession of corals in reefs destroyed 8 months earlier by a hurricane. Comments on the 
decisive role of branched coral in reef succession. Maps, tables, diagrams, photographs, bibliography. 

Meylan, Anne Barkau 

1983. Marine Turtles of the Leeward Islands, Lesser Antilles. A.R.B. No. 278:1-24. 

Island by island survey of marine turtles of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean including Anguilla, St. Martin, 
Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts, Nevis, Barbuda, Antigua, Montserrat, and Guadeloupe. Map, photographs, and 
bibliography. 

Milhurn, John D. 

1959. Health and Sanitation Survey of Arno Atoll. A.R.B. No. 62:1-7. 

Survey of health conditions on Arno with test results for certain diseases and parasites. 

Miller, Harvey Alfred 

1955. Bryophytes Collected by F. R. Fosberg in the Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 40:1-5. 
Analysis of Collection by Fosberg of mosses and liverworts from N. Marshalls. Collections documentation, 
bibliography, map. 

Miller, Harvey Alfred and Maxwell S. Doty 

1953. Bryophytes from Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 25:1-11. 

Key to bryophytes found on Arno for the sake of future non- bryologists. Illustrations and explanations. 
Bibliography. 

1954. Ecological and Floristic Notes on the Bryophyta of Raroia. A.R.B. No. 33:55-56. 
Notes on collections of moss and liverworts from Raroia. 



42 

Miller, Ralph E. 

1953. Health Report on Kapingamarangi. A.R.B. No. 20:1-42. 

Three parts: I. A health survey describing aspects of Kapingamarangi that influence health, disease incidence, 
demographic profile, epidemiological history, ethnomedicine. II: Parasitologic survey with data for individuals. Ill: 
Blood groups represented. 

Milliman, John D. 

1965. An Annotated Bibliography of Recent Papers on Coral and Coral Reefs. 
A.R.B. No. 111:1-58. 

Annotated bibliography of literature on coral and coral reefs. Divided into 1) Geological features, 2) Ecology, 3) 

Coral, and 4) other bibliographies. 

1969. Four Southwestern Caribbean Atolls: Courtown Cays, Albuquerque Cays, Roncador Bank, 
and Serrana Bank. A.R.B. No. 129:1-26. 

General description of four atolls in southwestern Caribbean. Bibliograph, maps, and appendix. 

Milliman, John D. and Conrad V. W. Mahnken 

1969. Reef Productivity Measurements. A.R.B. No. 129:23-25. 
Levels of Oxygen uptake on reef flats and levels of plankton productivity. 

Minton, Sherman A. and William W. Dunson 

1985. Sea Snakes Collected at Chesterfield Reefs, Coral Sea.A.R.B. No. 292:101-108. 

Notation of six species of sea snakes on Chesterfield Reefs, and comments on general distribution of these snakes. 
Maps, species list, bibliography. 

Montaggioni, L. F., C. Gabrie, O. Nairn, C. Payri, G. Richard and B. Salvat 

1987. The Seaward Margin of Makatea, an Uplifted Carbonate Island (Tuamotus, Central 
Pacific). A.R.B. No. 299:1-18. 

Description of reef ecology with observation that algal, coral and macrofaunal communities are relatively sparse on 

Makatean reef flats. Bibliography, maps, figures. 

Monteforte, Mario 

1987. The Decapod Reptantia and Stomatopod Crustaceans of a Typical High Island Coral Reef 
Complex in French Polynesia (Tiahura, Moorea Island): Zonation, Community Composition and 
Trophic Structure. A.R.B. No. 309:1-37. 

Sorting of crustacean species into five morphologic groups based on nutritional mode with comments on associated 
trophic and habitat partitioning and suggestions of interspecific relations. Illustrations, charts and bibliography. 

Morgan, H. J. 

1975. Checklist of The Morgan Collection of Mollusc Shells From the Cook Islands. In Stoddart 
and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 190:149-158. 

Unauthored check list of the collection of mollusk shells made by Judge H.J. Morgan from the Cook Islands. 

Morrison, Joseph P. E. 

1951. Atoll Research in Zoology, Land and Marine. A.R.B. No. 1:16-17. 

The current state of knowledge about land and marine fauna on coral atolls and plea to concentrate on global 
systematics of fauna. 

1953. The Berlese Method of Collecting Small Insects and Other Animals from Leafmold, Soil, 
Moss, or Other Similar Materials. A.R.B. No. 17:73. 
Description of berlese method of collecting small insects. 



43 

Morrison, Joseph P. E. (cont) 

1953. Collecting Mollusks On and Around Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:74-77. 
How to collect and preserve mollusks. Diagrams of equipment needed. 

1954. Animal Ecology of Raroia Atoll, Tuamotus. A.R.B. No. 34:1-26. 

Part I: notes on mollusks and other animals, Part II: notes on Birds of Raroia with Raroian names. 

Morrison, R. J. 

1990. Pacific Atoll Soils: Chemistry, Mineralogy and Classification. A.R.B. No. 339:1-25. 

General description of atolls and soils. Analysis and classification of soils from select Pacific atolls. Comments about 
the differences between low and raised islands and the utility of the new soil taxonomy. Bibliography and tables. 

Moul, Edwin T. 

1954. Preliminary Report on Land Animals at Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 28:1-28. 
Description of land vertebrates (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and land invertebrates from Onotoa Atoll in the 
Gilberts. Discussion of ecology. 

1957. Preliminary Report on the Flora of Onotoa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 57:1-48. 
Vegetation and flora of Onotoa Atoll, Gilberts. Gilbertese plant names. 

1964. New Records of Halimeda and Udotea for the Pacific Area. A.R.B. No. 106:1-10. 

Observations of green algae (Halimeda and Udotea) from Arno, the Northern Marshalls, Raroia, the Philippines, 
Johnston Island, the Hawaiian Islands, Kapingamarangi, Guam, Saipan, and Okinawa. Bibliography. 

Moulton, James M. 

1961. Some Observations on the Heron Island Fauna. A.R.B. No. 82:15-16. 

Observations of whales, birds, rats, a gastropod (Cerithium monifilerum), and turtles on Heron Island, Great Barrier 
Reef. 

Murai, Mary 

1954. Nutrition Study in Micronesia. A.R.B. No. 27:1-239. 

Nutrition studies of Majuro, Marshall Islands and Udot, Truk with comparative notes. Lists of foods, food habits 
and dietary patterns, survey results with emphasis on children, analysis of diet, and recommendations. Tables, 
Bibliography, local food names. 

Murphy, Robert Cushman and Ernst Mayr 

1951. Birds. A.R.B. No. 1:19-20. 

What can be learned about birds from coral atoll research - sea birds (Murphy) and land birds (Mayr). 

Nason, James D. 

1975. Reconnaissance and Plat Mapping of Coral Atolls: A Simplified Rangefinder Method. In 
Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 185:13-20. 

Response to Domm (ARB 148:15-17) about simplified mapping using rangefinder techniques. Bibliography. 

Neas, Maynard 

1961. Land Ownership Patterns in the Marshall Islands. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the 
Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:17-24. 

Social, political and economic aspects of land tenure in the Marshalls. Land use patterns and rights and obligations 

of Marshallese. Difficulties of administration in present "chaotic" condition. 

Neff, Johnson A. and Philip A. DuMont 

1955. A Partial List of the Plants of the Midway Islands. A.R.B. No. 45:1-11. 

List of plants found on Midway (Leeward islands of the Hawaiian chain) with habitats. Bibliography. 



I 



44 

Newbery, D. McC. and M. G. Hill 

1981. Numerical Classification of 'Mixed Scrub' Vegetation on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 246:1-9. 
Sampling of mixed scrub vegetation of Aldabra (Western Indian Ocean) to assess the infestation of the coccid, Icerya 
seychellarum. Bibliography and charts. 

1985. Changes in the Distribution of the Coccid Icerya seychellarum (Westw.) on Aldabra Atoll in 
Relation to Vegetation Density. A.R.B. No. 291:1-11. 

Documentation of increase in spatial distribution of coccids and degree of infestation of host trees on Aldabra 

(Western Indian Ocean). Map, tables, bibliography 

Newbery, D. McC. and R. A. Spicer 

1979. The Terrestrial Vegetation of an Indian Ocean Coral Island: Wilingili, Addu Atoll, Maldive 
Islands: A Limited Quantitative Analysis of the Vegetation Distribution. A.R.B. No. 231:15-25. 
Study of the association between vegetation and environmental variables. Bibliography, maps and charts. 

Newell, Norman D. 

1954. Expedition to Raroia, Tuamotus. A.R.B. No. 31:1-22. 

Background information on the Raroia expedition. General comments on the Tuamotus, and specific physical 
characteristics of Raroia. Maps, 2 bibliographies, diagrams. 

1954. A.R.B. No. 36:1-35 

Reefs and Sedimentary Processes of Raroia 

Study of reef biota and sedimentation at Raroia with an appendix by J. Sperrazza on the distribution of foraminifera. 

Maps, charts, bibliography. 

Newhouse, Jan 

1954. Ecological and Floristic Notes on the Myxophyta of Raroia. A.R.B. No. 33:42-54. 

Notes on collection of Blue-Green Algae collected from Raroia. Speculations on the role of blue-green algae in 
ecological systems. 

1969. The Algae of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands. Part I. Checklist of the Cyanophyta, 
Chlorophyta, and Phaeophyta. A.R.B. No. 121:1-7. 

Checklist of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Phaeophyta Algae from Kapingamarangi with notes on the ecological 

role of algae in coral reefs. Bibliography. 

Ngan, Yinam and Ian R. Price 

1979. The Intertidal Algae of the Mainland Coast in the Vicinity of Townsville, Queensland. 
A.R.B. No. 237:1-29. 

Systematic list of algae recorded from eight stations near Townsville, Australia. Bibliography. 

Niering, William A. 

1956. Bioecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands: Terrestrial Aspects. 
A.R.B. No. 49:1-32. 

Description of land biota of Kapingamarangi with reference to human utilization of plants and animals. Past 

vegetation and present trends. Maps, species lists, diagrams, and bibliography. 

1961. Observations on Puluwat and Gaferut, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 76:1-10. 

Flora, geology, soils, vegetation and fauna of Puluwat, with speculation about the origin of the phosphate deposits on 
Gaferut. Bibliography and aerial photo. 



45 



Norman, F. I. 

1967. The Identity of the Rats on Heron Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia 
Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 119:3-4. 

Reevaluation of rats found on Heron Island. Determination of identity as Rattus rattus. Bibliography. 

1975. The Murine Rodents Rattus rattus exulans, and norvegicus as Avian Predators. 
A.R.B. No. 182:1-13. 

Concern that rats introduced by humans have been preying on birds on Pacific Islands with reference to bird-eating 

behavior of rats elsewhere. Bibliography. 

Northrop, John 

1962. Geophysical Observations on Christmas Island. A.R.B. No. 89:1-2. 

Studies of magnetism and gravity, lagoon water, and other geophysical features of Christmas. 

Odum, Eugene P. and Howard T. Odum 

1957. Zonation of Corals on Japtan Reef, Eniwetok Atoll. A.R.B. No. 52:1-3. 

Analysis of coral collected from transect across windward reef near Japtan in Enewetak. Diagram. 

Ogden, Nancy B., William B. Gladfelter, John C. Ogden and 
Elizabeth H. Gladfelter 

1985. Marine and Terrestrial Flora and Fauna Notes on Sombrero Island in the Caribbean. 
A.R.B. No. 292:61-74. 

Observations of plant and animal life on Sombrero Island. Photographs, species lists, bibliography. 

Parker, I. S. C. 

1970. Some Ornithological Observations from the Western Indian Ocean. In Stoddart (editor) 
Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:211-220. 

List of bird species collected or obseived while at sea in Western Indian Ocean. Bibliography. 

Paulay, Gustav 

1987. Biology of Cook Islands Bivalves, Part I. Heterodont Families. A.R.B. No. 298:1-31. 
Documentation of habitat specificity of heterodont bivalves and investigation of correlation between habitat 
specificity and distribution. Species list, tables, bibliography. 

1989. Marine Invertebrates of the Pitcairn Islands: Species Composition and Biogeography of 
Corals, Molluscs, and Echinoderms. A.R.B. No. 326:1-27. 

Description of corals, echinoderms, and mollusks found in the Pitcairn Group (Henderson, Oeno, Ducie, and 
Pitcairn). Discussion of biogeography of these marine communities. Bibliography and species lists. 

Paulay, Gustav and T. Spencer 

1989. Vegetation of Henderson Island. A.R.B. No. 328:1-13. 

Description of 11 vegetation communities found on Henderson. Bibliography, diagram, photographs. 

Peake, J. F. 

1971. Non-Marine Mollusca of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:173-174. 

List of all non-marine mollusks recorded for Diego Garcia. Bibliography. 

Peters, A. J. and J. F. G. Lionnet 

1973. Central Western Indian Ocean Bibliography. A.R.B. No. 165:1-321. 

Bibliography of literature on Western Indian Ocean (Seychelles, Aldabra Group, Farquhar Group, Agalega, and 
Chagos Archipelago) with subject, region, and taxa indices. 



46 

Peyrot-Clausade, Mireille 

1981. Distribution of the Decapods Brachyura and Anomura (excluding Paguridae) of the 
Cryptofauna in the Reefs near Tulear. A.R.B. No. 255:101-112. 

Survey of the distribution of Decapoda, Brachyura and Anomura (as part of larger study of cryptofauna) from reefs 

off Madagascar. Bibliography, tables, and maps. 

Philippot, VGronique 

1987. Annotated Checklist of the Gorgonacea from Martinique and Guadeloupe Islands (F.W.I.). 
A.R.B. No. 303:1-16. 

Record of 75 species of Gorgonians from Martinique and Guadeloupe. Annotated check list and maps. 

Pichon, Michel 

1978. Recherches sur les Peuplements a Dominance d'Anthozoaires dans les Recifs Coralliens 

de Tul6ar (Madagascar). A.R.B. No. 222:1-447. 

Description of coral reefs off Madagascar. Presentation of biological-structural framework of coral reefs and specific 
analysis of colonization on top of a scleractinian infralittoral stratum. In French. Photographs, charts, graphs, and 
bibliography. 

Piggott, C. J. 

1961. Notes on some of the Seychelle Islands, Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 83:1-10. 

Classification of islands in the Seychelle group (including the Amirantes, Aldabra, and Farquhar). Detailed 
descriptions of Alphonse, St. Pierre, Astove, and Desnoeufs. Maps, bibliography. 

Pillai, C. S. Gopinadha 

1971. The Distribution of Shallow-Water Stony Corals at Minicoy Atoll in The Indian Ocean 
With a Check-List of Species. A.R.B. No. 141:1-12. 

Description of corals and coral reefs of the Minicoy Atoll at the south end of the Laccadive Archipelago. Systematic 
list of scleractinian coral. Maps and bibliography. 

Pilling, Q. F. 

1961. Land Tenure in Tonga. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:45-49. 
Present land law of Tonga. Agricultural production. Adaptive value of land law for Tongans. 

Poklington, R., P. R. Willis and M. Palmieri 

1972. Birds Seen at Sea and on an Island in the Cargados Carajos Shoals. A.R.B. No. 158:1-8. 
Sea birds noted in the Indian Ocean. Bibliography and appendix on birds breeding on Cargados Carajos Shoals. 

Polhemus, D. A. 

1990. Heteroptera of Aldabra Atoll and Nearby Islands, Western Indian Ocean, Part 1. Marine 
Heteroptera (Insecta); Gerridae, Veliidae, Hermatobatidae, Saldidae, and Omaniidae. 
A.R.B. No. 345:1-16. 

Distribution of marine Heteroptera on Aldabra and Cosmoledo. Description of ecology, Identification of 3 zones 
characterized by distinct species assemblages. Speculation about role of SE monsoons. Key to marine species. 
Bibliography and maps. 

Potts, D. C. 

1978. Differentiation in Coral Populations. In Smith (editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings 
of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:55-74. 

Measurement of variability in growth, survivorship and intraspecific interactions within a subgroup (Jsopora) of genus 
Acropora from Heron Island. Estimation of relative roles of genetics and environment in phenotypic variability. 
Bibliography. 



47 



Potts, G. W. 

1980. The Zonation of Rocky Littoral Areas Around Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli 
(editors) Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:23-42. 

Survey of rocky littoral regions of Little Cayman and their molluskan fauna. Analysis of relationship between 
composition of mollusk species and degree of exposure of site. Charts, bibliography, maps and photographs. 

1980. The Littoral Fishes of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:43-52. 

Survey of littoral marine fish of Little Cayman with notes on habitats. Proposal of alternative scheme for classifying 

fish. Bibliography and diagram. 

Pringle, James S. 

1982. Floristic Observations on South Water and Carrie Bow Cays, Stann Creek District, Belize 
in 1979-1980. A.R.B. No. 259:1-10. 

General description of South Water Cay and list of vascular plant species observed. Discussion of damage of 
Hurricane Hattie and mechanisms of plant dispersal and vegetation recovery. Bibliography and photographs. 

Proctor, G. R. 

1980. Checklist of the Plants of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:71-80. 

Checklist of vascular plants of Little Cayman with indication of endemic species. 

Prys- Jones, R. P., M. S. Prys- Jones and J. C. Lawley 

1981. The Birds of Assumption Island, Indian Ocean: Past and Future. A.R.B. No. 248:1-16. 
List of birds of Assumption Island and description of the original avifauna with estimates of time-frame and likely 
causes of its destruction. Assessment of importance of conservation on Assumption in light of recent bird 
introductions. Bibliography. 

Randall, John E. 

1953. Hints on Living on a Boat. A.R.B. No. 17:125-127. 

Preparing for a safe, efficient and psychologically healthy voyage on a small boat. 

1955. Fishes of the Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 47:1-243. 

Systematic list of fishes noted from Gilbert Islands, mostly Onotoa. Key to species of Apogonidae, Pomacentridae, 
Acanthuridae, Cirrhitidae, Balistidae, and Monocanthidae. Gilbertese fish names, bibliography. 

Rapaport, Moshe 

1990. Population Pressure on Coral Atolls: Trends and Approaching Limits. A.R.B. No. 340:1-33. 
Discussion of atoll resources, economies and land tenure. Proposal of a dynamic measure of carrying capacity based 
on global economics and perception as well as locally derived food. Contrast of dependent and independent atolls. 
Bibliography and tables. 

Rauzon, Mark J. 

1985. Feral Cats on Jarvis Island: Their Effects and Their Eradication. A.R.B. No. 282:1-30. 
Narrative of efforts to eradicate cats from Jarvis Isl982.. Need to preserve bird breeding site by eliminating bird 
predators. Map and bibliography. 

Regnault, R. H. 

1961. Land in Fiji. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:35-42. 

Government policy regarding land tenure in Fiji. Rights of ethnic Fijians and ethnic Indians. Population figures. 



48 

Rehder, Harald A. and John E. Randall 

1975. Ducie Atoll: Its History, Physiography and Biota. A.R.B. No. 183:1-40. 

History of Ducie. Past and current scientific research there. General description of Ducie, specific descriptions of 
lagoon, channels, reefs, birds, reptiles, fishes, crustaceans, marine mollusks, echinoderms, and corals. Bibliography 
and photographs. 

Renon, J.-P. 

1987. Le Zooplancton du Lagon de Clipperton. A.R.B. No. 301:1-14. 

Discussion of lagoonar planktonic communities of Clipperton with demographic data on predator Acanthocyclops 
robustus and prey Latonopsis australis. In French. Tables, maps and bibliography. 

Rhyne, C. F. 

1971. Marine Algae of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology of 
Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:41-66. 

Description of main algal habitats and collecting stations on Diego Garcia. Systematic list of algae known. 
Bibliography. 

Richard^ Georges 

1985. Croissance et Production de Chama iostoma dans le Lagon de Takapoto, Tuamotu, 
Polyn6sie Franchise. A.R.B. No. 292:11-22. 

A comparison of the productivity of three groups of mollusks with potential economic value in the Tuamotos. 

Special attention to the analysis of productivity of Chama iostoma. In French. Map, bibliography, tables. 

Risk, Michael J. 

1972. Fish Diversity on a Coral Reef in the Virgin Islands. A.R.B. No. 153:1-4. 

Investigation of the relationship between substrate complexity in coral reefs and fish species diversity in the Virgin 
Islands. Charts and bibliography. 

1981. Artificial Reefs in Discovery Bay, Jamaica. A.R.B. No. 255:91-100. 

Attempts to create artificial reefs to improve fisheries in Discovery Bay, Jamaica with reports on economically 
desirable fish and crustacean species attracted. Bibliography, photographs, and map. 

Roberts, Harry H. 

1983. Shelf Margin Reef Morphology: A Clue to Major Off-Shelf Sediment Transport Routes, 

Grand Cayman Island, West Indies. A.R.B. No. 263:1-11. 

Analysis of sediment accumulation and sediment transport patterns on Grand Cayman Island. Discussion of 
instrumentation. Description of morphology of off-shore shelf. Bibliography, maps, photographs, graphs, charts. 

Robertson, I. A. D., S. A. Robertson and F. Raymond Fosberg 

1983. List of Plants Collected on Alphonse Island, Amirantes. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg 
(editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:177-185. 
Plant list for Alphonse Island, map and bibliography. 

Robertson, S. A. and F. Raymond Fosberg 

1983. List of Plants Collected on Coetivy Island, Seychelles. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg 
(editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:143-157. 

Plant list for Coetivy Island, map and bibliography. 

1983. List of Plants Collected on Platte Island, Seychelles. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg 
(editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:157-164. 
Plant list for Platte Island, map and bibliography. 



49 

Robertson, S. A. and F. Raymond Fosberg (cont) 

1983. List of Plants of Poivre Island, Arairantes. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) 
Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:165-176. 

List of plants collected or noted for Poivre Islands (Poivre and He du Sud) in the Amirantes. Map and bibliography. 

Robertson, S. A. and C. M. Todd 

1983. Vegetation of Fregate Island, Seychelles. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) 
Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:39-64. 

General description of Fregate Island in the Seychelles. Description of vegetation types and list of plants observed 

there with Creole and English common names. Bibliography and map. 

Rogers, D. P. 

1951. Fungi. A.R.B. No. 1:15. 

The current state of knowledge about fungi on coral atolls. 

1953. Suggestions for Collecting Fungi. A.R.B. No. 17:57-60. 

How to identify different parasitic and non-parasitic fungi and how to preserve specimens. 

Rosen, Brian Roy 

1971. Annotated Check List and Bibliography of Corals of the Chagos Archipelago (including the 
Recent Collection from Diego Garcia), with Remarks on Their Distribution. In Stoddart and 
Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. 
A.R.B. No. 149:67-88. 

Remarks on coral fauna from Chagos Archipelago. Check list of species collected by three collectors. Bibliography. 

1979. Check list of Recent Coral Records from Aldabra (Indian Ocean). A.R.B. No. 233:1-24. 
Remarks on coral fauna from Aldabra and list of all published coral records. Bibliography and chart. 

Russell, Martin 

1953. Collecting Geological Data. A.R.B. No. 17:16-18. 

Basic concepts of geology necessary to make helpful observations of the geology of coral reefs and atolls. 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene 

1953. Scorpions on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 26:1-10. 

Information about scorpions on atolls. List of species of scorpions found and description of their habitats and 
ranges. Bibliography. 

1954. A Summary of Information on Rose Atoll. A.R.B. No. 29:1-25. 

Summary of information from literature for Rose Atoll. Includes geography, history, meteorology, geology, soils, 
land flora, vegetation and fauna. Bibliography. 

1955. Pumice and Other Extraneous Volcanic Materials on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 37:1-27. 

Documented cases of pumice floating onto coral atolls throughout the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Historic references, 
chemical analysis, and sources proposed. Bibliography. 

1957. Climate and Meteorology of the Gilbert Islands. A.R.B. No. 60:1-4. 
Summary of climatic conditions with tables of rainfall. Bibliography. 

1961. Historical and Climatic Information on Gaferut Island. A.R.B. No. 76:11-15. 
History of Gaferut with short discussion of soils, geology, and climate. Bibliography. 



50 

Sachet, Marie-HSlene (cont) 

1962. Geography and Land Ecology of Clipperton Island. A.R.B. No. 86:1-115. 

Summary of geologic and ecological conditions on Clipperton with a catalog of land and lagoon plants and animals. 
Bibliography, maps and charts. 

1969. List of Vascular Flora of Rangiroa. A.R.B. No. 125:33-44. 
Plant list for Rangiroa. 

1974. State of Knowledge of Coral Reefs as Ecosystems. In Sachet and Dahl (editors) 
Comparative Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated Coral 
Reef Program. A.R.B. No. 172:121-169. 

Brief review of current knowledge and theories of coral reef ecosystems including geology, biotic environment and 

human influences. Lengthy bibliography. 

1983. Natural History of Mopelia Atoll, Society Islands. A.R.B. No. 274:1-37. 

General description of Mopelia, history, setting, substratum, land and marine vegetation, and fauna. List of Marine 
Mollusks (by Harald Rehder) and systematic list of terrestrial flora. Map, bibliography, and photographs. 

1983. Botanique de l'ile de Tupai, lies de la Societe. A.R.B. No. 276:1-26. 

History, geography, vegetation, and list of plants collected or observed on Tupai. Partly in French, partly in English. 
Bibliography, maps, and photographs. 

1983. Takapoto Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago: Terrestrial Vegetation and Flora. 
A.R.B. No. 277:1-44. 

Geography, climate, discovery, exploration, vegetation, fauna, and systematic list of land plants with annotations and 

native names. Bibliography, maps, and photographs. 

Sachet, Marie-HSlene and Arthur Dahl (editors) 

1974. Comparative Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated 
Coral Reef Program. A.R.B. No. 172:1-169. 

Collection of papers about research on coral reef ecosystems. 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene and F. Raymond Fosberg 

1983. An Ecological Reconnaissance of Tetiaroa Atoll, Society Islands. A.R.B. No. 275:1-67. 
General description, ecological setting and vegetation of Tetieroa. Observations regarding plant and animal pests 
and freshwater sources. Recommendations for appropriate tourist development. Annotated list of plants. Map, 
bibliography and photographs. 

Sachet, Marie-H£lene, David R. Stoddart and F. Raymond Fosberg (editors) 

1983. Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:1-253. 

Collection of papers pertaining to vegetation and ecology of some Western Indian Ocean Islands including: Cousin, 
Fregate, Agalega, Coetivy, Platte, Poivre, Alphonse, Marie- Louise, Desnoeufs, and Aldabra. 

Scheer, Georg 

1959. Contribution to a German Reef Terminology. A.R.B. No. 69:1-4. 

Glossary of German terms describing characteristics of reefs as a basis for Reef Terminology Index which 
NAS/NRC was preparing. 

Schubel, Susan E. and David W. Steadman 

1989. More Bird Bones From Polynesian Archeological Sites on Henderson Island, Pitcairn 
Group, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 325:1-14. 

Study of bird bones found in archeological sites in limestone caves on Henderson. Suggestions of extinctions of five 
species of seabirds and three species of landbirds since human settlement. Appendix by Melinda Allen, bibliography, 
bird lists, maps. 



51 

Schultz, Leonard P. 

1953. Directions for Collecting, Preserving, and Shipping Fishes. A.R.B. No. 17:90-95. 
Collecting fish using rotenone and lights at night. Preserving fish for shipment. 

Scott, G. A. J. and G. M. Rotondo 

1983. A Model for the Development of Types of Atolls and Volcanic Islands on the Pacific 
Lithospheric Plate. A.R.B. No. 260:1-33. 

A model to explain the development of all major Pacific plate island types with literature review. Bathymetric data, 

charts, maps, diagrams, profiles, bibliography. 

Sheppard, C. R. C. 

1987. Coral Species of the Indian Ocean and Adjacent Seas: A Synonymized Compilation and 
Some Regional Distributional Patterns. A.R.B. No. 307:1-32. 

List of coral hermatypic coral species from 24 locations in the Indian Ocean and peripheral seas and gulfs with 
cluster analysis showing three broad geographic groupings. Species lists, maps, and bibliography. 

Sigee, D. C. 

1966. Preliminary Account of the Land and Marine Vegetation of Addu Atoll. In Stoddart 
(editor) Reef Studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to 
Addu Atoll 1964.. A.R.B. No. 116:61-74. 

Land and marine vegetation from Gan and Hitaddu Islets of Addu Atoll. Notes on occurrences of algae. Map and 

graphs. 

Sims, R. 

1971. Earthworms of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology of 
Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:171. 
List of the four species of earthworm collected on Diego Garcia. 

Sivadas, P., B. Narayanan and K. Sivaprasad 

1983. An Account of the Vegetation of Kavaratti Island, Laccadives. A.R.B. No. 266:1-9. 

A short account of climatic conditions and soil chemistry and a description of the vegetation of Kavaratti Island. 
Plant lists, bibliography, maps, photographs. 

Smith, Celia M. and James N. Norris 

1988. Procarp Structure in Some Caribbean Species of Bostrychia Montagne (Rhodophyta, 
Rhodomelaceae): An Important Systematic Character. A.R.B. No. 312:1-15. 

Pre-fertilization procarp structures in species of red algae contribute more than simply vegetative characteristics to 
the systematics of species of Bostrychia. Photographs and bibliography. 

Smith, S. V. 

1974. Introduction. CITRE and IMSWE Studies in British Honduras. In Sachet and Dahl 
(editors) Comparative Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems: Background for an Integrated 
Coral Reef Program. A.R.B. No. 172:1-6. 

The beginning of an integrated coral reef program: "Comparative Investigations of Tropical Reef Ecosystems" in 
British Honduras and a more specific project called "Investigations of Marine Shallow-Water Ecosystems". Personnel 
list. 

Smith, S. V. (editor) 

1978. Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science 
Congress, Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:1-110. 

Collection of papers presented in the Systems Modelling and Coral Reef Ecosystems symposium at the 13th Pacific 

Science Congress in 1975. 



52 

Smith, S. V. and R. S. Henderson (editors) 

1978. Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon, 1973. 
A.R.B. No. 221:1-183. 

Collection of articles on aspects of ecology in Canton Island Lagoon. 

Smith, S. V. and P. L. Jokiel 

1978. Water Composition and Biochemical Gradients in the Canton Atoll Lagoon. In Smith and 
Henderson (editors) Phoenix Islands Report I: An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll 
Lagoon, 1973. A.R.B. No. 221:15-54. 

Budgets of water, salt, nutrients, C02, suspended material, and sediments used to establish dynamics of water 
exchange, biogeochemical reactions, and sedimentation in Canton lagoon. Maps, charts, bibliography. 

Smith, S. V., P. L. Jokiel and G. S. Key 

1978. Biogeochemical Budgets in Coral Reef Systems. In Smith (editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: 
Proceedings of Papers Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. 
A.R.B. No. 220:1-12. 

Understanding of dynamics of coral reef ecosystems through studies of mass-balance budgets considering CaC03 

budget, organic Carbon budget, and nutrient budgets. Bibliography. 

Smith, W. A. 

1971. Crustacea: Cirripedes from Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:103-104. 

A list of the three cirripede crustaceans noted from Diego Garcia: one recorded in 1909 and the other two on the 

current expedition (1967). 

Sparrow, F. K. 

1953. Collection of Soil Samples for the Recovery of Aquatic Phycomytes. A.R.B. No. 17:61. 
Equipment needed, collection method and desirable data related to aquatic phycomycetes. 

Spencer, T. 

1989. Tectonic and Environmental Histories in the Pitcairn Group, Palaeogene to Present: 

Reconstructions and Speculations. A.R.B. No. 322:1-22. 

New reconstructions of the tectonic history of Henderson Island and the Pitcairn group derived from remote sensing 
technology and improved sea floor mapping. Bibliography, maps, charts and photographs. 

1989. Sediments and Sedimentary Environments of Henderson Island. A.R.B. No. 324:1-10. 
Analysis of sediment samples from Henderson Island and suggestions of biogeographic gradients and island 
development. Appendix by Owen Green, bibliography, maps, graphs, and photographs. 

Spencer, T. and Gustav Paulay 

1989. Geology and Geomorphology of Henderson Island. A.R.B. No. 323:1-18. 

Observations and hypotheses about the structure and geologic history of Henderson. Results of survey of fossil 
lagoon and fossil coral fauna. Suggestion of Pleistocene age for deposits. Bibliography, maps, cross-sections, and 
photographs. 

Sperrazza, J. 

1954. Distribution of Foraminifera. Appendix to Newell, Norman "Reefs and Sedimentary 
Processes of Raroia". A.R.B. No. 36:27-32. 

Distribution of foraminifera around Raroia in the Tuamotus. 



53 
Spicer, R. A. and D. McC. Newbery 

1979. The Terrestrial Vegetation of an Indian Ocean Coral Island: Wilingili, Addu Atoll, Maldive 
Islands: Transect Analysis of the Vegetation. A.R.B. No. 231:1-14. 

Study of vegetation across three transects of Wilingili Islet, Addu Atoll in the Maldives. Notes on ground water 
quality. List of plants collected. Bibliography, charts, and maps. 

Spoehr, Alexander 

1951. Coral Atolls and Man. A.R.B. No. 1:21. 

Why coral atoll research is important to people ~ argument for cultural ecological perspective and recommendations 
for research relating to environment and culture. 

1953. Anthropology and Coral Atoll Field Research. A.R.B. No. 17:109-110. 

Identification of high priority research topics for the study of human and cultural ecology of atoll populations. 

Staub, F. 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Tromelin Island. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:197-210. 

Description of topography, history, vegetation, fauna (inc birds), and human settlement of Tromelin. Map, 

photographs, and bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. 

1962. Three Caribbean Atolls: Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and Glover's Reef, British 
Honduras. A.R.B. No. 87:1-151. 

Description of cays off Belize with discussion of geomorphology, reef ecology, climate, flora, and theories on the 
formation of this system of reefs and islands. Plant list, bibliography, maps. 

1963. Effects of Hurricane Hattie on the British Honduras Reefs and Cays October 30-31, 1961. 
A.R.B. No. 95:1-142. 

Damage done by Hurricane Hattie among the cays off British Honduras (Belize). Maps, graphs, diagrams, 
bibliography. 

1964. Carbonate Sediments of Half Moon Cay, British Honduras. A.R.B. No. 104:1-16. 

Analysis of sediments from Half Moon Cay, British Honduras (Belize). Suggests classification system based on size, 
sorting characteristics and organic derivation. Bibliography, maps, and frequency graphs. 

1967. Scientific Studies on Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 118:1-8. 

General comments on island ecology. Summary of previous and on-going scientific research on Aldabra. 

1967. Summary of the Ecology of Coral Islands North of Madagascar. A.R.B. No. 118:53-61. 
General ecological descriptions of Assumption, Astove, Gloriosa, Cosmoledo, Farquhar, St. Pierre, and Providence. 
Maps. 

1967. Bibliography of Aldabra. A.R.B. No. 118:126-141. 

Bibliography of literature of Aldabra geology, geomorphology, and biota. 

1969. Reconnaissance Geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago. 

A.R.B. No. 125:1-32. 

Geomorphology of Rangiroa Atoll in the Tuamotus focussing on sources of consolidated and unconsolidated 
sediments, surface features of seaward reef fiats. Tentative geomorphic history is offered. Bibliography, maps and 
photographs. 



V 



54 

Stoddart, David R. (cont) 

1969. Post-Hurricane Changes on the British Honduras Reefs and Cays: Re-Survey of 1965. 
A.R.B. No. 131:1-25. 

Resurvey of British Honduras (Belize) Reefs and Cays 4 years after Hurricane Hattie with reference to the degree 

of recovery of the coral reefs and vegetation. Maps and bibliography. 

1971. Rainfall on Indian Ocean Coral Islands. A.R.B. No. 147:1-21. 

Study of rainfall on the Coral islands of the Indian Ocean: spatial and temporal distributions. Bibliography, charts, 
graphs, and maps. 

1971. Scientific Studies at Diego Garcia Atoll. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:1-6. 

History of scientific research on Diego Garcia and description of goals and structure of British Ministry of Defense 

hydrographic survey expedition on H.M.S. Vidal. 

1971. Geomorphology of Diego Garcia Atoll. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:7-26. 

General structure of Diego Garcia. Geomorphology of the land rim including the Barachois rim, lagoon mouth 
islands and sand dunes. Discussion of beachrock. Geomorphology of seaward reefs and lagoon. Maps, diagrams, and 
photographs. 

1971. Land Vegetation of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology 
of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:127-142. 

Terrestrial vegetation of Diego Garcia with reference to human settlements. Map and photographs, 

1971. Terrestrial Fauna of Diego Garcia and Other Chagos Atolls. In Stoddart and Taylor 
(editors) Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. 
A.R.B. No. 149:163-170. 

Account of all terrestrial fauna noted for Diego Garcia. 

1971. Settlement and Development of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography 
and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:209-217. 

History of discovery and settlement of Chagos Group by Europeans with notes on economic development and the 

introductions of plants and animals. Maps and photographs. 

1971. Bibliography of Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology of 
Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:219-327. 

Bibliography of Chagos Archipelago and Diego Garcia, in particular. 

1972. Reef Islands of Rarotonga. A.R.B. No. 160:1-7. 
Reef geomorphology and vegetation summary of Rarotongan reef islands. Bibliography. 

1975. Sand Cays of Tongatapu. A.R.B. No. 181:1-8. 

Descriptions of Makaha'a, Pangaimotu, Manima, and Oneata, off Tongatapu. Bibliography, maps, and photographs. 

1975. Scientific Studies in the Southern Cook Islands: Background and bibliography. In Stoddart 
and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 190:1-30. 

Structure, topography and climate of islands in the Southern Cooks. History of European contact with Southern 
Cooks and discussion of previous scientific research there. Very extensive bibliography, maps, charts and 
illustrations. 



55 

Stoddart, David R. (cont) 

1975. Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Geomorphology of Reefs and Islands. In Stoddart and Gibbs 
(editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 190:31-58. 

Definition of "almost-atoll" and application of term to Aitutaki. Morphology and zonation of reefs, lagoon and reef 
islands. Discussion of explanations for "Makatea" formations in Southern Cooks. Maps, charts, photographs, and 
bibliography. 

1975. Reef Islands of Aitutaki. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef 
Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:59-72. 

Description of the main physiographic features and vegetation of 16 of the smaller islands of Aitutaki. Maps and 

bibliography. 

1975. Vegetation and Floristics of the Aitutaki Motus. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) 
Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:87-116. 
Vegetation and flora of the reef islands of Aitutaki with notes comparing these low islands with atoll islets and 
offering explanations for their relative paucity of species. Photographs, map and bibliography. 

1975. Mainland Vegetation of Aitutaki. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: 
Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:117-122. 
Vegetation of main island of Aitutaki. Photographs. 

1980. Scientific Survey of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:1-10. 

General description of climatic characteristics of Little Cayman and history of scientific research there. Bibliography. 

1980. Geology and Geomorphology of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) 
Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:11-16. 

Description of rock units and land forms of Little Cayman Island. Maps, charts, photographs, and bibliography. 

1980. Vegetation of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and Ecology of 
Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:53-70. 

Description of vegetation zones of Little Cayman. Bibliography, maps, and photographs. 

1981. History of Goats in the Aldabra Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 255:23-26. 

Summary of the history of goats on Aldabra with reference to goats on other nearby islands. Bibliography. 

1981. Abbott's Booby on Assumption. A.R.B. No. 255:27-32. 

Records of Abbott's booby on Assumption up to 1908 and questions about its existence in lies Glorieuses. Remarks 
on extinction. Bibliography. 

1983. Introduction. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western 
Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:1-6. 

Introduction to collected papers on vegetation and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. 

1983. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall on Aldabra Atoll. In Sachet, Stoddart, and 
Fosberg (editors) Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 273:223-246. 

Discussion of rainfall on Aldabra and the variability in rainfall within the atoll due to wind direction, small 
precipitation events, and the coincidence of cumulus development with atoll locations. Maps, charts, and 
bibliography. 



56 

Stoddart, David R. (cont) 

1980. Little Cayman: Ecology and Significance. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:171-180. 

Summary of conclusions of component volume papers to serve as guidelines for economic development plans. 
Summary of species extinctions and endangered species, and summary of threatened habitats. Bibliography and 
maps. 

Stoddart, David R. (editor) 

1966. Reef Studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to Addu 
Atoll in 1964. A.R.B. No. 116:1-122. 

Detailed study of Addu Atoll — climate, geomorphology, corals, vegetation and flora, and history. Maps and 
bibliography. 

1967. Ecology of Aldabra Atoll, Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 118:1-141. 

Collection of papers on the ecology of Aldabra. Photographs. 

1970. Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:1-224. 

Collection of papers on coral islands in the Western Indian Ocean including history of scientific research. 
Bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and C. W. Benson 

1970. An Old Record of a Blue Pigeon Alectroenas species and Sea-Birds on Farquhar and 
Providence. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 136:35-36. 

Records from a 1821 explorer concerning a blue pigeon Alectroenas species on Farquhar and Providence. 

Bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R., C. W. Benson and J. F. Peake 

1970. Ecological Change and Effects of Phosphate Mining on Assumption Island. In Stoddart 
(editor) Coral Islands of the Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:121-146. 

History of scientific research on Assumption. Descriptions of topography, climate, vegetation, fauna, human 
settlement and exploitation of phosphate. Discussion of impact of phosphate mining on ecology. Bibliography, 
photographs, and map. 

Stoddart, David R., M. J. Coe and F. Raymond Fosberg 

1979. D'Arros and St. Joseph, Amir ante Islands. A.R.fl. No. 223:1-48. 

Geography and Ecology of D'Arros Island, Plants of D'Arros Island, Geography and Ecology of St. Joseph Atoll, 
and Plants of St. Joseph Atoll. Maps, 3 bibliographies, and photographs. 

Stoddart, David R., P. Spencer Davies and A. C. Keith 

1966. Geomorphology of Addu Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Reef Studies at Addu Atoll, Maldive 
Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. A.R.B. No. 116:13-42. 

General description of Addu Atoll, its reefs, lagoon, islands, sediments, with special reference to the historic 
controversy over the infilling of Addu lagoon. Diagrams and maps. 

Stoddart, David R. and F. Raymond Fosberg 

1972. South Indian Sand Cays. A.R.B. No. 161:1-16. 

Description of cays that connect Ceylon to India (Adam's Bridge). Environment, vegetation, and flora. Maps and 
bibliography. 

1981. Bird and Denis Islands, Seychelles. A.R.B. No. 252:1-50. 

Geography, ecology and flora of Bird and Denis Islands in the Seychelles. Maps, photographs, and bibliography. 



57 

Stoddart, David R. and F. Raymond Fosberg (cont) 

1981. Topographic and Floristic Change, Dry Tortugas, Florida 1904-1977. A.R.B. No. 253:1-54. 
List of Dry Tortugas plants with comments on island size estimates, the relationship between area and floristic 
diversity, and the problems of colonization and extinction. Bibliography, tables, maps, and photographs. 

Stoddart, David R., F. Raymond Fosberg and Marie-Helene Sachet 

1982. Ten Years of Change on the Glover's Reef Cays. A.R.B. No. 257:1-17. 

Review of scientific studies of Glover's Reef, Belize. Morphology and vegetation surveys in 1961 and 1971. List of 
recorded terrestrial plants. Discussion of factors relating to species diversity. Maps, photographs, and bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R., F. Raymond Fosberg and D. L. Spellman 

1982. Cays of the Belize Barrier Reef and Lagoon. A.R.B. No. 256:1-73. 

General description of cays of the barrier reef and coastal shelf of Belize (British Honduras). Plant species reported 
for each island. Accounts of damage from Hurricane Hattie (1962). Maps, photographs, island index, and 
bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R., P. E. Gibbs and D. Hopley 

1981. Natural History of Raine Island, Great Barrier Reef. A.R.B. No. 254:1-44. 

General description of Raine Island, Great Barrier Reef. Geology and geomorphology, fresh water, vegetation and 
flora, fauna (esp. birds) and discussion of human disturbances. Photographs, illustrations, maps, and bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and P. E. Gibbs (editors) 

1975. Almost-Atoll of Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 190:1-158. 

Collection of papers on the physical and biotic features of Aitutaki "almost-atoll" in the Southern Cooks. 

Stoddart, David R. and M. E. C. Giglioli (editors) 

1980. Geography and Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:1-180. 

Collection of papers relating to Little Cayman Island. 

Stoddart, David R. and L. U. Mole 

1977. Climate of Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 202:1-21. 

Description of atmospheric pressure, winds, temperature, and rainfall on Aldabra with charts giving monthly 
readings for these variables from 1967 to 1974. Graphs and bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and M. E. D. Poore 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Farquhar Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:7-26. 

History of scientific research on Farquhar. Descriptions of island geomorphology, vegetation, fauna, bird lists, and 

human settlement. Bibliography and photographs. 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Desroches. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western 
Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:155-166. 

History of scientific research on Desroches. Descriptions of vegetation, fauna, and human settlement. Map, 
bibliography, and photographs. 

1970. Geography and Ecology of Remire. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the Western 
Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:171-182. 

History of scientific research on Remire. Description of vegetation, fauna, and human settlement. Map and 

bibliography. 



58 

Stoddart, David R. and M. E. D. Poore (cont) 

1970. Geography and Ecology of African Banks. In Stoddart (editor) Coral Islands of the 
Western Indian Ocean. A.R.B. No. 136:187-192. 

History of scientific research on African Banks. Description of vegetation, fauna, and human settlement. Map and 
bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and T. P. Scoffin 

1979. Microatolls: Review of Form, Origins and Terminology. A.R.B. No. 224:1-17. 

Summary of the literature on micro-atolls offering a general definition and set of characteristics. Speculation about 
origins. Bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and T. Spencer 

1987. Rurutu Reconsidered: The Development of Makatea Topography in the Austral Islands. 

A.R.B. No. 297:1-19. 

Arguments for the erosional origin of rims of elevated mid- Tertiary limestones in the Southern Cooks and Australs 
(makatea). Comparison of Rurutu with other more typical islands. Maps, tables, photographs, tables, bibliography. 

Stoddart, David R. and J. D. Taylor (editors) 

1971. Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:1-237. 
Collection of 19 papers on the terrestrial and marine environment of Diego Garcia. 

Stoddart, David R., C. D. Woodroffe and T. Spencer 

1990. Mauke, Mitiaro and Atiu: Geomorphology of Makatea Islands in the Southern Cooks. 

AAA. No. 341:1-65. 

Geomorphological description of volcanic and limestone features of islands in S. Cooks with thoughts on makatea 
formation, lithospheric flexure and sea level changes. Bibliography, photographs, and diagrams. 

Stoddart, David R. and C. A. Wright 

1967. Geography and Ecology of Aldabra Atoll. A.R.B. No. 118:11-52. 

Description of geomorphology, geology, flora, vegetation, terrestrial and marine fauna, and human settlements on 
Aldabra. Maps. 

Stone, Earl L. 

1951.Soils.v4.fl.fi. No. 1:12. 

A summary of the present state of knowledge and suggestions for future research in pedology (soil development) 
and edaphology (soil in relation to plants). 

1951. Agriculture. A.R.B. No. 1:22. 

Meager state of knowledge of agriculture on coral atolls except cultivation of coconuts for export. Future research 
should be directed to encouraging agricultural development of coral atolls. 

1951. The Soils of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 5:1-56. 

Physical factors and biological factors of soil formation. Characteristics of soils on Arno. Maps and tables. 

1951. The Agriculture of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 6:1-46. 

Description of utilitarian plants of Arno with native names. 

1953. Soil Science. A.R.B. No. 17:38-43. 

Objectives and methods of soil collection with definition of terms and concepts in soil science. 

1953. Summary of Information on Atoll Soils. A.R.B. No. 22:1-5. 
Properties of atoll soils and sequence of soil development. 



59 



Svihla, Arthur 

1957. Observations on French Frigate Shoals, February 1956. A.R.B. No. 51:1-2. 

Brief observations of vegetation and terrestrial vertebrates of Tern Island in the French Frigate Shoals (Leeward 
islands of the Hawaiian chain). 

Taylor, J. D. 

1971. Observations on the Shallow-Water Marine Fauna. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) 
Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:31-40. 
Description of main near-shore marine habitats and the dominant animal species found. Diagrams. 

1971. Crustacea: Brachyura and Anomura from Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) 
Geography and Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:93-102. 
List of collections of Brachyura and Anomura Crustaceans from Diego Garcia. Bibliography. 

1971. Marine Mollusca from Diego Garcia. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:105-126. 

Systematic list of marine mollusks found around Diego Garcia with notes on their habitats. Bibliography. 

Taylor, William Randolph 

1975. Marine Algae of Great Swan Island. In Island News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 185:6-10. 
List of algae collected from Great Swan Island off the coast of Honduras. Bibliography. 

1977. Notes on Plants of the Genus Caulerpa in the Herbarium of Maxwell S. Doty at the 
University of Hawaii. A.R.B. No. 208:1-17. 

Summary of research to rectify determinations and organize the genus Caulerpa (green algae) in the Maxwell Doty 
collection at the University of Hawaii. List of all holdings by species and provenience. Bibliography. 

1977. Marine Algae of the Te Vega 1965 Expedition in the Western Pacific Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 209:1-16. 

Itinerary and description of collecting stations of the Te Vega Expedition of Stanford University. List of algae 

collected. Bibliography. 

Temme, Manfred 

1985. First Records of Wood Sandpiper, Ruff and Eurasian Tree Sparrow from the Marshall 
Islands. A.R.B. No. 292:23-28. 

Observations of straggler species of migratory birds and introduced Eurasian birds in the Marshall Islands. 

Bibliography and photographs. 

Thaman, R. R. 

1987. Plants of Kiribati: A Listing and Analysis of Vernacular Names. A.R.B. No. 296:1-42. 

Comments on utility of vernacular names, a discussion of cognitive systematics and the derivation of Gilbertese 
terms, and summary of previous studies. Plant lists and bibliography. 

1990. Kiribati Agroforestry: Trees, People and the Atoll Environment. A.R.B. No. 333:1-29. 

Description of agroforestry on Tarawa and Abemama with discussion on role of trees in agriculture, as symbols of 
stability, as sources of useful products, and as components in the ecological system. 

Thibault, Jean-Claude and Isabelle Guyot 

1987. Recent Changes in the Avifauna of Makatea Island (Tuamotus, Central Pacific). 
A.R.B. No. 300:1-13. 

Documentation of changes in avifauna on Makatea that have resulted from phosphate mining and deforestation. 
Reference to endangered Society Islands Imperial Pigeon (Ducula aurorae). Bibliography and tables. 



60 

Thomas, John Byron and Mary Durand Thomas 

1981. Meteorological Data from Ulul Island, Namonuito Atoll. A.R.B. No. 255:39-42. 

Meteorological observations (temperatures, relative humidity, and rainfall) from Ulul Island, Namonuito Atoll in the 
Central Caroline Islands. Table. 

Tirvengadum, D. D. and R. Bour 

1985. Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Mascarene Islands. A.R.B. No. 292:49-60. 

Observations of reptiles and amphibians of Mascarene Islands including comment on subfossil collections and 
observations made by earlier expeditions. Maps, species list, bibliography. 

Tobin, Jack 

1952. Land Tenure in the Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 11:1-36. 

Categories of land and land and marine resource ownership. Map, bibliography, lineage chart, glossary. 

Topp, J. M. W. 

1988. An Annotated Check List of the Flora of Diego Garcia, British Indian Ocean Territory. 
A.R.B. No. 313:1-19. 

Description of Diego Garcia with check list of plants. Maps. 

Townsend, C. C. 

1971. List of Diego Garcia Bryophyta. In Stoddart and Taylor (editors) Geography and Ecology 
of Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Archipelago. A.R.B. No. 149:161-162. 

List of mosses collected on Diego Garcia. Bibliography. 

1975. Bryophytes from the Cook Islands. In Stoddart and Gibbs (editors) Almost-Atoll of 
Aitutaki: Reef Studies in the Cook Islands, South Pacific. A.R.B. No. 190:85-86. 
List of the four bryophytes from the Cook Islands collected by Stoddart. 

Townsend, M. M. 

1961. Problems of Land Tenure on Malaita. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the Pacific. 
A.R.B. No. 85:27-32. 

Social, economic and political aspects of land tenure on Malaita. Discussion of individualization of ownership. 

Tracey, J. I. 

1951. Geologic Studies of Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 1:9-10. 
Recommendations for geologic research on coral atolls. 

Tracey, J. I., P. E. Cloud and K. O. Emery 

1955. Conspicuous Features of Organic Reefs. A.R.B. No. 46:1-3. 
Definitions of component parts of reefs. Diagrams. 

Trudgill, Stephen T. 

1981. Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Carbonate Rock Samples from Aldabra Atoll, Indian 
Ocean. A.R.B. No. 255:11-22. 

Analysis of rock samples from Aldabra with X-ray, fluorescence spectrometry, and carbonate staining. Table, map, 

and bibliography. 



61 

Tsuda, Roy T. 

1964. Floristic Report on the Marine Benthic Algae of Selected Islands in the Gilbert Group. 
A.R.B. No. 105:1-13. 

Study of marine benthic algae from Abemama, Marakei, Nonouti, Nukunau, Tamana, and Tarawa with goal of 
identifying sources of fish toxicity. Annotated list of blue- green, green, brown, and red algae from those islands. 
Bibliography. 

1965. Marine Algae from Laysan Island with Additional Notes on the Vascular Flora. 
A.R.B. No. 110:1-31. 

History of marine algae collections from Leeward Hawaiian Islands and annotated list of marine algae from Laysan. 
Remarks on vascular plants and analysis of salinity of sea and lake. Bibliography, maps and photographs. 

1966. Marine Benthic Algae From the Leeward Hawaiian Group. A.R.B. No. 115:1-13. 

List of marine benthic algae from Nihoa, Necker, the French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski, Pearl and Hermes reef, and 
Kure atoll (Leeward islands of the Hawaiian chain). Bibliography. 

1972. Some Marine Benthic Algae from Truk and Kuop, Caroline Islands. A.R.B. No. 155:1-10. 

List of marine benthic algae from Chuuk (Truk) and Kuop atoll. Bibliography. 

1981. Marine Benthic Algae of Kayangel Atoll, Palau. A.R.B. No. 255:43-48. 
Preliminary survey of marine benthic algae from Kayangel Atoll, Palau Islands. Bibliography. 

Tsuda, Roy T., Steven S. Amesbury and Steven C. Moras 

1977. Preliminary Observations on the Algae, Corals, and Fishes Inhabiting the Sunken Ferry 
"Fujikawa Maru" in Chuuk (Truk) Lagoon. A.R.B. No. 212:1-6. 

Check list of algae found growing on or near a sunken ship in Truk lagoon with discussion about zonation pattern 
and algae habitats. Bibliography. 

Tsuda, Roy T. and Mary S. Belk 

1972. Additional Records of Marine Benthic Algae from Yap, Western Caroline Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 156:1-5. 

Collections of marine benthic algae not previously recorded from Yap. Bibliography. 

Tsuda, Roy T. and Clinton J. Dawes 

1974. Preliminary Checklist of the Marine Benthic Plants from Glover's Reef, British Honduras. 
A.R.B. No. 173:1-13. 

Checklist of marine benthic algae collected in 1971 by three collectors. Bibliography. 

Tsuda, Roy T. and Jan Newhouse 

1966. Marine Benthic Algae from Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands. In Stoddart (editor) Reef Studies 
at Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. 
A.R.B. No. 116:93-102. 

List of marine benthic algae collected from Gan and Hitaddu Islets of Addu Atoll. Bibliography. 

Turpin, Richard 

1961. Land Tenure Problems, Gilbert and Ellice Islands. In Doran (editor) Land Tenure in the 
Pacific. A.R.B. No. 85:9-10. 

Paper published in outline form. Notes on land tenure in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, its changes, and associated 

problems. 



^ 



62 

Udvardy, Miklos D. F. 

1972. Laysan Albatross as Carrier of Floating Debris to Land. In Island News and Comment. 
A.R.B. No. 162:9. 

Note on the role of the Laysan Albatross in depositing flotsam on beaches. Albatrosses cannot cany too much. 

Udvardy, Miklos D. F. and Richard E. Warner 

1964. Observations on the Birds of French Frigate Shoal and Kure Atoll. A.R.B. No. 103:1-4. 
Brief observations of birds on Kure Island and on the French Frigate Shoals (Leeward islands of the Hawaiian 
chain). Bibliography and photographs. 

Usinger, Robert L. 

1953. Suggestions for Collecting Terrestrial Invertebrates on Pacific Islands. A.R.B. No. 17:69-72. 
How to collect, prepare, preserve, store and ship terrestrial invertebrates. Equipment list. 

Usinger, Robert L. and Ira L. Rivers 

1953. The Insect Life of Arno. A.R.B. No. 15:1-28. 

Description of habitats of insect groups on Arno with a discussion of insect pests in agriculture and human health. 
Speculations about the origin, dispersal and speciation of insects on Arno. Tables outlining insect communities. 

Valencia, Mark J. 

1977. Christmas Island (Pacific Ocean): Reconnaissance Geologic Observations. 
A.R.B. No. 197:1-14. 

General geology of Christmas Island with discussion of hypersaline lakes. Theory on geologic development. 
Bibliography, map, and tables. 

Van Zwaluwenberg, R. H. 

1955. The Insects and Certain other Arthropods of Canton Island. A.R.B. No. 42:1-11. 
List of insects and certain other arthropods from Canton with their habitats. 

Vine, Peter I. 

1973. Crown of Thorns (Acanthaster planci) Plagues: The Natural Causes Theory. 
A.R.B. No. 166:1-10. 

Explanations for increases in Acanthaster planci numbers. Recommendations for A. planci control. Bibliography and 
photographs. 

Wallace, Carden C. and M. B. Dale 

1978. An Information Analysis Approach to Zonation Patterns of the Coral Genus Acropora on 
Outer Reef Buttresses. In S.V. Smith (editor) Coral Reef Ecosystems: Proceedings of Papers 
Presented at the 13th Pacific Science Congress, Vancouver. A.R.B. No. 220:95-110. 

Definition of reef buttresses in terms of the patterns of Acropora distribution and abundance, to determine whether 
particular characteristics of Acropora might be responsible. Map, diagrams, charts, photographs and bibliography. 

Wallace, Carden C. and E. R. Lovell 

1977. Topography and Coral Distribution of Bushy and Redbill Islands and Surrounding Reef, 
Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. A.R.B. No. 194:1-22. 

Description of Bushy and Redbill Islands on the Great Barrier Reef with coral species lists from transects. Tables, 
bibliography, photographs, and systematic list of scleractinian coral. 

Wallace, G. D. 

1970. Toxoplasmosis on Caroline Atolls. In Atoll News and Comment. A.R.B. No. 135:9. 

Short discussion on epidemiology of toxoplasmosis on Eauripik, Ifalik, and Woleai probably due to cats or rats. 



63 

Wang Guozhong, Lu Bingquan and Quan Songqing 

1990. Sedimentary Characteristics of Coral Reefs in the Northern Part of the South China Sea. 
A.R.B. No. 346:1-21. 

Discussion of reef zonation around Xisha Islands in the S. China Sea. Description of the seven reef-derived 
sedimentary facies and their coral characteristics. Bibliography, map, diagrams, photographs. 

Webb, M. D. 

1975. Fulgoroidea from Aldabra, Astove, and Cosmoledo Atolls, collected by the Royal Society 
Expedition 1967-68 (Hemiptera-Homoptera). A.R.B. No. 177:1-10. 

List of Fulgoroidea collected from Aldabra, Astove and Cosmoledo Atolls. Chart of distribution of fulguroidea 

elsewhere. Bibliography. 

Weber, Jon N. and Peter M. J. Woodhead 

1972. Carbonate Lagoon and Beach Sediments of Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert Islands. 
A.R.B. No. 157:1-21. 

Description and explanation of lagoon, reef and beach sediments from Tarawa Atoll with reference to the lime mud 
in the stratigraphic record. Bibliography, tables, and graphs. 

Weiss, Malcolm P. 

1979. A Saline Lagoon on Cayo Sal, Western Venezuela. A.R.B. No. 232:1-25. 

Report on the saline lagoon on Cayo Sal with comparisons to conditions of the lagoon of Gran Roque. Description 
of sediments, hydrography, and bathymetry. Geologic history and history of hurricanes and tsunamis. Bibliography, 
charts, maps and photographs. 

Wells, John W. 

1951. The Coral Reefs of Arno Atoll, Marshall Islands. A.R.B. No. 9:1-29. 

Structure and physical processes in reef formation. Description of characteristic coral and algae assemblages in 
different reef zones. List of coral genera, maps, graphs. 

1953. Geologic Studies of Atolls. A.R.B. No. 17:14-15. 

Outline of geologic features of atolls to give an idea of data and materials to be collected and studied. 

Wells, John W. and P. Spencer Davies 

1966. Preliminary List of Stony Corals from Addu Atoll. In Stoddart (editor) Reef Studies at 
Addu Atoll, Maldive Islands: Preliminary Results of an Expedition to Addu Atoll in 1964. 
A.R.B. No. 116:43-56. 

Systematic list of sceractinian coral from Addu Atoll. 

Wentworth, C. K. 

1953. Use of Hand Level and Brunton Compass for Determining and Mapping Minor 
Topography. A.R.B. No. 17:22. 

Principles and practices of topographic mapping with makeshift equipment and a Brunton compass. 

1953. Describing Size Grades of Beach and Other Sedimentary Materials. A.R.B. No. 17:23. 
Ways of estimating the coarseness of sediments without specialized equipment. 

1953. Hints on Living Under Restricted Camp Conditions. A.R.B. No. 17:128-129. 
Preparing for safe, efficient, and unstressful camp life during field work on tropical islands. 

Wester, Lyndon 

1985. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Northern Line Islands. A.R.B. No. 287:1-38. 

Discussion of diversity in flora of the various Line Islands -- remarkable in view of proximity of islands. History of 
scientific research and check list of plants. Bibliography. 



64 

Whistler, W. A. 

1983. The Flora and Vegetation of Swains Island. A.R.B. No. 262:1-25. 

Description of Swain's island, its lagoon, its history, its people. Plant list by family of terrestrial vascular flora. 
Bibliography, map, photographs. 

Whitton, B. A. and A. Donaldson 

1977. Terrestrial and Freshwater Algae of Three Western Indian Ocean Islands (Astove, 
Farquhar, and St. Pierre). A.R.B. No. 216:1-8. 

Description of terrestrial and freshwater algae found on Farquhar, St. Pierre, and Astove Atolls. Systematic list of 

algae observed. Bibliography. 

Whitton, B. A., A. Donaldson, D. J. Bellamy and C. Sheppard 

1977. Terrestrial and Swamp Algae from Three Islands in the Chagos Archipelago, Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 217:1-9. 

Observations of terrestrial and freshwater (swamp) algae from Eagle, Egmont and Danger Islands. Bibliography and 

charts. 

Whitton, B. A. and M. Potts 

1977. Observation on Redox Potential in Freshwater Pools on Aldabra. A.R.B. No. 214:1-4. 
Summary of further fresh water analyses on Aldabra from 1974- 1975 to determine redox potential changes with 
depth and time. Bibliography and table. 

1979. Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria) of the Oceanic Coast of Aldabra. A.R.B. No. 238:1-8. 
Account of blue-green algae of Aldabra with discussion of habitats and distribution. Mention of relationship between 
Lyngbya sordida and shrimps in deep waters. Bibliography. 

Wickens, G. E. 

1979. The Propagules of the Terrestrial Flora of the Aldabra Archipelago, Western Indian Ocean. 
A.R.B. No. 229:1-37. 

Description of propagules of flora of Aldabra with notes on their presumed status, distribution, and information on 

long- distance and local dispersal. Bibliography and illustrations. 

Wiens, Herold J. 

1956. The Geography of Kapingamarangi Atoll. A.R.B. No. 48:1-86. 

History of Kapingamarangi, description of topography, climate, currents, tides, vegetation, land fauna, agriculture, 
and livelihood of population. Reference to each islet. Tables and bibliography. 

1957. Field Notes on Atolls Visited in the Marshalls, 1956. A.R.B. No. 54:1-23. 

General description with an emphasis on vegetation of Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Ebon, Jaluit, Kili, Kwajelein, 
Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Namu, Rongelap, and Utirik. 

1961. General Description of Storm Effects. In Blumenstock (editor) A Report on Typhoon 
Effects Upon Jaluit Atoll. A.R.B. No. 75:21-36. 

Description of damage from Typhoon Ophelia on each islet in Jaluit. 

Wiles, G. J. and P. O. Glass 

1990. Interisland Movements of Fruit Bats (Pteropus mariannus) in the Mariana Islands. 

A.R.B. No. 343:1-6. 

Evaluation of reports that fruit bats fly between islands in the Northern Marianas. Suggestions that there are two 
subspecies of Pteropus mariannus in the Mariana Islands should be investigated. Bibliography, map. 



65 
Williams, David G. 

1990. An Annotated Bibliography of the Natural History of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian 
Ocean. A.R.B. No. 331:1-17. 

Bibliography of published work on biota of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. Includes annotations and indices by 

keywords and first authors. Summary of literature on broad subjects. 

Williams, Ernest H., Lucy Bunkley-Williams 

1990. The World-Wide Coral Reef Bleaching Cycle and Related Sources of Coral Mortality. 

A.R.B. No. 335:1-71. 

Proposal of explanations for three major and four minor coral bleaching events in the 1980's. Predictions of worse 
coral bleaching and dying cycles as global temperatures rise. Time chart, host lists, related events, questionnaire, 
bibliography. 

Wilson, B. R. 

1985. Notes on a Brief Visit to Seringapatam Atoll, North West Shelf, Australia. 
A.R.B. No. 292:83-100. 

Observations on the structure of the reef near Seringapatam Atoll and the marine fauna associated with the reef. 

Photographs, species lists, diagrams, bibliography. 

Wilson, J. R. 

1983. Ecology of Marie-Louise, Amirantes Islands. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) 
Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:185-202. 

Geology, soils, vegetation, and list of vascular plants and vertebrate terrestrial fauna from Marie-Louise Island in the 

Amirantes. Bibliography and map. 

1983. Ecology of Desnoeufs, Amirantes Islands. In Sachet, Stoddart, and Fosberg (editors) 
Floristics and Ecology of Western Indian Ocean Islands. A.R.B. No. 273:203-222. 

Geology, soils, vegetation, and list of vascular plants and vertebrate terrestrial fauna from Desnoeufs Island in the 
Amirantes. Bibliography and map. 

Wilson, Kenneth 

1954. Ecological and Floristic Notes on the Pteridophyta of Raroia. A.R.B. No. 33:57. 
Notes on collections of ferns from Raroia. 

Woodroffe, C. D. 

1980. Mangrove Sediments of Little Cayman. In Stoddart and Giglioli (editors) Geography and 
Ecology of Little Cayman. A.R.B. No. 241:17-22. 

Description of three types of mangrove sediments on Little Cayman. Diagrams. 

1985. Vegetation and Flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. A.R.B. No. 283:1-18. 

General description of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu. Description of vegetation zones and systematic list of vascular plants 
sighted with reference to voucher specimens. Maps, photographs and bibliography. 

Woodward, Paul W. 

1972. The Natural History of Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. A.R.B. No. 164:1-317. 
General description of Kure Atoll with emphasis on avifauna and nesting habits. Maps, charts, bibliography. 

Yaldwyn, J. C. and Kasimierz Wodzicki 

1979. Systematics and Ecology of the Land Crabs (Decapoda: Coenobitidae, Grapsidae and 
Gecarcinidae) of the Tokelau Islands, Central Pacific. A.R.B. No. 235:1-53. 

Description of Tokelau Islands: climate, people, soils, vegetation, and fauna. Summary of systematics of land crabs 
noted in Tokelaus. Native names. Notes on land crab ecology. Tables, figures, photographs, maps and bibliography. 



66 

Zimmerman, E. C. 

1951. Notes on Needs for Entomological Research on Coral Atolls. A.R.B. No. 1:18. 
Very short statement concerning lack of knowledge of insects on coral atolls. 

Zug, George R., Victor G. Springer, Jeffrey Williams and G. David Johnson 

1988. The Vertebrates of Rotuma and Surrounding Waters. A.R.B. No. 316:1-25. 

Description of vertebrate fauna of Rotuma with remarks on habitats. Fish fauna has zoogeographic affinity with 
Pacific plate fish while reptile fauna has affinity with Fijian reptiles. Species lists and bibliography. 



INDEX BY LOCATION AND TOPIC 



j flflffijjfljjffigm fr^ 



68 

HOW TO USE THE INDEX BY LOCATION AND TOPIC 

The following index is designed for researchers interested in geographic regions or specific 
islands. References are sorted primarily by the general area of the world, usually names of Oceans 
or Seas (e.g. Pacific or Mediterranean) or major near-by land masses (e.g. Australia and Central 
America). There are seven broad geographic regions designated: Australia, Caribbean, Central 
America, Indian Ocean, Malesia (the islands off Southeast Asia), Mediterranean, and Pacific. 

Within each of these names of island groups and remote islands that lie outside any clear island 
group. Following the names of island groups are sometimes names of specific islands within those 
island groups. Some island groups are found in more than one general region. The cays off of 
Belize, for instance, are found both under Caribbean and Central America. 

To look for any desired island, first find the general regional heading, then find its major island 
group or archipelago and then look to see if the particular island is listed. A few islands are listed 
separately if they are far from any well-known group. Such islands as Johnston Atoll, Clipperton, 
Cocos (Keeling), and Analega are listed without any inclusive island group or archipelago. 

Such a hierarchical organization should make searches easier for people interested in a large 
region; all islands in an island group can be found close together in the index. There were many 
cases in which articles could not be neatly plugged into perfectly exclusive sets of geographic areas. 
Examples are articles on "Atolls of the Southwestern Caribbean", Islands of the "Western Pacific", 
and islands of the "Central Western Indian Ocean". These were placed both under the main 
headings, "Caribbean (in general)", "Pacific (in general)", and "Indian Ocean (in general)", 
respectively, as well as under the names given by the authors. 

As a rule, geographic terms were used instead of political terms. For example, articles on 
Tarawa were indexed under Gilbert Islands rather than Kiribati and articles on Cosmoledo were 
indexed under Aldabra Group instead of Seychelles. I considered this policy more appropriate to 
research that is primarily biogeographic in nature since there is usually more specificity in 
archipelagos and island groups than in political units. 

The solution to problem of changing place name spellings and new names vs old names for the 
same place was a matter of judgment in each individual case. In general, the current convention was 
used but older, still commonly-used names were usually given with a "see..." to guide the researcher. 
Thus someone looking for information on the Austral Islands will be rerouted to the "Tubuai 
Islands". In many cases, though, it was just as easy simply to duplicate listings under several place 
names 

References listed under each place name are organized very generally according to subject 
matter. There is no consistency to these subject headings in the index. Instead they are meant only 
to give researchers a general idea of the scope of an article so that they can set priorities in their 
subsequent use of the contents list. Where there are dozens of references under a place name 
heading, a reference may be listed more than once if it covers several general topics. 

References are composed simply of an abbreviated author name followed by the number and 
pages in the Atoll Research Bulletin. This gives just enough information to make the reference 
perfectly unique without taking up too much space. These references are even informative in and of 
themselves. From them researchers know who wrote an article, its length, and, roughly when it was 
written (knowing that it began in 1951 with number 1 and that this issue is number 347). 



69 



INDEX BY LOCATION AND TOPIC 



AUSTRALIA 



GREAT BARRIER REEF (in general) 
Boating and navigation 
Domm, S. B. 143:1-10 

Reef Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Endean and Stablum 167:1-62 
Endean and Stablum 168:1-26 
Frankel, E. 220:75-94 

Coral, Scleractinia: Acropora 
Wallace and Dale 220:95-110 

GREAT BARRIER REEF, 
BUNKER GROUP 

Geology, Morphological change 
Flood, P. G. 195:1-7 

GREAT BARRIER REEF, 
BUSHY AND REDBILL 

Reef Ecology and Coral Distribution 

Wallace and Lovell 194:1-22 

GREAT BARRIER REEF, 
CAPRICORN GROUP 
(INC HERON AND ONE TREE ISLANDS) 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 82:1-4 
Fosberg and Thorne 82:5-14 

Reef Ecology 

Bruce, A. J. 245:1-33 
Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 

Zoology and Ecology 

Animals (in general) 
Moulton, James M. 82:15-16 

Birds, esp. Conservation 
Domm, S. B. 142:1-27 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 
Gross, Moulton & Huntington 99:1-11 



Introduced Mammal Pests 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 
editors 119:1-6 
Norman, F. I. 119:3-4 

Invertebrates 
Bruce, A. J. 245:1-33 
Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 

GREAT BARRIER REEF, RAINE ISLAND 
General Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart, Gibbs and Hopley 254:1-44 

LOWENDAL ISLANDS 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Buckley, Ralf 292:75-82 

QUEENSLAND, TOWNSVILLE 
Botany: Algae 

Ngan and Price 237:1-29 

SERINGAPATAM ATOLL 

Reef Structure and Reef Ecology 
Wilson, B. R. 292:83-100 



70 



CARIBBEAN 



(GENERAL) 

Botany: Algae: Rhodophyta 

Smith, C. and Norris 312:1-15 

Reef Ecology 

Milliman and Mahnken 129:23-25 

Zoology: Invertebrates 

Cubit and Williams 269:1-45 

BAHAMA ISLANDS (in general) 
Bibliography 

Natural and cultural history 
Gillis, Byrne and Harrison 191:1-123 

Botany and Geography 
Gillis, William T. 219:12-16 

BAHAMAS, CAT ISLAND 

Ecology and Botany 
Human influence on vegetation 
Byrne, Roger 240:1-200 

BAHAMAS, CAY SAL BANK 

Ecology and Geology of Lagoon 

Goldberg, Walter M. 271:1-17 

BAHAMAS, EAST PLANA CAY 
Geography and Ecology 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 

BELIZE CAYS (in general) 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, Stoddart, Sachet, 
and Spellman 258:1-77 

Geography and Ecology 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 

Hurricane Effects 

Antonius, A. 162:11-12 
Stoddart, David R. 95:1-142 
Stoddart, David R. 131:1-25 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 



Research Programs and Expeditions 
editors 126:1-19 

Smith, S. V. 172:1-6 

BELIZE CAYS, CARRIE BOW CAY 
Botany and Ecology 
Algae, Macrophytes 
Littler et al. 302:1-18 

BELIZE CAYS, GLOVER'S REEF 
Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart, Fosberg and Sachet 257:1-17 

BELIZE CAYS, HALF MOON CAY 
Geology, Sediments 

Stoddart, David R. 104:1-16 

BELIZE CAYS, STANN CREEK 
Hurricanes and Flora 

Pringle, James S. 259:1-10 

BELIZE CAYS, TWIN CAYS 

Mangrove Ecology and Algae 
(Macrophytes) 

Littler et al. 289:1-16 

BELIZE, GLOVER'S REEF 
Algae, Marine Benthic 

Tsuda and Dawes 173:1-13 

CAYMAN ISLANDS, GRAND CAYMAN 
Geology, Sediments 

Roberts, Harry H. 263:1-11 



71 
Caribbean (cont) 



CAYMAN ISLANDS, LITTLE CAYMAN 
Botany: Flora and Vegatation 
Proctor, G. R. 241:71-80 
Stoddart, David R. 241:53-70 

Climate, General conditions 
Stoddart, David R. 241:1-10 

Ecology 
Conservation 
Clapp, Roger B. 304:1-15 
Diamond, A. W. 241:141-164 
Diamond, A. W. 241:165-170 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 
Stoddart and Giglioli (eds) 241:1-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:171-180 

Mangrove 
Woodroffe, C. D. 241:17-22 

Marine Fauna 
Potts, G. W. 241:23-42 

Terrestrial Fauna 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 

Economic Development 

Stoddart and Giglioli (eds) 241:1-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:171-180 

Geology 

Geomorphology 
Stoddart, David R. 241:11-16 

Sediments 
Woodroffe, C. D. 241:17-22 

History of Scientific Research 
Stoddart, David R. 241:1-10 

Zoology 
Birds 
Clapp, Roger B. 304:1-15 
Diamond, A. W. 241:141-164 
Diamond, A. W. 241:165-170 

Crustaceans 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 



Fish 
Potts, G. W. 241:43-52 

Insects 
Askew, R.R. 241:97-114 
Askew, R.R. 241:115-120 
Askew, R.R. 241:121-138 
Askew, R.R. 241:139-140 

Mollusks 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 
Hounsome and Askew 241:91-96 
Potts, G. W. 241:23-42 

Reptiles 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 

CAYO SAL 

Hurricanes and Lagoon Ecology 

Weiss, Malcolm P. 232:1-25 

FLORIDA, DRY TORTUGAS 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Reef Ecology 

Dustan, Phillip 288:1-17 

FLORIDA, KEY LARGO 
Reef Ecology 

Dustan, Phillip 288:1-17 

GRENADINES, TOBAGO CAYS 
Reef Ecology 

Lewis, John B. 178:1-9 

GUADELOUPE 

Reefs and Algal ridges 

Battistini and Petit 234:1-7 

Zoology 

Coral, Octocorallia, Gorgonians 
Philippot, V6ronique 303:1-16 

HONDURAS, GREAT SWAN ISLAND 
Botany: Marine Algae 

Taylor, W. R. 185:6-10 



72 

Caribbean (cont) 



JAMAICA 
Ecology 

Marine 
Bakus, GJ. (ed) 152:1-6 

Reefs, artificial 
and Fisheries development 
Risk, Michael J. 255:91-100 

JAMAICA, BIG PELICAN CAY 
Botany: Vegetation 
Adams, C.C. 130:1-10 

JAMAICA, CABARITA ISLAND 
Vertebrate Fauna 

Crombie et al. 280:1-12 

LESSER ANTILLES (see also Martinique) 
Reptiles: Marine Turtles 

Meylan, Anne Barkau 278:1-24 

MARTINIQUE 

Ecology of Algal Ridges 
Adey, W.H. et al. 218:1-40 

Coral, Octocorallia, Gorgonians 

Philippot, V6ronique 303:1-16 

MEXICO, ALACRAN REEF 
Botany: Vegetation 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 93:1-25 

Geology, Beach Sediments 

Folk and Cotera 137:1-16 

MEXICO, CAYOS ARCAS 
Reef Ecology 

Farrell et al. 270:1-7 

MEXICO, CHINCHORRO 
Reef Ecology and Geology 

Jordan and Martin 310:1-20 

PANAMA, GALETA REEF 
Invertebrates 

Cubit and Williams 269:1-45 



PUERTO RICAN BANK 
Geography and Ecology 

Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

PUERTO RICO, VIEQUES ISLAND 
Reef Ecology and Geology 

Macintyre et al. 268:1-6 

SOMBRERO ISLAND 

Ecology, Marine and Terrestrial 
Ogden et al. 292:61-74 

SOUTHWEST CARIBBEAN 
Reef Ecology 

Milliman and Mahnken 129:23-25 

VIRGIN ISLANDS (in general) 
Geography and Ecology 

Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Reef Ecology and Fish 
Risk, Michael J. 153:1-4 

VIRGIN ISLANDS, ANEGADA 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
d'Arcy, W. G. 139:1-21 
d'Arcy, W. G. 188:1-40 

Reef Ecology 

Dunne and Brown 236:1-80 

VIRGIN ISLANDS, ST. CROIX 
Geology 

Reefs and Algal ridges 
Adey, W.H. 187:1-67 
Connor and Adey 211:1-15 
Gerhard, Lee C. 242:1-11 

Sediments and Cementation 
Gerhard, Lee C. 196:1-5 

VIRGIN ISLANDS, ST. CROIX, BUCK 
ISLAND BAR 

Hurricanes and coral growth 
Macintyre and Adey 336:1-7 



73 



CENTRAL AMERICA 



BELIZE CAYS (in general) 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, Stoddart, Sachet, 
and Spellman 258:1-77 

Geography and Ecology 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 



COSTA RICA, GOLFO DULCE 
Conservation of reefs 
Cort6s, Jorge 344:1-37 

PANAMA, GALETA REEF 
Invertebrates 

Cubit and Williams 269:1-45 



Hurricane Effects 

Antonius, A. 162:11-12 
Stoddart, David R. 95:1-142 
Stoddart, David R. 131:1-25 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 

Research Programs and Expeditions 

editors 126:1-19 
Smith, S. V. 172:1-6 

BELIZE CAYS, CARRIE BOW CAY 
Botany and Ecology 

Algae, Macrophytes 
Littler et al. 302:1-18 

BELIZE CAYS, GLOVER'S REEF 
Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart, Fosberg and Sachet 257:1-17 

BELIZE CAYS, HALF MOON CAY 
Geology, Sediments and Soils 
Stoddart, David R. 104:1-16 

BELIZE CAYS, STANN CREEK 
Hurricanes and Flora 

Pringle, James S. 259:1-10 

BELIZE CAYS, TWIN CAYS 
Mangrove Ecology and Algae 
(Macrophytes) 

Littler et al. 289:1-16 



BELIZE, GLOVER'S REEF 
Algae, Marine Benthic 

Tsuda and Dawes 173:1-13 



74 



INDIAN OCEAN 



(GENERAL) 

Bibliography of Geology and Ecology 
Peters and Lionnet 165:1-321 

Botany: Vegetation 

Sachet et al. (eds) 273:1-253 

Conservation 

editors 135:1-17 

Geography and Ecology 

Gazetteer and place names 
Lionnet, J. F. G. 136:221-224 

General geography and ecology 
Sachet et al. (eds) 273:1-253 
Stoddart, David R. 118:53-61 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

History of Scientific Research 

Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

Pumice Scatters 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene 37:1-27 

Rainfall 

Stoddart, David R. 147:1-21 

Reef Ecology, Coral Species 
Sheppard, C. R. C. 307:1-32 

Zoology 

Birds 
Benson, C.W. 162:10-11 
Parker, I. S. C. 136:211-220 

AGALEGA 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg, Sachet & Stoddart 273:109-142 

Geography, Ecology, and History 

Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 



ALDABRA GROUP (in general) 
Botany 

Algae, freshwater 
Whitton and Donaldson 216:1-8 

Flora 
Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 

Geography and Geomorphology 
Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 

Insects, Fulguroidea 

Webb, M. D. 177:1-10 

Reef Survey 

Drew, Edward A. 193:1-7 

ALDABRA GROUP, ALDABRA ATOLL 
Bibliography of Geology and Ecology 
Stoddart, David R. 118:126-141 

Botany 

Algae 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 
Whitton and Potts 238:1-8 

Flora and Vegetation 
Gillham, Mary E. 200:1-19 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Hnatiuk and Merton 239:1-21 
Newbery and Hill 246:1-9 
Newbery and Hill 291:1-11 
Wickens, G. E. 229:1-37 

Myxomycetes 
Ing and Hnatiuk 249:1-10 

Climate 

General conditions 
Stoddart and Mole 202:1-21 

Rainfall 
Stoddart, David R. 273:223-246 



75 



Ecology 

Introduced pests 
Coblentz and Van Vuren 306:1-6 
Coblentz, Van Vuren and Main 337:1-10 
Gould, HiU and Newbery 273:247-253 
Stoddart, David R. 255:23-26 

Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Mole 202:1-21 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 
Stoddart, David R. 118:1-8 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 118:1-141 

Geology 

Fresh water 
Donaldson and Whitton 213:1-25 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 
Whitton and Potts 214:1-4 

Geochemistry and mineralogy 
Trudgill, Stephen T. 255:11-22 

Geomorphology 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 
Stoddart, David R. 118:126-141 

History of Scientific Research 

Diamond, E. P. 255:1-10 
Hnatiuk and Merton 239:1-21 
Stoddart, David R. 118:1-8 

Microbiology 

Myxomycetes 
Ing and Hnatiuk 249:1-10 

Zooplankton 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 

Research Expeditions 
Diamond, E. P. 255:1-10 
editors 126:1-19 
Gaymer, R. 118:112-125 



Indian Ocean (cont) 
Aldabra (cont) 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds 
Benson, C.W. 118:62-111 
Frith, C. B. 201:1-15 
Gaymer, R. 118:112-125 
Gillham, Mary E. 200:1-19 
Hambler, Hambler & Newing 290:1-19 

Coral 
Rosen, Brian Roy 233:1-24 

Crustaceans (shrimp) 
Whitton and Potts 238:1-8 

Insects 
Blackmore, S. 255:33-38 
Frith, D. W. 225:1-12 
Gould, HiU and Newbery 273:247-253 
Newbery and Hill 246:1-9 
Newbery and Hill 291:1-11 
Polhemus, D. A. 345:1-15 

Mammals: goats 
Coblentz and Van Vuren 306:1-6 
Coblentz, Van Vuren and Main 337:1-10 
Gould, HiU and Newbery 273:247-253 
Stoddart, David R. 255:23-26 

Reptiles: marine turtles 
Frith, C. B. 185:11-12 

Zooplankton 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 

ALDABRA GROUP, ASSUMPTION 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:147-154 

Ecology 

Introduced pests 
Prys-Jones et al. 248:1-16 

Phosphate mining, ecological effects 
Stoddart, Benson and Peake 136:121-146 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds 

Prys-Jones et al. 248:1-16 
Stoddart, David R. 255:27-32 



76 

Indian Ocean (cont) 
Aldabra (cont) 



ALDABRA GROUP, ASTOVE 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:101-112 

Geography and Ecology 

Bayne, CJ. et al. 136:83-100 

Zoology 

Birds 
Benson, C.W. 136:115-120 

Insects, Lepidoptera 
Lionnet, J. F. G. 136:113-114 

ALDABRA GROUP, COSMOLEDO 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:57-66 

Zoology and Ecology 

Birds 
Bayne, CJ. et al. 136:37-56 
Benson, C.W. 136:67-82 
Gillham, Mary E. 199:1-11 

ALPHONSE ISLAND 
Botany 

Robertson et al. 273:177-185 

AMIRANTES (in general) 
Botany: Flora 

Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 

Geography and Geomorphology 
Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 

Zoology 

Birds, Malagasy turtledove 
Benson, C.W. 136:195-196 

AMIRANTES, AFRICAN BANKS 

Botany 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:193-194 

Ecology, Geography, History 

Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 



Zoology 
Birds 

Feare, CJ. 227:1-7 

Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 

AMIRANTES, ALPHONSE ISLAND 
Botany 

Robertson et al. 273:177-185 

AMIRANTES, 

D'ARROS AND ST. JOSEPHS ISLANDS 
Ecology, Geography and Natural History 

Stoddart, Coe and Fosberg 223:1-48 

AMIRANTES, DESNOEUFS ISLAND 
Geography and Ecology 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:183-186 
Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 
Wilson, J. R. 273:203-222 

AMIRANTES, DESROCHES 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:167-170 

Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 

AMIRANTES, MARIE-LOUISE ISLAND 
Geography and Ecology 
Wilson, J. R. 273:185-202 

AMIRANTES, POIVRE ISLAND 
Botany 

Robertson and Fosberg 273:165-176 

AMIRANTES, REMIRE 
Botany 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:183-186 

Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 

CARGADOS CARAJOS SHOALS 
Zoology: birds 

Poklington, Willis and Palmier 158:1-8 

CENTRAL-WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN 
Bibliography of Geology and Ecology 
Peters and Lionnet 165:1-321 



77 



Indian Ocean (cont) 



CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO (in general) 
Botany 

Algae, freshwater 
Whitton et al. 217:1-9 

Ecology 

Conservation esp of birds 
Bourne, W. R. P. 149:175-207 

Zoology 
Coral 
Rosen, Brian Roy 149:67-88 

Terrestrial fauna 
Stoddart, David R. 149:163-170 

CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, 
DIEGO GARCIA 

Bibliography of Geology and Ecology 
Stoddart, David R. 149:219-327 

Botany 

Algae, marine 
Rhyne, C. F. 149:41-66 

Bryophytes 
Townsend, C. C. 149:161-162 

Cultivated plants 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Flora 
Fosberg and Bullock 149:143-160 
Stoddart, David R. 149:127-142 
Topp, J. M. W. 313:1-19 

Ecology 

Algae 
Rhyne, C. F. 149:41-66 

Marine, near shore 
Taylor, J. D. 149:31-40 

Economic Development 

Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 



Geomorpholoyg 

Stoddart, David R. 149:7-26 

History of Scientific Research 

Stoddart and Taylor (eds) 149:1-237 
Stoddart, David R. 149:1-6 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Research Expeditions 
editors 119:1-6 

Stoddart and Taylor (eds) 149:1-237 
Stoddart, David R. 149:1-6 

Zoology 
Birds 
Hutson, A. M. 175:1-25 

Invertebrates 
Clark and Taylor 149:89-92 
Hutson, A. M. 243:1-29 
Peake, J. F. 149:173-174 
Sims, R. 149:171 
Smith, W. A. 149:103-104 
Taylor, J. D. 149:31-40 
Taylor, J. D. 149:93-102 
Taylor, J. D. 149:105-126 

CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO, PEROS 
BANHOS 
Reef Ecology 

Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 

CHRISTMAS ISLAND 
Research Programs 
editors 126:1-19 

COCOS (KEELING) ISLAND 

Bibliography of Geology and Ecology 
Williams, David G. 331:1-17 

COETrVY ISLAND 
Botany 

Robertson and Fosberg 273:143-157 

Geomorphology and Island Evolution 
Keplin and Pirazzoli 319:1-8 



78 



Indian Ocean (cont) 



COMOROS 
Zoology: Birds 

Forbes-Watson, A. D. 128:1-23 

DESROCHES 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:167-170 

Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 

FARQUHAR GROUP (in general) 
Botany 

Algae, freshwater 
Whitton and Donaldson 216:1-8 

Flora 
Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 

Geomorphology 

Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 

History of Scientific Research 
Stoddart and Benson 136:35-36 

Zoology 

Birds, Blue Pigeon 
Stoddart and Benson 136:35-36 

FARQUHAR GROUP, FARQUHAR ATOLL 
Botany 

Fosberg and Renvoize 136:27-34 

Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Poore 136:7-26 

ILES GLORIEUSES 

Geomorphology and vegetation 

Battistini and Cremers 159:1-10 

Zoology 
Birds 
Benson, C.W. et al. 176:1-34 

INDIA, ADAM'S BRIDGE 
Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Fosberg 161:1-16 



JORDAN, GULF OF AQABA 
Invertebrates, marine 
Grelet et al. 308:1-14 

LACCADIVES, KAVARATTI ISLAND 
Soils and Vegetation 

Sivadas et al. 266:1-9 

LACCADrVES, MINICOY 
Reef Ecology 

Pillai, C. S. G. 141:1-12 

MADAGASCAR 
Reef Ecology 

Pichon, Michel 222:1-447 

Zoology 

Crustaceans, Brachyura and Anomura 
Peyrot-Clausad 255:101-112 

MALDrVES (in general) 
Botany 

Algae, marine 
Hackett, H. E. 210:1-29 

Vegetation 
Newbery and Spicer 231:15-25 

Geology 

Island formation theories 
Hass, Hans 91:1-4 

History of Scientific Research 

Groves, E. W. 116:57-60 

Reef Ecology 

Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 

Research Expeditions 
Groves, E. W. 116:57-60 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 

Zoology 

Microfauna 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 



79 



Indian Ocean (cont) 



MALDIVES, ADDU ATOLL 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda and Newhouse 116:93-102 

Flora and vegetation 
Fosberg, Groves and Sigee 116:75-92 
Spicer and Newbery 231:1-14 
Sigee, D. C. 116:61-74 

Climate 

Stoddart, David R. (ed) 116:1-122 

Ecology of Lagoon and Reefs 

Stoddart, Davies and Keith 116:13-42 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 116:1-122 

Geology 

Fresh water 
Spicer and Newbery 231:1-14 

Geomorphology 
Stoddart, Davies and Keith 116:13-42 

Zoology 

Coral, Scleractinia 
Wells and Davies 116:43-56 

MALDIVES, MALE 

Botany 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 58:1-37 

Island Formation Theories 
and Gastropods 

Kohn, Alan J. 102:1-5 



NICOBARS 
Geology 

Island formation theories 
Hass, Hans 91:1-4 

PLATTE ISLAND 
Botany: Flora 

Robertson and Fosberg 273:157-164 

RED SEA 
Reef Ecology 

Antonius, Scheer and Bouchon 334:1-22 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

SEYCHELLES (SEE ALSO OUTLYING 
ISLAND GROUPS) 
Ecology 

Conservation of birds 
editors 162:1-26 

SEYCHELLES, BIRD & DENIS ISLANDS 
Botany: Flora 

Stoddart and Fosberg 252:1-50 

Ecology 

Feare, C.J. 226:1-29 

SEYCHELLES, COUSIN ISLAND 
Geography and Ecology 
especially vegetation and birds 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 273:7-38 

SEYCHELLES, FREGATE ISLAND 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Robertson and Todd 273:39-64 



MASCARENE ISLANDS 

Zoology 

Amphibians and reptiles 
Tirvengadum and Bour 292:49-60 

Coral 
Faure, Gerard 203:1-25 
Faure, G6rard 204:1-13 



TROMELIN ISLAND 
Ecology and Zoology 
Birds 
Brooke, R. K. 255:73-82 
Staub, F. 136:197-210 

History of Scientific Research 

Brooke, R. K. 255:73-82 



80 

Indian Ocean (cont) 



WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN 
Botany: Vegetation 

Sachet et al. (eds) 273:1-253 

Geography 

Gazetteer and place names 
Lionnet, J. F. G. 136:221-224 

General geography and ecology 
Sachet et al. (eds) 273:1-253 
Stoddart, David R. 118:53-61 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

History of Scientific Research 

Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

Rainfall 

Stoddart, David R. 147:1-21 

Zoology 

Birds 
Benson, C.W. 162:10-11 
Parker, I. S. C. 136:211-220 



81 



MALESIA 

(GENERAL) 
Reef Ecology 

Bruce, AJ. 205:1-19 

INDONESIA, KRAKATAU 
Botany 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 292:39-48 

INDONESIA, PULAU PARI AND THOUSAND ISLANDS 
Reef Ecology 

Brown, B.E. et al. 281:1-14 

MALAYSIA, CAPE RACHADO 

Reef Ecology (Microalgae and Coral) 
Hong and Sasekumar 244:1-11 



SOUTH CHINA SEA 

Reef Ecology and Sediments 
Wang, Lu and Quan 346:1-21 

SUMATRA AND THAILAND, 
OFFSHORE ISLANDS 
Reef Ecology 

Kohn, Alan J. 140:1-29 



MEDITERRANEAN 



SOUTHERN TURKEY 

Geology 
Beachrock 
Goudie, Andrew 126:11-14 



82 



PACIFIC 



(GENERAL) 

Bibliography of Conservation 

DeFilipps, Robert A. 311:1-195 

Botany 

Algae, Chlorophyta, Udotea and Halimeda 
Moul, Edwin T. 106:1-10 
Taylor, W. R. 208:1-17 
Taylor, W. R. 209:1-16 

Vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 23:1-25 

Ecology 

Conservation 
DeFilipps, Robert A. 311:1-195 
Norman, F. I. 182:1-13 

Geology 

Island formation theories 
Darwin (with Stoddart, ed) 88:1-20 



BELAU 

Anthropology-Ethnomedicine 

DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 

Conservation 

Kochi, John 148:21-22 

Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

BELAU, KAYANGEL 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 255:43-48 

Flora 
Gressitt, J. L. 21:1-5 

Geography and Ecology 
Gressitt, J. L. 14:1-7 



Pumice 
Sachet, Marie-H61ene 37:1-27 

Geography 

Gazetteer and place names 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

Land Tenure 

Doran, Edwin (ed) 85:1-60 

Research 

Programs and expeditions 
Taylor, W. R. 208:1-17 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds and Ectoparasites 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 



BELAU, SOUTHWEST ISLANDS 
Ecology and Zoology of Birds 

Engbring, John 267:1-22 

CAROLINE ISLANDS (in general) 
Health and Diseases 
Wallace, G.D. 135:9 

Zoology 

Acanthaster planci 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, CHUUK (TRUK) 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 
Tsuda, Roy T. 155:1-10 



AUSTRAL ISLANDS 
(SEE TUBUAI ISLANDS) 



Reef Ecology 

Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 



Health and Nutrition 

Murai, Mary 27:1-239 



CAROLINE ISLANDS, FAIS 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg and Evans 133:1-15 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, GAFERUT 
History 

with comments on climate 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 76:11-15 

Geology and Ecology 

Niering, William A. 76:1-10 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, IFALIK 

Botany 

Algae, marine 
Abbott, IA. 77:1-5 

Fresh Water 

Arnow, Ted 44:1-15 

CAROLINE IS, KAPINGAMARANGI 
Anthropology 

Miller, Ralph E. 20:1-42 
Niering, William A. 49:1-32 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Botany 

Algae 
Newhouse, Jan 121:1-7 

Cultivated plants 
Niering, William A. 49:1-32 

Geography and Ecology 

Gazetteer, place names, 
and general description 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Geology 

McKee, Edwin D. 50:1-38 

Health 

Diseases, parasites 
and Ethnomedicine 
Miller, Ralph E. 20:1-42 



83 
Pacific (cont) 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, NAMOLUK 
Anthropology and Natural History 

Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, NAMONUITO 
Climate, General Conditions 

Thomas and Thomas 255:39-42 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, NUKUORO 
Ethnogeography with gazetteer 
Carroll, Vern 107:1-11 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, PALAU 
Anthropology-Ethnomedicine 

DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 

Conservation 

Kochi, John 148:21-22 

Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, PALAU, KAYANGEL 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 255:43-48 

Flora 
Gressitt, J. L. 21:1-5 

Geography and Ecology 
Gressitt, J. L. 14:1-7 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, PALAU, 
SOUTHWEST ISLANDS 

Ecology and Zoology of Birds 

Engbring, John 267:1-22 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, POHNPEI 
Introduced pests, esp rats 
Marshall, J. T. 56:1-11 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, PULUWAT 

Geology and Ecology 

Niering, William A. 76:1-10 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, SATAWAL 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 132:1-13 



84 

Pacific (cont) 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, TRUK 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 
Tsuda, Roy T. 155:1-10 

CAROLINE ISLANDS, YAP 
Algae, marine benthic 

Tsuda and Belk 156:1-5 

Echinoderms incl. Acanthaster planci 
Grosenbaugh, DA. 255:49-54 

Ethnomedicine 

DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 

CENTRAL PACIFIC (in general) 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS, 
"JOHNSTON ATOLL", AND 
"WAKE ISLAND") 
Botany and Ecology 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 23:1-25 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds and Ectoparasites 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 

CLIPPERTON ISLAND 

Geography and Ecology 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Research Expeditions 

editors 126:1-19 

Zoology 

Crustaceans and Zooplankton 
Renon, J.-P. 301:1-14 

Reptiles: terrestrial 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

COCOS ISLAND, COSTA RICA 
Marine Ecology 
Bakus, G.J. 179:1-8 

Zoology 
Insects 
Hogue and Miller 250:1-29 



COOK ISLANDS 
Anthropology 

Cultural ecology and Demography 
Doran, Edwin 85:51-54 

Land tenure 
Crocombe, R. G. 85:55-60 

Botany 

Bryophytes 
Townsend, C. C. 190:85-86 

Ecology and Zoology 
Mollusks 
Morgan, HJ. 190:149-158 
Paulay, Gustav 298:1-31 

Reefs and marine fauna 
Gibbs, Vevers and Stoddart 190:133-148 

COOK ISLANDS, AITUTAKI 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 190:73-84 
Stoddart, David R. 190:87-116 
Stoddart, David R. 190:117-122 

Reef and Reef Island Ecology 
Gibbs, P. E. 190:123-132 
Stoddart, David R. 190:59-72 
Stoddart, David R. 190:87-116 
Stoddart, David R. 190:31-58 

General Geography and Ecology 

Stoddart and Gibbs (eds) 190:1-158 
Stoddart, David R. 190:1-30 
Stoddart, David R. 190:117-122 

COOK ISLANDS, MANGAIA 

Geology 

Makatea Formation Theory 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

COOK ISLANDS, 
MAUKE, MITIARO, AND ATIU 
Geology 

Geomorphology & Makatea Formation 
Theory 
Stoddart, Woodroffe & Spencer 341:1-65 



85 
Pacific (cont) 



COOK ISLANDS, PALMERSTON 
Geomorphology 

Irwin, J. 292:109-113 

COOK ISLANDS, PENRHYN ATOLL 
Zoology 

Birds, Mammals and Reptiles 
Clapp, Roger B. 198:1-7 

COOK ISLANDS, RAROTONGA 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 160:9-14 

Geomorphology 

Stoddart, David R. 160:1-7 

COOK ISLANDS, SUWARROW ATOLL 
Geomorphology 

Irwin, J. 292:109-113 

COSTA RICA, GOLFO DULCE 
Ecology and Zoology 

Conservation of reefs 
Cortes, Jorge 344:1-37 

EASTER ISLAND 

Zoology 

Reptiles: terrestrial 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

EASTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS, 
"COSTA RICA, GOLFO DULCE", 
"CLIPPERTON ISLAND" AND 
"EASTER ISLAND" 
Geography 

Gazetteer and place names 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

ELLICE ISLANDS (SEE TUVALU) 

FIJI 

Cultural Ecology and Land Tenure 
Doran, Edwin 85:33-34 
Regnault, R. H. 85:35-42 

FIJI GROUP, ROTUMA 
Ecology and Zoology 
Birds, Fish, Reptiles 
Zug et al. 316:1-25 



FRENCH POLYNESIA 

(SEE SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS) 

GILBERT ISLANDS (in general) 
Anthropology 

Cultural ecology 
Catala, R.LA. 59:1-187 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 
Turpin, Richard 85:9-10 

Ethnobiology 
Randall, John E. 47:1-243 
Thaman, R.R. 296:1-42 

Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 

Flora and Vegetation 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 
Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 
Fosberg and Sachet 295:1-33 
Thaman, R.R. 296:1-42 

Ecology 

Human adaptation 
Catala, R.LA. 59:1-187 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 
Turpin, Richard 85:9-10 

Toxic contamination 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 

Economics, Fisheries Dev't 

Catala, R.L.A. 59:1-187 

Rainfall 

Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 60:1-4 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 

Fish 
Randall, John E. 47:1-243 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 



86 

Pacific (cont) 

GILBERT ISLANDS, ABEMAMA 
Anthropology 

Subsistence and economics 
Thaman, R. R. 333:1-29 

GILBERT ISLANDS, ONOTOA 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Moul, Edwin T. 57:1-48 

Ecology 

Reef 
Banner and Randall 13:1-62 

Terrestrial fauna 
Moul, Edwin T. 28:1-28 

Geology 

Beachrock formation theories 
Cloud, Preston E. 12:1-73 

GILBERT ISLANDS, TARAWA 
Anthropology 

Subsistence and economics 
Mason, R. R. 73:1-17 
Thaman, R. R. 333:1-29 

Economic Development 
MacMillan, H. G. 2:2 
Mason, R. R. 73:1-17 

Geology, Sediments 

Weber and Woodhead 157:1-21 

Research Conditions 

Doran, Edwin 72:1-54 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 
FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Lamoureux, Charles H. 79:1-10 

Zoology 

Birds 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Udvardy and Warner 103:1-4 

Mammals and Reptiles 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Svihla, Arthur 51:1-2 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, 
GARDNER PINNACLES 

Geography and Ecology 

Especially birds 
Clapp, Roger B. 163:1-25 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, KURE ATOLL 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Clay, Horace F. 78:1-4 
Lamoureux, Charles H. 79:1-10 

Geography and Ecology 
Especially birds 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, LAYSAN 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 110:1-31 

Flora and vegetation 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Lamoureux, Charles H. 97:1-14 

Zoology 
Birds 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 162:9 

Insects and other invertebrates 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, LEEWARD 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLANDS) 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 115:1-13 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, LISIANSKI 
Geography and Ecology 

especially birds 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 



HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, MIDWAY 
Botany 

Algae 
Buggeln, R.G. 109:1-11 

Flora and Vegetation 
Apfelbaum, Ludwig and Ludwig 261:1-19 
Neff and DuMont 45:1-11 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, NECKER 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Herbst, Derral 206:25-31 

Zoology and Ecology 

Birds, Mammals and Reptiles 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, NIHOA 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Herbst, Derral 207:26-38 

Zoology and Ecology 

especially birds 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, PEARL AND 
HERMES REEF 

Geography and Ecology 

especially birds 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 

HORN ARCHIPELAGO, FUTUNA 
Anthropology and Economics 

Subsistence and fisheries 
Galzin, Rene 292:1-10 

JOHNSTON ATOLL 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Buggeln and Tsuda 120:1-20 

Flora and vegetation 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Zoology 

All Animals, but especially birds 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 



87 
Pacific (cont) 

Reptiles: marine turtles 
Balazs, George H. 285:1-46 

KIRIBATI (SEE GILBERT, PHOENIX AND 
LINE ISLANDS) 

LINE ISLANDS (in general) 
Botany: Flora 

Wester, Lyndon 287:1-38 

LINE ISLANDS, CAROLINE ISLAND 
Ecology 

Vegetation and terrestrial fauna 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 

LINE ISLANDS, CHRISTMAS ISLAND 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Gilbert, William J. 265:1-6 

Flora 
Chock and Hamilton 90:1-7 

Geology 

Geophysical observations 
Northrop, John 89:1-2 

Hypersaline lake formation theories 
Valencia, Mark J. 197:1-14 

Research Expeditions 
editors 126:1-19 

LINE ISLANDS, FANNING 

Research Sites and scientific stations 
editors 162:1-26 

LINE ISLANDS, JARVIS ISLAND 
Ecology of Birds and Cats 

Rauzon, Mark J. 282:1-30 

LINE ISLANDS, VOSTOK ISLAND 
Ecology 

Vegetation and Terrestrial Fauna 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 



88 

Pacific (cont) 

MARIANA ISLANDS 
Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

Mammals: fruit bats 
Wiles and Glass 343:1-6 

MARIANA ISLANDS, GUAM 

Micronesian Area Research Center 

Kurashina et al. 293:11-14 

MARIANA ISLANDS, SAIPAN 
Zoology 

Crustaceans, Decapods and Stomatopods 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

MARSHALL ISLANDS 

Anthropology, Cultural Ecology 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Neas, Maynard 85:17-24 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 68:1-9 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 330:1-100 
Wiens, Herold J. 54:1-23 

Slicks of film downwind of reefs 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 53:1-4 

Zoology and Ecology 
Birds 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 330:1-100 

Crustaceans, Decapods and Stomatopods 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, ARNO 
Anthropology 

Cultural ecology and demography 
Hatheway, William H. 16:1-68 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 
Mason, Leonard 10:1-21 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 
Stone, Earl L. 6:1-46 
Tobin, Jack 11:1-36 



Botany 

Algae 
Wells, John W. 9:1-29 

Bryophytes 
Miller and Doty 25:1-11 

Flora 
Anderson, Donald 7:1-4 

Climate 

Cox, Doak C. 8:1-31 

Ecology 

Terrestrial 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

Reefs 
Wells, John W. 9:1-29 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 

Economic Development 

Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 

Geology 

Fresh water 
Arnow, Ted 30:1-7 
Cox, Doak C. 8:1-31 

Sediments and soils 
Stone, Earl L 5:1-56 

Health 

Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 
Milhurn, John D. 62:1-7 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

Research Programs 

Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 



89 



Zoology 

Birds, Mammals and Reptiles 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

Fish and marine invertebrates 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 

Insects 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, BIKINI 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 315:1-28 

Geology 

Research recommendations 
Tracey, J. I. 1:9-10 

Research Expeditions 

editors 126:1-19 

Zoology 

Birds 
Barrett and Schreiber 314:1-46 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, ENEWETAK 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Blumenstock, Rex and Lane 71:1-158 

Climate, General Conditions 

Blumenstock, Rex and Lane 71:1-158 
Lavoie, Ronald L. 96:1-80 

Ecology 

Reefs 
DiSalvo, Louis H. 151:1-3 
Odum and Odum 52:1-3 

Radiation Effects 
Bussing, William A. 154:1-4 

Microbiology 

Bacteria 
DiSalvo, Louis H. 151:1-3 

Zooplankton 
Gerber, Ray P. 247:1-22 



Pacific (cont) 
Marshall Islands, Arno (cont) 

Zoology 
Birds 
Temme, Manfred 292:23-28 

Coral 
Odum and Odum 52:1-3 

Fish 
Bussing, William A. 154:1-4 

Zooplankton 
Gerber, Ray P. 247:1-22 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, JALUIT 
Anthropology 

Subsistence and economics 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg and Sachet 92:1-39 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:51-56 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:57-68 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:95-104 

Climate, Typhoon Effects 
Banner, A.H. 75:75-78 
Blumenstock, D.I. 75:5-20 
Blumenstock, D.I. (ed) 75:1-105 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:47-50 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:51-56 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:57-68 
Gressitt, J. L. 75:69-74 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:37-40 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:41-42 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:43-46 
Wiens, Herold J. 75:21-36 

Economics 

Fisheries and Traditional Cultures 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 

Geology 

Fresh water and geomorphology 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:43-46 

Sediments and soils 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:47-50 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:41-42 



90 



Pacific (cont) 

Marshall Islands, Jaluit (cont) 

History of Scientific Research 

Fosberg and Sachet 92:1-39 

Zoology 

Mollusks, Gastropods 
Kondo, Yoshio 75:105 

Terrestrial fauna 
Gressitt, J. L. 75:69-74 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, 
KWAJALEIN ATOLL 

Zoology 
Birds 
Clapp, Roger B. 342:1-94 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, MAJURO 
Anthropology and Health 

Nutrition 
Murai, Mary 27:1-239 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, NORTHERN 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLANDS) 
Botany 

Bryophytes 
Miller, H. A. 40:1-5 

Flora and vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 61:1-11 
Fosberg [with Wells et al.] 113:23-30 

Climate 

General conditions 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:1-6 

Ecology 

Radiation Effects 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 61:1-11 

Geography, Gazetteer and Place Names 
Fosberg and Carroll (eds) 113:1-156 

Geology 

Geomorphology 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:1-6 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:7-20 



Sediments and soils 
Carroll and Hathaway 113:31-42 
Fosberg and Carroll 113:43-67 
Fosberg and Carroll (eds) 113:1-156 
Fosberg [with Wells et al.] 113:23-30 

Research Expeditions 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 38:1-37 

Zoology 

Birds 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 114:1-35 

Reptiles: marine turtles 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 135:9-12 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, SOUTHERN 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLANDS) 
Anthropology 

Subsistence and economics 
Hatheway, William H. 55:1-9 

MARSHALL ISLANDS, TAONGI 
Botany: Vegetation 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 93:1-25 

MELANESIA (SEE SPECIFIC ISLANDS) 

MICRONESIA (in general) 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS) 
Conservation 

Falanruw, M.V.C. 148:18-20 

NEW CALEDONIA, CHESTERFIELD 
ISLANDS 

Geography and Ecology 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 

Zoology 

Reptiles: sea snakes 
Minton and Dunson 292:101-108 

OGASAWARA ISLANDS 
Botany 

Santalum boninensis 
Maina, Pray and DeFilipps 319:19-24 



PALAU ISLANDS 

Anthropology-Ethnomedicine 

DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 

Conservation 

Kochi, John 148:21-22 

Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

PALAU ISLANDS, KAYANGEL 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Roy T. 255:43-48 

Flora 
Gressitt, J. L. 21:1-5 

Geography and Ecology 
Gressitt, J. L. 14:1-7 

PALAU ISLANDS, SOUTHWEST 

Ecology and Zoology of Birds 

Engbring, John 267:1-22 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA, EASTERN 
Ecology and Zoology of Reptiles 

Heatwole, Harold 180:1-32 

PHOENIX ISLANDS (IN GENERAL) 
Ecology and Zoology of Reptiles 
Balazs, George H. 184:1-7 

PHOENIX ISLANDS, CANTON 
Botany 

Algae, marine 
Dawson, E. Yale 65:1-6 

Flora and vegetation 
Degener and Degener 64:1-24 
Degener and Gillaspy 41:1-51 
Hatheway, William H. 43:1-9 



91 
Pacific (cont) 

Ecology 

Lagoon 
Grovhoug and Henderson 221:99-158 
Henderson et al. 221:5-14 
Kay, E. Alison 221:159-170 
Smith, S. and Henderson (eds) 221:1-183 
Smith, S. and Jokiel 221:15-54 

Plant communities 
Hatheway, William H. 43:1-9 

Reefs 
Jokiel and Maragos 221:71-98 

Geology, Fresh Water 

Guinther, E. B. 221:171-184 

Zoology 
Arthropods 
van Zwaluwenberg, R. H. 42:1-11 

Coral 
Jokiel and Maragos 221:71-98 
Maragos and Jokiel 221:55-70 

Fish 
Grovhoug and Henderson 221:99-158 

Mollusks 
Kay, E. Alison 221:159-170 

PHOENIX ISLANDS, MCKEAN 
Ecology and Zoology 

Reefs and Coral 
Dana, Thomas F. 228:1-27 
Maragos and Jokiel 221:55-70 



92 

Pacific (cont) 

PITCAIRN GROUP (IN GENERAL) 
Botany: Flora 

Fosberg, et al. 329:1-18 

Reef Ecology 

Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 

Zoology 

Insects, Diptera 
Mathis, Wayne 327:1-15 

Invertebrates, marine 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 

Reptiles: terrestrial 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

PITCAIRN GROUP, DUCIE 
Geography and Ecology 

Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

PITCAIRN GROUP, HENDERSON 
Anthropology 

Archeology and prehistory 
Allen, Melinda 325:15-18 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Schubel and Steadman 325:1-14 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Paulay and Spencer 328:1-13 

Geomorphology and 
Island Formation Theory 

Spencer, T. 322:1-22 
Spencer and Paulay 323:1-18 

Research Expeditions 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 321:1-2 

Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Birds, Paleo-ornithology 
Schubel and Steadman 325:1-14 

Foraminifera 
Green, Owen 324:7-8 



Invertebrates and Birds 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

POHNPEI 

Introduced pests, esp rats 
Marshall, J. T. 56:1-11 

POLYNESIA (SEE SPECIFIC ISLAND 
GROUPS) 

POLYNESIA, SOUTHEAST 
(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS 
AND "EASTER ISLAND") 
Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Devaney and Randall 169:1-21 

RYUKYU ISLANDS 
Zoology 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Johnson, C.R. 162:7-9 

SAMOA 

Reef Ecology 

Flanigan and Lamberts 255:59-62 
Lamberts, Austin E. 264:1-19 

SAMOA, ROSE ATOLL 
Geography and Ecology 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 29:1-25 

SAMOA, SWAINS ISLAND 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Whistler, W. A. 262:1-25 

SOCIETY ISLANDS, MAUPITI 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg and Sachet 294:1-70 

SOCIETY ISLANDS, MOOREA 
Fisheries Economics 
Galzin, Rene 305:1-17 

Zoology 

Crustaceans, Decapods and Stomatopods 
Monteforte, Mario 309:1-37 

SOCIETY ISLANDS, MOPELIA 
Geography and Ecology 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene 274:1-37 



SOCIETY ISLANDS, TETIEROA 
Geography and Ecology 

Sachet and Fosberg 275:1-67 

SOCIETY ISLANDS, TUPAI 
Geography and Ecology 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene 276:1-26 

SOLOMON ISLANDS, MALAITA 
Anthropology 

Demography and Cultural Ecology 
Doran, Edwin 85:25-26 
Townsend, M. M. 85:27-32 

SOLOMON ISLANDS, RENNELL AND 
BELLONA 

Research Expeditions 
editors 126:1-19 

TOKELAU ISLANDS 

Bibliography 

Fisheries 
Gillett, Robert 319:9-18 

Ecology and Zoology 
Crustaceans 
Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

Fish 
Gillett, Robert 319:9-18 

Insects 
Hinckley, Alden D. 124:1-18 

Reptiles: marine turtles 
Balazs, George H. 279:1-30 

Geography and Ecology 

Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

TONGA 

Anthropology 

Cultural Ecology 
Pilling, Q. F. 85:45-49 

Zoology and Ecology 

Acanthaster planci 
Francis, M. P. 255:63-68 



93 
Pacific (cont) 

TONGA, TONGATAPU OUTLIERS 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Doran, Edwin 85:43-44 
Ellison, Joanna C 332:1-36 

Geography and Ecology 

Doran, Edwin 85:43-44 
Stoddart, David R. 181:1-8 

TRUK 
Botany 

Algae, marine benthic 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 
Tsuda, Roy T. 155:1-10 

TUAMOTUS, MAKATEA ISLAND 
Ecology 

Birds and Effects of Phosphate Mining 
Thibault and Guyot 300:1-13 

Reefs 
Montaggioni et al. 299:1-18 

TUAMOTUS, MATAIVA 

Geomorphology and Geologic History 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

TUAMOTUS, RANGIROA 
Botany: Flora 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 125:33-44 

Geomorphology 

Stoddart, David R. 125:1-32 

TUAMOTUS, RAROIA 

Anthropology, Cultural Ecology 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 
Morrison, J.P.E. 34:1-26 

Botany 

Algae 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 
Newhouse, Jan 33:42-54 

Bryophytes 
Miller and Doty 33:55-56 

Fungi 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 



94 



Pacific (cont) 
Tuamotus, Raroia (cont) 
Botany (cont) 

Pteridophytes 
Wilson, Kenneth 33:57 

Ecology 

Marine 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 
Newhouse, Jan 33:42-54 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 
Doty and Morrison 35:1-61 
Newell, Norman D. 36:1-35 

Terrestrial 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 
Doty and Morrison 35:1-61 

Geography 

Gazetteer and place names 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 

Geology 

Geomorphology 
Newell, Norman D. 31:1-22 

Sediments and soils 
Newell, Norman D. 36:1-35 

Zoology 

Birds and Mollusks 
Morrison, J.P.E. 34:1-26 

Crustaceans, Decapods and Stomatopods 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

Fish 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 

Foraminifera 
Sperrazza, J 36:27-32 



TUBUAI ISLANDS, MOROTIRI 
Botany: Flora and Vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 162:9-10 

TUBUAI ISLANDS, RURUTU 

Reef Ecology and Makatea Formation 
Theory 

Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

TUVALU (IN GENERAL) 
Anthropology 

Land tenure 
Turpin, Richard 85:9-10 

Ecology 

Birds and Trees 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 

TUVALU, FUNAFUTI 
Typhoon Effects 

Mergner, Hans 284:1-19 

TUVALU, NUI ATOLL 
Botany 

Flora and vegetation 
Woodroffe, C. D. 283:1-18 

WAKE ISLAND 

Botany: Flora and Vegetation 

Fosberg and Sachet 123:1-15 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 67:1-20 

Climate, Typhoons 

Fosberg and Sachet 123:1-15 

Ecology 

Introduced pests 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 

Toxic contamination 
Banner, Nevenzel and Hudgins 122:1-9 



TUAMOTUS, TAKAPOTO ATOLL 
Geography and Ecology 

Sachet, Marie-H61ene 277:1-44 

Zoology 

Mollusks, Bivalves, Chama iostoma 
Richard, Georges 292:11-22 



Geography and Ecology 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 

Zoology 
Birds 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 114:1-35 

Mammals: rats 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 



WESTERN PACIFIC 

(SEE ALSO SPECIFIC ISLAND GROUPS) 
Botany 

Algae, marine 
Taylor, W. R. 209:1-16 

YAP 

Algae, marine benthic 

Tsuda and Belk 156:1-5 

Echinoderms incl. Acanthaster planci 
Grosenbaugh, DA. 255:49-54 

Ethnomedicine 

DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 



95 
Pacific (cont) 



96 



INDEX BY GEOLOGIC 
FEATURE AND TOPIC 




C 2 * CD 

h a 

*a era 
o o' 



98 



HOW TO USE THE INDEX BY GEOLOGIC FEATURE AND TOPIC 



Because many of the articles in the ARB concerned global problems on atolls, coral reefs, or 
other land and marine formations, there needs to be a separate index for these papers. Researchers 
particularly interested in categories of islands or in topics associated with general ocean or land 
forms might begin to look here. 

The main headings in this index are geologic features. There are 10: Almost-Atolls; Islands (in 
general); Islands, tropical; Islands, Volcanic and other High Islands; Lagoons; Makatea; Reefs; and 
Tropics (in general). These are not at all mutually exclusive classes, but are terms used by authors 
and are better designators than terms arbitrarily ascribed to articles. 

Under each of these ten major headings, the references are grouped according to topic. Terms 
used to describe the general topic are not perfectly consistent from reference across the index, but 
are intended to help the researcher sort through large numbers of references to set priorities in the 
use of the contents list. 

References are composed simply of an abbreviated author name followed by the number and 
pages in the Atoll Research Bulletin. This gives just enough information to make the reference 
perfectly unique without taking up too much space. These references are even informative in and of 
themselves. From them researchers know who wrote an article, its length, and, roughly when it was 
written (knowing that it began in 1951 with number 1 and that this- issue is number 347). 



99 



INDEX BY GEOLOGIC FEATURE AND TOPIC 



GEOMORPHOLOGY 

Stoddart, David R. 190:31-58 



ALMOST-ATOLLS 



ATOLLS 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Cultural ecology and demography 
Mason, Leonard 2:12-13 
Mason, Leonard 17:111-115 
Rapaport, Moshe 340:1-33 
Spoehr, Alexander 1:21 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

Material culture 
Emory, Kenneth P. 17:122 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Compilation progress 
Bryan, E. H. 2:14 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:23-25 

BOTANY 

Algae 
Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 

Cultivated plants 
Stone, Earl L. 1:22 

Flora and vegetation 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:13-14 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 

Fungi 
Rogers, Donald P. 1:15 
Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 

Research methods 
Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 
Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 



ECOLOGY 

Ecosystems 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 2:7-11 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 81:1-11 

Human adaptation 
Mason, Leonard 2:12-13 
Spoehr, Alexander 1:21 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

Introduced pests 
Enders, Robert K. 1:20 

Marine ecology 
Hiatt, Robert W. 2:5-6 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:100-108 

Plant communities 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 

Research recommendations 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:6-8 

Sewage treatment 
Marshall, Keith 126:10-11 

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 

Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 
Hiatt, Robert W. 2:5-6 
MacMillan, H. G. 2:2 
Stone, Earl L. 1:22 

GEOGRAPHY 

Gazetteer and place names 
Bryan, E. H. 19:1-38 



100 

Atolls (cont.) 

GEOLOGY 

Beachrock 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:19 

Fresh water 
Cox, Davis and Wentworth 2:3-4 
Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 

Atoll formation theories (See also in Index 
by Topic and Location/Geologic Feature 
"Geology/Island Formation Theories") 

Bryan, E. H. 17:1-9 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:19 

Scott and Rotondo 260:1-33 

Stoddart and Scoffin 224:1-17 

Research methods 
Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 

Research recommendations 
Stone, Earl L. 1:12 
Tracey, J. I. 1:9-10 

Sediments and soils 
Morrison, R.J. 339:1-25 
Stone, Earl L. 1:12 
Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 
Stone, Earl L. 22:1-5 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 

METEOROLOGY 

Research recommendations 
Leopold, Luna B. 1:11 

RESEARCH METHODS 

Algae collection 

Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 

Anthropology 

Emory, Kenneth P. 17:122 
Mason, Leonard 17:111-115 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 



Botany 
Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 
Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 

Faunal collections 
Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 
Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Geology 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 

Hydrology 
Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 

Mapping 
Nason, James D. 185:13-20 
Wentworth, C. K 17:22 

Marine biology 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:100-108 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 

Soil collections 
Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 

Various disciplines 
Fosberg and Sachet (eds) 17:1-129 

ZOOLOGY 

Arthropods, Scorpions 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 26:1-10 

Birds 
Murphy and Mayr 1:19-20 

Insects 
Zimmerman, E. C. 1:18 

Invertebrates, marine 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 
Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Mammals, rats 
Enders, Robert K. 1:20 



Research methods 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 
Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 
Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Research recommendations 
Zimmerman, E. C. 1:18 

Systematics 
Morrison, J.P.E. 1:16-17 

Vertebrates, terrestrial 
Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 



101 
Atolls (cont.) 



ISLANDS 



ISLANDS (IN GENERAL) 
ECOLOGY AND ZOOLOGY 

Introduced pests, esp. rats as bird predators 
Bourne, W. R. P. 255:69-72 

RESEARCH METHODS 

Invertebrate collections 
Usinger, Robert L. 17:69-72 

ISLANDS, HIGH 
ECOLOGY 

Reefs and Acanthaster planci 
Birkeland, Charles 255:55-59 



ISLANDS, TROPICAL 
METEOROLOGY 

Research methods 
Leopold, Luna B. 17:10-13 

RESEARCH CONDITIONS 

Wentworth, C. K. 17:128-129 

RESEARCH METHODS 

Photography 
Lathrop, C. J. 17:123-124 

ISLANDS, VOLCANIC 
ISLAND FORMATION THEORIES 

Scott and Rotondo 260:1-33 



102 



LAGOONS 



GEOLOGY 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Scheer, Georg 69:1-4 



MAKATEA (SEE ALSO INDEX BY LOCATION UNDER 
"PACIFIC ISLANDS/COOK ISLANDS") 



ISLAND FORMATION THEORIES 

Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 
Stoddart, Woodroffe & Spencer 341:1-65 



REEFS 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Milliman, John D. 111:1-58 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 172:121-169 

CLIMATE AND REEF ECOLOGY 

Effects of Global warming 
Williams and Bunkley-Williams 335:1-71 

ECOSYSTEMS 

Benson, Patton and Abraham 220:33-54 

Buddemeier, R.W. 220:25-32 

Dahl, A. L. 220:13-20 

Kinzie, R. A. 220:21-24 

Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 

Sachet and Dahl (eds) 172:1-169 

Smith, S. V. (editor) 220:1-110 

Smith, S., Jokiel and Key 220:1-12 

Tracey, Cloud and Emery 46:1-3 

GEOLOGY 

Geomorphology 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 292:29-38 
Scheer, Georg 69:1-4 
Tracey, Cloud and Emery 46:1-3 

Research methods 
Easton, W. H. 255:83-90 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Macintyre, Ian G. 185:21-24 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 



RESEARCH 

Program (CITRE) 
Sachet and Dahl (eds) 172:1-169 

Sites and scientific stations 
Dahl, Macintyre & Antonius 172:38-120 

RESEARCH METHODS 

Geology 
Easton, W. H. 255:83-90 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Macintyre, Ian G. 185:21-24 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 

Mapping 
Domm, S. B. 148:15-17 

ZOOLOGY 

Acanthaster planci 

Benson, Patton and Abraham 220:33-54 
Vine, Peter I. 166:1-10 

Coral 

Buddemeier, R.W. 220:25-32 

Williams and Bunkley-Williams 335:1-71 



INDEX BY TOPIC AND 
LOCATION/GEOLOGIC FEATURE 



104 



HOW TO USE THE INDEX BY TOPIC 
AND LOCATION/GEOLOGIC FEATURE 

This index is meant for researchers whose primary interest is the topic of articles and who are 
secondarily interested in the geographic location. Like the index by location and topic, these 
headings are hierarchical. 

There are 14 different main headings: Anthropology, Bibliography, Botany, Climate, Ecology, 
Economics, Geography, Geology, Health, History, Microbiology, Research, Research Methods, and 
Zoology. Because articles don't neatly fall within these categories, because many articles deal with 
several subjects, and because researchers may look under various headings for their interests, I did 
extensive cross-listing in this index. 

Under each main heading there are more specific subheadings. As an example, "Fisheries" and 
"Phosphate Mining" fall under "Economics", and "Land Tenure" and "Material Culture" are found 
under "Anthropology". 

For the two headings "Botany" and "Zoology", the systematic classification presents a readily 
applicable hierarchical indexing device. There is a crude adherence to this system, except where 
certain taxa are so frequently searched that a more prominent index position was in order. Thus I 
indexed Acanthaster planci independently from the other echinoderms and listed insects and 
crustaceans apart from the rest of the arthropods. Except for the algae and fungi, plants are not 
listed in any further hierarchical system. As a rule, articles that pertained to one taxon only (for 
example "Hemiptera", "Acropora", or "Casuarina equisetifolia") were indexed under those particular 
names, while lengthy lists of insects, coral species and plants that include these taxa were not. 

Within each subheading, the references are sorted according to the geographic region or 
geologic feature to which they apply. 

References are composed simply of an abbreviated author name followed by the number and 
pages in the Atoll Research Bulletin. This gives just enough information to make the reference 
perfectly unique without taking up too much space. These references are even informative in and of 
themselves. From them researchers know who wrote an article, its length, and, roughly when il was 
written (knowing that it began in 1951 with number 1 and that this issue is number 347). 



105 



INDEX BY TOPIC AND LOCATION/GEOLOGIC FEATURE 

ANTHROPOLOGY 



ARCHEOLOGY AND PREHISTORY 
Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Allen, Melinda 325:15-18 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Schubel and Steadman 325:1-14 

CULTURAL ECOLOGY 
Atolls (in general) 

Mason, Leonard 2:12-13 
Spoehr, Alexander 1:21 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

Pacific (in general) 

Doran, Edwin (ed) 85:1-60 

Cook Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:51-54 

Gilbert Islands 
Catala, R.L.A. 59:1-187 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Mason, Leonard 10:1-21 

DEMOGRAPHY 

Atolls (in general) 

Mason, Leonard 17:111-115 
Rapaport, Moshe 340:1-33 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Cook Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:51-54 

Fiji 
Doran, Edwin 85:33-34 
Regnault, R. H. 85:35-42 



Gilbert Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 

Marshall Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 
Mason, Leonard 10:1-21 

Solomon Islands, Malaita 
Doran, Edwin 85:25-26 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 

ETHNOBIOLOGY 

High Islands (in general) 

Birkeland, Charles 255:55-59 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 132:1-13 
Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Gilbert Islands 
Banner and Randall 13:1-62 
Moul, Edwin T. 57:1-48 
Randall, John E. 47:1-243 
Thaman, R.R. 296:1-42 

Marshall Islands 
Anderson, Donald 7:1-4 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 38:1-37 
Stone, Earl L. 6:1-46 

Tokelau Islands 
Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

Tuamotus 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 
Morrison, J.P.E. 34:1-26 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 277:1-44 



106 
Anthropology (cont.) 

ETHNOGEOGRAPHY 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Nukuoro 
Carroll, Vern 107:1-11 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Tobin, Jack 11:1-36 

ETHNOMEDICINE 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 
Miller, Ralph E. 20:1-42 

LAND TENURE 

Pacific (in general) 

Doran, Edwin (ed) 85:1-60 

, Cook Islands 

Crocombe, R. G. 85:55-60 

Fiji 
Regnault, R. H. 85:35-42 

Gilbert Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Turpin, Richard 85:9-10 

Marshall Islands 
Doran, Edwin 85:11-16 
Neas, Maynard 85:17-24 
Tobin, Jack 11:1-36 

Solomon Islands, Malaita 
Townsend, M. M. 85:27-32 

Tonga 
Pilling, Q. F. 85:45-49 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 

Tuvalu 
Turpin, Richard 85:9-10 

MATERIAL CULTURE 

Atolls (in general) 

Emory, Kenneth P. 17:122 



RESEARCH METHODS 

Atolls (in general) 

Emory, Kenneth P. 17:122 
Mason, Leonard 17:111-115 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 

Atolls (in general) 

Mason, Leonard 2:12-13 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

SUBSISTENCE AND ECONOMICS 

Atolls (in general) 

Stone, Earl L. 1:22 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Murai, Mary 27:1-239 
Niering, William A. 49:1-32 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Gilbert Islands 
Catala, R.LA. 59:1-187 
Mason, R. R. 73:1-17 
Thaman, R. R. 333:1-29 

Horn Archipelago, Futuna 
Galzin, Rene 292:1-10 

Marshall Islands 
Hatheway, William H. 16:1-68 
Hatheway, William H. 55:1-9 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 
Murai, Mary 27:1-239 
Stone, Earl L. 6:1-46 

Solomon Islands, Malaita 
Doran, Edwin 85:25-26 

Tonga 
Pilling, Q. F. 85:45-49 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 



107 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 



COMPILATION PROGRESS 
Atolls (in general) 
Bryan, E. H. 2:14 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:23-25 

CONSERVATION 
Pacific (in general) 

DeFilipps, Robert A. 311:1-195 

FISHERIES 
Pacific 

Tokelau Islands 
Gillett, Robert 319:9-18 

GEOLOGY AND ECOLOGY 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Stoddart, David R. 118:126-141 

Central-Western Indian Ocean 
Peters and Lionnet 165:1-321 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart, David R. 149:219-327 

Cocos (Keeling) Island 
Williams, David G. 331:1-17 
Milliman, John D. 111:1-58 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 172:121-169 

NATURAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY 
Caribbean 

Bahama Islands 
Gillis, Byrne and Harrison 191:1-123 



BOTANY 



ALGAE Virgin Islands, Anegada 

Atolls (in general) Dunne and Brown 236:1-80 

Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 

Pacific 
Australia Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 

Queensland, Townsville Newhouse, Jan 121:1-7 

Ngan and Price 237:1-29 

Hawaiian Islands, Midway 
Caribbean Buggeln, R.G. 109:1-11 

Belize Cays 
Littler et al. 289:1-16 Marshall Islands, Arno 

Littler et al. 302:1-18 Wells, John W. 9:1-29 



108 



Botany (cont.) 
Algae (cont.) 

Tuamotus 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 

ALGAE, CALCAREOUS 
Atolls (in general) 

Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 

Caribbean 

Mexico, Cayos Areas 
Farrell et al. 270:1-7 

ALGAE: CHLOROPHYTA: UDOTEA AND 
HALIMEDA 

Pacific (in general) 

Moul, Edwin T. 106:1-10 

ALGAE: CYANOBACTERIA 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Whitton and Potts 238:1-8 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Newhouse, Jan 33:42-54 

ALGAE, FRESHWATER 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 
Whitton and Donaldson 216:1-8 

Chagos Archipelago 
Whitton et al. 217:1-9 

Farquhar Group 
Whitton and Donaldson 216:1-8 

ALGAE, MARINE 
Caribbean 

Honduras, Great Swan Island 
Taylor, W. R. 185:6-10 

Sombrero Island 
Ogden et al. 292:61-74 

Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Rhyne, C. F. 149:41-66 



Maldives 
Hackett, H. E. 210:1-29 

Pacific (in general) 

Taylor, W. R. 208:1-17 

Caroline Islands, Ifalik 
Abbott, LA. 77:1-5 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Dawson, E. Yale 65:1-6 

Western Pacific Ocean 
Taylor, W. R. 209:1-16 

Caribbean 

Belize, Glover's Reef 
Tsuda and Dawes 173:1-13 

Martinique 
Adey, W.H. et al. 218:1-40 

Virgin Islands, St. Croix 
Adey, W.H. 187:1-67 
Connor and Adey 211:1-15 

Indian Ocean 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Tsuda and Newhouse 116:93-102 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 
Tsuda and Belk 156:1-5 
Tsuda, Roy T. 155:1-10 

Gilbert Islands 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 

Hawaiian Islands 
Buggeln and Tsuda 120:1-20 
Tsuda, RoyT. 110:1-31 
Tsuda, Roy T. 115:1-13 

Line Islands, Christmas Island 
Gilbert, William J. 265:1-6 

Palau Islands, Kayangcl 
Tsuda, Roy T. 255:43-48 



109 



ALGAE, MICROALGAE 

Malesia 

Malaysia, Cape Rachado 
Hong and Sasekumar 244:1-11 

ALGAE: MYXOPHYTA 

(SEE ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA) 

ALGAE: RHODOPHYTA 
Caribbean (in general) 

Smith, C. and Norris 312:1-15 

BRYOPHYTES 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Townsend, C. C. 149:161-162 

Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Townsend, C. C. 190:85-86 

Marshall Islands 
Miller and Doty 25:1-11 
Miller, H. A. 40:1-5 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Miller and Doty 33:55-56 

CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA 
Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands, Midway 
Apfelbaum, Ludwig and Ludwig 261:1-19 

CULTIVATED PLANTS 

Atolls (in general) 

Stone, Earl L. 1:22 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
Niering, William A. 49:1-32 



Botany (cont.) 
Algae (cont.) 

Gilbert Islands, Tarawa 

Mason, R. R. 73:1-17 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Hatheway, William H. 16:1-68 
Stone, Earl L. 6:1-46 

FLORAS AND PLANT LISTS 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef. Capricorn Group 
Fosberg and Thorne 82:5-14 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, Cay Sal Bank 
Goldberg, Walter M. 271:1-17 

Belize Cays 
Fosberg, Stoddart, Sachet & Spellman 

258:1-77 
Pringle, James S. 259:1-10 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Proctor, G. R. 241:71-80 

Florida, Dry Tortugas 
Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Virgin Islands, Anegada 
d'Arcy, W. G. 139:1-21 
d'Arcy, W. G. 188:1-40 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 273:109-142 

Aldabra Group 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:57-66 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:101-112 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:147-154 
Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 
Wickens, G. E. 229:1-37 



110 



Botany (cont.) 

Floras and Plant Lists (cont.) 

Amirantes, Alphonse, and Desroches 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:167-170 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:183-186 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:193-194 
Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 
Robertson and Fosberg 273:143-157 
Robertson and Fosberg 273:165-176 
Robertson, Robertson & Fosberg 
273:177-185 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Fosberg and Bullock 149:143-160 
Stoddart, David R. 149:127-142 
Topp, J. M. W. 313:1-19 

Farquhar Group 
Fosberg and Renvoize 136:27-34 
Gwynne and Wood 134:1-15 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 58:1-37 
Fosberg, Groves and Sigee 116:75-92 

Platte Island 
Robertson and Fosberg 273:157-164 

Seychelles, Bird and Denis Islands 
Stoddart and Fosberg 252:1-50 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Namoluk 
Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Cook Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 160:9-14 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 190:73-84 

Gilbert Islands 
Fosberg and Sachet 295:1-33 
Thaman, R.R. 296:1-42 

Hawaiian Islands 
Lamoureux, Charles H. 79:1-10 
Neff and DuMont 45:1-11 



Line Islands 
Chock and Hamilton 90:1-7 
Wester, Lyndon 287:1-38 

Marshall Islands 
Anderson, Donald 7:1-4 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 61:1-11 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 68:1-9 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:57-68 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:95-104 
Fosberg and Sachet 92:1-39 

Palau Islands, Kayangel 
Gressitt, J. L. 21:1-5 

Pitcairn Group 

Fosberg, Paulay, Spencer & Oliver 
329:1-18 

Samoa, Swains Island 
Whistler, W. A. 262:1-25 

Society Islands 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 274:1-37 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 276:1-26 
Sachet and Fosberg 275:1-67 

Tuamotus 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 125:33-44 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 277:1-44 

FLORA AND VEGETATION 
Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:13-14 

Australia 

Lowendal Islands 
Buckley, Ralf 292:75-82 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, East Plana Cay 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 

Belize Cays 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 

Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 



Ill 

Botany (cont.) 
Flora and Vegetation (cont.) 



Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Indian Ocean 

lies Glorieuses 
Battistini and Cremers 159:1-10 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Stoddart, Coe and Fosberg 223:1-48 
Wilson, J. R. 273:185-202 
Wilson, J. R. 273:203-222 

India, Adam's Bridge 
Stoddart and Fosberg 161:1-16 

Laccadives, Kavaratti Island 
Sivadas et al. 266:1-9 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Spicer and Newbery 231:1-14 

Seychelles 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 273:7-38 
Robertson and Todd 273:39-64 

Malesia 

Indonesia, Krakatau 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 292:39-48 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 132:1-13 
Fosberg and Evans 133:1-15 

Cook Islands, Aitutaki 
Stoddart, David R. 190:87-116 



Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Clay, Horace F. 78:1-4 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Herbst, Derral 206:25-31 
Herbst, Derral 207:26-38 
Lamoureux, Charles H. 97:1-14 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

Line Islands, Caroline Island 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 

Marshall Islands 
Blumenstock, Rex and Lane 71:1-158 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 315:1-28 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 330:1-100 
Fosberg [with Wells et al.] 113:23-30 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Degener and Degener 64:1-24 
Degener and Gillaspy 41:1-51 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Society Islands, Maupiti 
Fosberg and Sachet 294:1-70 

Tonga, Tongatapu outliers 
Ellison, Joanna C 332:1-36 



Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Moul, Edwin T. 57:1-48 



Tubuai Islands, Morotiri 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 162:9-10 

Tuvalu, Nui Atoll 
Woodroffe, C. D. 283:1-18 



Wake Island 
Fosberg and Sachet 123:1-15 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 67:1-20 



112 
Botany (cont.) 

FUNGI 

Atolls (in general) 

Rogers, Donald P. 1:15 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 

FUNGI, PHYCOMYTES 

Atolls (in general) 

Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 

MYXOMYCETES 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Ing and Hnatiuk 249:1-10 

PHYTOPLANKTON 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

PTERIDOPHYTES 
Pacific 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Wilson, Kenneth 33:57 

RESEARCH METHODS 

Atolls (in general) 

Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 
Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Pacific 

Central Pacific Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 23:1-25 

SANTALUM BONTNENSIS 
Pacific 

Ogasawara Islands 
Maina, Pray and DeFilipps 319:19-24 

TREES 
Pacific 

Gilbert Islands and Tuvalu 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 



VEGETATION 

Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 82:1-4 

Caribbean 

Bahama Islands 
Byrne, Roger 240:1-200 
Gillis, William T. 219:12-16 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart, David R. 241:53-70 

Florida, Dry Tortugas 
Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Jamaica, Big Pelican Cay 
Adams, C.C. 130:1-10 

Mexico, Alacran Reef 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 93:1-25 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Gillham, Mary E. 199:1-11 
Gillham, Mary E. 200:1-19 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Hnatiuk and Merton 239:1-21 
Newbery and Hill 246:1-9 
Newbery and Hill 291:1-11 

Maldives 
Newbery and Spicer 231:15-25 
Sigee, D. C. 116:61-74 

Western Indian Ocean 
Sachet, Stoddart & Fosberg (eds) 
273:1-253 

Pacific 

Central Pacific Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 23:1-25 

Cook Islands 
Stoddart, David R. 160:1-7 
Stoddart, David R. 190:117-122 



Gilbert Islands 
Dor an, Edwin 85:5-8 

Hawaiian Islands 
Clapp, Roger B. 163:1-25 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 

Line Islands, Vostok Island 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 

Marshall Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:51-56 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 93:1-25 
Wiens, Her old J. 54:1-23 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Hatheway, William H. 43:1-9 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Paulay and Spencer 328:1-13 

Tonga, Tongatapu outliers 
Doran, Edwin 85:43-44 



113 

Botany (cont.) 
Vegetation (cont.) 



CLIMATE 



GENERAL CONDITIONS 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart, David R. 241:1-10 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Stoddart and Mole 202:1-21 

Laccadives, Kavaratti Island 
Sivadas et al. 266:1-9 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 116:1-122 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 76:11-15 
Thomas and Thomas 255:39-42 



Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Marshall Islands 
Blumenstock, Rex and Lane 71:1-158 
Cox, Doak C. 8:1-31 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:1-6 
Lavoie, Ronald L. 96:1-80 

Samoa, Rose Atoll 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 29:1-25 

Tonga, Tongatapu outliers 
Doran, Edwin 85:43-44 



114 



Climate (cont.) 

GLOBAL WARMING 
Effect on Reefs 

Williams and Bunkley- Williams 335:1-71 

HURRICANES AND TYPHOONS 
Caribbean 

Belize 
Antonius, A. 162:11-12 
Pringle, James S. 259:1-10 
Stoddart, David R. 95:1-142 
Stoddart, David R. 131:1-25 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Sachet 257:1-17 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 

Cayo Sal 
Weiss, Malcolm P. 232:1-25 

Virgin Islands, St. Croix, Buck Island Bar 
Macintyre and Adey 336:1-7 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Jaluit 
Banner, A.H. 75:75-78 
Blumenstock, D.I. 75:5-20 
Blumenstock, D.I. (ed) 75:1-105 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:47-50 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:51-56 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:57-68 
Gressitt, J. L. 75:69-74 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:37-40 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:41-42 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:43-46 
Wiens, Herold J. 75:21-36 

Tuvalu, Funafuti 
Mergner, Hans 284:1-19 

Wake Island 
Fosberg and Sachet 123:1-15 



Pacific 

Doran, Edwin 85:5-8 
Doran, Edwin 85:33-34 
Doran, Edwin 85:51-54 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 60:1-4 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

RESEARCH METHODS IN METEOROLOGY 
Tropical Islands (in general) 
Leopold, Luna B. 17:10-13 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Leopold, Luna B. 1:11 



RAINFALL 

Indian Ocean 

Stoddart, David R. 147:1-21 
Stoddart, David R. 273:223-246 



ECOLOGY 



115 



ALGAE 

Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Rhyne, C. F. 149:41-66 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Truk 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 
Newhouse, Jan 33:42-54 

ALGAE, FRESHWATER 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 

ARTHROPODS, ECTOPARASITES 
Pacific 

Central Pacific Ocean 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Hawaiian Islands, Laysan 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 

Pacific 

Line Islands 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

BIOGEOGRAPHY AND DESCRIPTION OF 
ECOZONES 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 118:1-141 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Stoddart, Coe and Fosberg 223:1-48 
Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 
Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 
Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 



Farquhar Group, Farquhar Atoll 
Stoddart and Poore 136:7-26 

Seychelles, Bird and Denis Islands 
Stoddart and Fosberg 252:1-50 

Western Indian Ocean 
Stoddart, David R. 118:53-61 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

BIRDS 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Diamond, A. W. 241:141-164 
Diamond, A. W. 241:165-170 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Aldabra Group 
Frith, C. B. 201:1-15 
Gaymer, R. 118:112-125 
Gillham, Mary E. 199:1-11 
Gillham, Mary E. 200:1-19 
Hambler, Hambler and Newing 290:1-19 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 
Wilson, J. R. 273:185-202 
Wilson, J. R. 273:203-222 

Tromelin Island 
Brooke, R. K. 255:73-82 
Staub, F. 136:197-210 

Pacific 

(in general) 
Norman, F. I. 182:1-13 

Central Pacific Ocean 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 

Gilbert Islands 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 



116 



Ecology (cont.) 
Birds (cont.) 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Line Islands 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 
Rauzon, Mark J. 282:1-30 

i Marshall Islands 

Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

Palau Islands, Southwest 
Engbring, John 267:1-22 

Society Islands, Mopelia 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 274:1-37 

Tuvalu 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 

CONSERVATION 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Domm, S. B. 142:1-27 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Clapp, Roger B. 304:1-15 
Diamond, A. W. 241:141-164 
Diamond, A. W. 241:165-170 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 
Stoddart and Giglioli (eds) 241:1-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:171-180 

Florida, Dry Tortugas 
Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Jamaica, Cabarita Island 
Crombie, Steadman and Barber 280:1-12 



Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Indian Ocean 

(General) 
editors 135:1-17 

Aldabra Group 
Hambler, Hambler and Newing 290:1-19 
Prys- Jones et al. 248:1-16 
Stoddart, David R. 255:27-32 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 

Chagos Archipelago 
Bourne, W. R. P. 149:175-207 

Seychelles 
editors 162:1-26 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 273:7-38 

Pacific (in general) 

DeFilipps, Robert A. 311:1-195 

Costa Rica, Golfo Dulce 
Cortes, Jorge 344:1-37 

Hawaiian Islands 
Apfelbaum, Ludwig and Ludwig 261:1-19 
Udvardy and Warner 103:1-4 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Marshall Islands, Bikini 
Barrett and Schreiber 314:1-46 

Micronesia 
Falanruw, M.V.C. 148:18-20 

Ogasawara Islands 
Maina, Pray and DeFilipps 319:19-24 

Palau Islands 
Kochi, John 148:21-22 



117 



Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Society Islands, Maupiti 
Fosberg and Sachet 294:1-70 

Tuamotus, Makatea Island 
Thibault and Guyot 300:1-13 

Reefs 

Williams and Bunkley- Williams 335:1-71 

CRUSTACEANS 
Tokelau Islands 

Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

ECOSYSTEMS 
Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 2:7-11 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 81:1-11 

Reefs (in general) 

Benson, Patton and Abraham 220:33-54 

Buddemeier, R.W. 220:25-32 

Dahl et al. 172:38-120 

Dahl, A. L. 220:13-20 

Kinzie, R. A. 220:21-24 

Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 

Sachet and Dahl (eds) 172:1-169 

Smith, S. V. (editor) 220:1-110 

Smith, S., Jokiel and Key 220:1-12 

Tracey, Cloud and Emery 46:1-3 

FISH 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Potts, G. W. 241:43-52 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 

HUMAN ADAPTATION 

Atolls (in general) 

Mason, Leonard 2:12-13 
Spoehr, Alexander 1:21 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 



Ecology (cont.) 
Conservation (cont.) 

Pacific 

(General) 
Doran, Edwin (ed) 85:1-60 

Gilbert Islands 
Catala, R.LA. 59:1-187 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Mason, Leonard 10:1-21 

HUMAN INFLUENCE 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Domm, S. B. 142:1-27 
Stoddart, Gibbs and Hopley 254:1-44 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, Cat Island 
Byrne, Roger 240:1-200 

INSECTS 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Polhemus, D. A. 345:1-15 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

Tokelau Islands 
Hinckley, Alden D. 124:1-18 

INSECTS, SCALE INSECTS 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Blackmore, S. 255:33-38 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Newbery and Hill 246:1-9 
Newbery and Hill 291:1-11 

INTRODUCED PESTS 

Atolls (in general) 

Enders, Robert K. 1:20 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 
editors 119:1-6 
Norman, F. I. 119:3-4 



118 



Ecology (cont.) 
Introduced pests (cont.) 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Coblentz and Van Vuren 306:1-6 
Coblentz, Van Vuren and Main 337:1-10 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Prys- Jones et al. 248:1-16 
Stoddart, David R. 255:23-26 

Islands (in general) 

Bourne, W. R. P. 255:69-72 

Pacific 

(in general) 
Norman, F. I. 182:1-13 

Caroline Islands 
Marshall, J. T. 56:1-11 
Wallace, G.D. 135:9 

Hawaiian Islands, Kure Atoll 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

Line Islands, Jarvis Island 
Rauzon, Mark J. 282:1-30 

Wake Island 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 

LAGOON ECOLOGY 
Caribbean 

Bahamas, Cay Sal Bank 
Goldberg, Walter M. 271:1-17 

Cayo Sal 
Weiss, Malcolm P. 232:1-25 



Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Grovhoug and Henderson 221:99-158 
Henderson et al. 221:5-14 
Kay, E. Alison 221:159-170 
Smith, S. and Henderson (eds) 221:1-183 
Smith, S. and Jokiel 221:15-54 

Samoa, Swains Island 
Whistler, W. A. 262:1-25 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

MAMMALS 
Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

MAMMALS, CATS 
Pacific 

Line Islands, Jarvis Island 
Rauzon, Mark J. 282:1-30 

MANGROVE ECOLOGY 
Caribbean 

Belize Cays, Twin Cays 
Littler et al. 289:1-16 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Woodroffe, C. D. 241:17-22 

MARINE ECOLOGY 

Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 2:5-6 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:100-108 



Indian Ocean 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Stoddart, Davies and Keith 116:13-42 



Caribbean 

Jamaica 
Bakus, G.J. (ed) 152:1-6 



Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Renon, J.-P. 301:1-14 

Hawaiian Islands, Laysan 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 



Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Whitton and Potts 238:1-8 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Taylor, J. D. 149:31-40 



119 

Ecology (cont.) 
Marine Ecology (cont.) 



Pacific 

Cocos Island, Costa Rica 
Bakus, G.J. 179:1-8 

Fiji Group, Rotuma 
Zug et al. 316:1-25 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Doty and Morrison 35:1-61 

MOLLUSKS 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Potts, G. W. 241:23-42 

Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Paulay, Gustav 298:1-31 

PHOSPHATE MINING, ECOLOGICAL 
EFFECTS 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Assumption Island 
Stoddart, Benson and Peake 136:121-146 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Makatea Island 
Thibault and Guyot 300:1-13 

PLANT COMMUNITIES 

Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 

Caribbean 

Florida, Dry Tortugas 
Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Hnatiuk and Merton 239:1-21 

Maldives 
Newbery and Spicer 231:15-25 

Pacific 

Central Pacific Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 23:1-25 



Line Islands 
Wester, Lyndon 287:1-38 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Hatheway, William H. 43:1-9 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Paulay and Spencer 328:1-13 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Doty, Maxwell S. 33:1-41 

REEF ISLANDS 
Pacific 

Cook Islands, Aitutaki 
Stoddart, David R. 190:59-72 
Stoddart, David R. 190:87-116 

REEF ECOLOGY 
(in general) 

Benson, Patton and Abraham 220:33-54 

Buddemeier, R.W. 220:25-32 

Dahl et al. 172:38-120 

Dahl, A. L. 220:13-20 

Kinzie, R. A. 220:21-24 

Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 

Sachet and Dahl (eds) 172:1-169 

Smith, S. V. (editor) 220:1-110 

Smith, S., Jokiel and Key 220:1-12 

Tracey, Cloud and Emery 46:1-3 

Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 2:7-11 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 81:1-11 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Bruce, A. J. 245:1-33 
Endean and Stablum 167:1-62 
Endean and Stablum 168:1-26 
Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 
Wallace and Lovell 194:1-22 

Seringapatam Atoll 
Wilson, B. R. 292:83-100 

Caribbean 

(in general) 
Cubit and Williams 269:1-45 



120 



Ecology (cont.) 
Reef Ecology (cont.) 

Belize Cays 
Littler et al. 302:1-18 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 

Florida 
Dustan, Phillip 288:1-17 

Grenadines, Tobago Cays 
Lewis, John B. 178:1-9 

Guadeloupe 
Battistini and Petit 234:1-7 

Martinique 
Adey, W.H. et al. 218:1-40 

Mexico 
Farrell et al. 270:1-7 
Jordan and Martin 310:1-20 

Puerto Rico, Vieques Island 
Macintyre et al. 268:1-6 

SW Caribbean atolls 
Milliman and Mahnken 129:23-25 

Virgin Islands 
Adey, W.H. 187:1-67 
Connor and Adey 211:1-15 
Dunne and Brown 236:1-80 
Gerhard, Lee C. 242:1-11 
Macintyre and Adey 336:1-7 
Risk, Michael J. 153:1-4 

High Islands (in general) 

Birkeland, Charles 255:55-59 

Indian Ocean 

(General) 
Sheppard, C. R. C. 307:1-32 

Aldabra Group 
Drew, Edward A. 193:1-7 

Chagos Archipelago, Peros 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 

Laccadives, Minicoy 
Pillai, C. S. G. 141:1-12 



Madagascar 
Pichon, Michel 222:1-447 

Maldives 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 116:1-122 

Red Sea 
Antonius, Scheer and Bouchon 334:1-22 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

Malesia 

(General) 
Bruce, A. J. 205:1-19 

Indonesia, Pulau Pari and Thousand Islands 
Brown, B.E. et al. 281:1-14 

Malaysia, Cape Rachado 
Hong and Sasekumar 244:1-11 

South China Sea 
Wang, Lu and Quan 346:1-21 

Sumatra and Thailand, offshore Islands 
Kohn, Alan J. 140:1-29 

Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Gibbs, P. E. 190:123-132 
Gibbs, Vevers and Stoddart 190:133-148 
Stoddart, David R. 190:31-58 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

Costa Rica, Golfo Dulce 
Cort6s, Jorge 344:1-37 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Banner and Randall 13:1-62 

Marshall Islands 
Banner, A.H. 75:75-78 
DiSalvo, Louis H. 151:1-3 
Odum and Odum 52:1-3 
Wells, John W. 9:1-29 :- 



121 



Phoenix Islands 
Dana, Thomas F. 228:1-27 
Jokiel and Maragos 221:71-98 
Maragos and Jokiel 221:55-70 

Pitcairn Group 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 

Tuamotus 
Montaggioni et al. 299:1-18 
Newell, Norman D. 36:1-35 

Tubuai Islands, Rurutu 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

Tuvalu, Funafuti 
Mergner, Hans 284:1-19 

REEFS, ARTIFICIAL 
Caribbean 

Jamaica 
Risk, Michael J. 255:91-100 

REPTILES 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Frith, C. B. 185:11-12 

Pacific 

Johnston Atoll 
Balazs, George H. 285:1-46 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

Papua New Guinea, Eastern 
Heatwole, Harold 180:1-32 

Phoenix Islands 
Balazs, George H. 184:1-7 

Tokelau Islands 
Balazs, George H. 279:1-30 



Ecology (cont.) 
Reef Ecology (cont.) 



RESEARCH METHODS 

Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 17:100-108 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Drew, Edward A. 193:1-7 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 1:6-8 

SEWAGE TREATMENT 

Atolls (in general) 

Marshall, Keith 126:10-11 

SLICKS OF FILM DOWNWIND OF REEFS 
Pacific 

Marshall Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 53:1-4 

TOXIC CONTAMINATION 
Pacific 

Gilbert Islands 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 

Marshall Islands 
Barrett and Schreiber 314:1-46 
Bussing, William A. 154:1-4 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 61:1-11 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 315:1-28 

Wake Island 
Banner, Nevenzel and Hudgins 122:1-9 



122 



ECONOMICS 



DEVELOPMENT 
Atolls (in general) 

Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 
Hiatt, Robert W. 2:5-6 
MacMillan, H. G. 2:2 
Stone, Earl L. 1:22 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart and Giglioli (eds) 241:1-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:171-180 



Society Islands, Moorea 
Galzin, Rene 305:1-17 

PHOSPHATE MINING 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Assumption Island 
Stoddart, Benson and Peake 136:121-146 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Stone, Earl L; 1:22 



V 



Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Pacific 

Gilbert Islands 
Catala, R.L.A. 59:1-187 
MacMillan, H. G. 2:2 
Mason, R. R. 73:1-17 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 

Society Islands, Tetieroa 
Sachet and Fosberg 275:1-67 

Tuamotus, Takapoto Atoll 
Richard, Georges 292:11-22 



TRADITIONAL CULTURES 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 

Marshall Islands, Jaluit 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Danielsson and Natua 32:1-109 



FISHERIES 

Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 2:5-6 

Caribbean 

Jamaica 
Risk, Michael J. 255:91-100 

Pacific 

Gilbert Islands 
Catala, R.L.A. 59:1-187 

Horn Archipelago, Futuna 
Galzin, Rene 292:1-10 



Marshall Islands 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 
Mackenzie, J. B. 75:79-80 



123 



GEOGRAPHY 



GAZETTEER AND PLACE NAMES 
Atolls (in general) 

Bryan, E. H. 19:1-38 

Indian Ocean 

Western Indian Ocean 
Lionnet, J. F. G. 136:221-224 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Carroll, Vern 107:1-11 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Eastern Pacific Islands 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

Marshall Islands, Northern 
Fosberg and Carroll (eds) 113:1-156 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 

GENERAL GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Domm, S. B. 142:1-27 
Stoddart, Gibbs and Hopley 254:1-44 

Caribbean 

Bahama Islands 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 
Gillis, William T. 219:12-16 

Belize Cays 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Sachet 257:1-17 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Spellman 256:1-73 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart and Giglioli (eds) 241:1-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:1-10 
Stoddart, David R. 241:171-180 
Stoddart, David R. 241:53-70 

Florida, Dry Tortugas 
Stoddart and Fosberg 253:1-54 

Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 



Sombrero Island 
Ogden et al. 292:61-74 

SW Caribbean atolls 
Milliman, John D. 129:1-26 

Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Aldabra Group 
Bayne, CJ. et al. 136:37-56 
Bayne, CJ. et al. 136:83-100 
Stoddart and Mole 202:1-21 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 
Stoddart, David R. 118:1-8 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 118:1-141 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Stoddart, Coe and Fosberg 223:1-48 
Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 
Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 
Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 
Wilson, J. R. 273:203-222 
Wilson, J. R. 273:185-202 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart and Taylor (eds) 149:1-237 
Stoddart, David R. 149:1-6 
Stoddart, David R. 149:127-142 

Farquhar Group, Farquhar Atoll 
Stoddart and Poore 136:7-26 

India, Adam's Bridge 
Stoddart and Fosberg 161:1-16 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 116:1-122 

Seychelles 
Feare, CJ. 226:1-29 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 273:7-38 
Stoddart and Fosberg 252:1-50 



124 



Geography (cont.) 

General Geography and Ecology (cont.) 

Tromelin Island 
Staub, F. 136:197-210 

Western Indian Ocean 
Sachet, Stoddart & Fosberg (eds) 

273:1-253 
Stoddart, David R. 118:53-61 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

Pacific 

(General) 
Darwin (ed by Stoddart 88:1-20) 

Caroline Islands, 
Kapingamarangi and Nukuoro 

Carroll, Vern 107:1-11 

Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Caroline Islands, Puluwat and Gaferut 
Niering, William A. 76:1-10 



Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 



5:1-115 



Cook Islands 
Stoddart, David R. 160:1-7 
Stoddart, David R. 190:1-30 
Stoddart, David R. 190:117-122 
Stoddart, David R. 190:31-58 
Stoddart, David R. 190:59-72 
Stoddart, David R. 190:87-116 
Stoddart and Gibbs (eds) 190:1-158 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

Gilbert Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Clapp, Roger B. 163:1-25 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 



Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Marshall Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 330:1-100 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 

Palau Islands, Kayangel 
Gressitt, J. L. 14:1-7 

Phoenix Islands 
Degener and Gillaspy 41:1-51 
Maragos and Jokiel 221:55-70 

Pitcairn Group 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Samoa 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 29:1-25 
Whistler, W. A. 262:1-25 

Society Islands 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 274:1-37 
Sachet and Fosberg 275:1-67 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 276:1-26 

Tokelau Islands 
Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

Tonga, Tongatapu outliers 
Stoddart, David R. 181:1-8 

Tuamotus 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 277:1-44 

Wake Island 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 



125 



GEOLOGY 



ALGAL RIDGES 
Caribbean 

Guadeloupe 
Battistini and Petit 234:1-7 

Virgin Islands, St. Croix 
Adey, W.H. 187:1-67 
Connor and Adey 211:1-15 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 
Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 



BEACHROCK 
Atolls (in general) 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:19 

Mediterranean 

Southern Turkey 
Goudie, Andrew 126:11-14 

Pacific 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Cloud, Preston E. 12:1-73 

FRESH WATER 

Atolls (in general) 

Cox, Davis and Wentworth 2:3-4 
Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 



GEOCHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Trudgill, Stephen T. 255:11-22 

GEOMORPHOLOGY 
Almost-atolls 

Stoddart and Gibbs (eds) 190:1-158 
Stoddart, David R. 190:31-58 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, Cay Sal Bank 
Goldberg, Walter M. 271:1-17 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart, David R. 241:11-16 



Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Donaldson and Whitton 213:1-25 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 
Whitton and Potts 214:1-4 



Cayo Sal 
Weiss, Malcolm P. 232:1-25 

Mexico, Chinchorro 
Jordan and Martin 310:1-20 



Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Spicer and Newbery 231:1-14 



Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 



Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Arnow, Ted 44:1-15 
McKee, Edwin D. 50:1-38 

Marshall Islands 
Arnow, Ted 30:1-7 
Cox, Doak C. 8:1-31 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:43-46 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Guinther, E. B. 221:171-184 



Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group and lies Glorieuses 
Battistini and Cremers 159:1-10 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:37-56 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:83-100 
Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 
Stoddart and Wright 118:11-52 
Stoddart, David R. 118:126-141 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Keplin and Pirazzoli 319:1-8 
Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 



126 



Geology (cont.) 
Geomorphology (cont.) 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart, David R. 149:7-26 

Farquhar Group 
Piggott, C. J. 83:1-10 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Stoddart, Davies and Keith 116:13-42 

Lagoons 

Scheer, Georg 69:1-4 

Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Cook Islands 
Irwin, J. 292:109-113 
Stoddart, David R. 160:1-7 
Stoddart, David R. 190:59-72 
Stoddart, Woodroffe & Spencer 

341:1-65 
Stoddart and Gibbs (eds) 190:1-158 

Marshall Islands 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:1-6 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 113:7-20 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:37-40 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Spencer and Paulay 323:1-18 

Tonga, Tongatapu outliers 
Ellison, Joanna C 332:1-36 

Tuamotus 
Newell, Norman D. 31:1-22 
Stoddart, David R. 125:1-32 

Reefs 

Fosberg, F. Raymond 292:29-38 

Scheer, Georg 69:1-4 

Tracey, Cloud and Emery 46:1-3 

GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS 
Pacific 

Line Islands, Christmas Island 
Northrop, John 89:1-2 



ISLAND FORMATION THEORIES 
Atolls (in general) 
Bryan, E. H. 17:1-9 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:19 
Scott and Rotondo 260:1-33 
Stoddart and Scoffin 224:1-17 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Bunker Group 
Flood, P. G. 195:1-7 

Caribbean 

Belize Cays 
Stoddart, David R. 87:1-151 

Virgin Islands, St. Croix 
Gerhard, Lee C. 242:1-11 

Indian Ocean 

Coetivy Island 
Keplin and Pirazzoli 319:1-8 

Maldives 
Hass, Hans 91:1-4 
Kohn, Alan J. 102:1-5 

Nicobars 
Hass, Hans 91:1-4 

Makatea (Island forms in general) 

Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 
Stoddart, Woodroffe & Spencer 
341:1-65 

Pacific 

(General) 
Darwin and Stoddart 88:1-20 

Cook Islands 
Stoddart, Woodroffe & Spencer 

341:1-65 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Cloud, Preston E. 12:1-73 

Line Islands, Christmas Island 
Valencia, Mark J. 197:1-14 



127 



Marshall Islands, Northern 
Fosberg and Carroll (eds) 113:1-156 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Spencer and Paulay 323:1-18 
Spencer, T. 322:1-22 

Tuamotus 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 
Stoddart, David R. 125:1-32 

Tubuai Islands, Rurutu 
Stoddart and Spencer 297:1-19 

Volcanic Islands (in general) 

Scott and Rotondo 260:1-33 

LAKES, HYPERSALINE 
Pacific 

Line Islands, Christmas Island 
Valencia, Mark J. 197:1-14 

PHOSPHATE 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Assumption Island 
Stoddart, Benson and Peake 136:121-146 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Puluwat and Gaferut 
Niering, William A. 76:1-10 

PUMICE 

Indian Ocean (in general) 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 37:1-27 

Pacific 

(General) 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 37:1-27 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 



Geology (cont.) 
Island Formation Theories (cont.) 

RESEARCH METHODS 
Atolls (in general) 

Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Trudgill, Stephen T. 255:11-22 

Lagoons 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 

Reefs 

Easton, W. H. 255:83-90 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Macintyre, Ian G. 185:21-24 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Stone, Earl L. 1:12 
Tracey, J. I. 1:9-10 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Bikini 
Tracey, J. I. 1:9-10 

SEDIMENTS AND SOILS 
Atolls (in general) 

Morrison, R.J. 339:1-25 
Stone, Earl L. 1:12 
Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 
Stone, Earl L. 22:1-5 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 

Caribbean 

Belize Cays, Half Moon Cay 
Stoddart, David R. 104:1-16 

Cayman Islands 
Roberts, Harry H. 263:1-11 
Woodroffe, C. D. 241:17-22 



128 

Geology (cont.) 
Sediments and Soils (cont.) 

Mexico, Alacran Reef 
Folk and Cotera 137:1-16 

Virgin Islands, St. Croix 
Gerhard, Lee C. 196:1-5 

Indian Ocean 

Laccadives, Kavaratti Island 
Sivadas et al. 266:1-9 

Malesia 

South China Sea 
Wang, Lu and Quan 346:1-21 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
McKee, Edwin D. 50:1-38 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Gilbert Islands, Tarawa 
Weber and Woodhead 157:1-21 

Marshall Islands 
Carroll and Hathaway 113:31-42 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 75:47-50 
Fosberg and Carroll 113:43-67 
Fosberg and Carroll (eds) 113:1-156 
Fosberg [with Wells et al.] 113:23-30 
McKee, Edwin D. 75:41-42 
Stone, Earl L 5:1-56 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Spencer, T. 324:1-10 

Tuamotus 
Newell, Norman D. 36:1-35 
Stoddart, David R. 125:1-32 



129 



HEALTH 



DISEASES AND PARASITES 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Miller, Ralph E. 20:1-42 
Wallace, G.D. 135:9 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 
Milhurn, John D. 62:1-7 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 

ETHNOMEDICINE 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 
Miller, Ralph E. 20:1-42 

Palau Islands 
DeFilipps, Maina and Pray 317:1-25 



NUTRITION 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Truk 
Murai, Mary 27:1-239 

Marshall Islands, Majuro 
Murai, Mary 27:1-239 



130 



HISTORY 



POST-EUROPEAN CHRONOLOGY 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Gaferut 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 76:11-15 

Clipperton Island 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 86:1-115 

Cook Islands, Aitutaki 
Stoddart, David R. 190:1-30 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Clapp, Roger B. 163:1-25 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 



SCIENTIFIC HISTORY 
Caribbean 

Belize Cays, Glover's Reef 
Stoddart, Fosberg and Sachet 257:1-17 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Stoddart, David R. 241:1-10 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Aldabra Group and lies Glorieuses 
Battistini and Cremers 159:1-10 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:37-56 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:83-100 
Diamond, E. P. 255:1-10 
Hnatiuk and Merton 239:1-21 
Stoddart, David R. 118:1-8 
Stoddart, Benson and Peake 136:121-146 

Amirantes, Alphonse and Desroches 
Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 
Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 
Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 



Pitcairn Group 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Tuamotus, Takapoto Atoll 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 277:1-44 

Wake Island 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 

PREHISTORY TO PRESENT 
Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Kapingamarangi 
Wiens, Herold J. 48:1-86 

Hawaiian Islands 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 



Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Stoddart and Taylor (eds) 149:1-237 
Stoddart, David R. 149:1-6 
Stoddart, David R. 149:209-217 

Farquhar Group 
Stoddart and Benson 136:35-36 
Stoddart and Poore 136:7-26 

Maldives 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 58:1-37 
Groves, E. W. 116:57-60 

Tromelin Island 
Brooke, R. K. 255:73-82 

Western Indian Ocean 
Stoddart, David R. (ed) 136:1-224 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Gaferut 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 76:11-15 



131 
Scientific History (cont.) 



Cocos Island, Costa Rica 
Hogue and Miller 250:1-29 

Cook Islands, Aitutaki 
Stoddart, David R. 190:1-30 

Gilbert Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 

Hawaiian Islands 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Line Islands 
Wester, Lyndon 287:1-38 

Marshall Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Fosberg and Sachet 92:1-39 

Pitcairn Group 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Tuamotus, Takapoto Atoll 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 277:1-44 

Wake Island 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 



132 



MICROBIOLOGY 



BACTERIA 
Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Enewetak 
DiSalvo, Louis H. 151:1-3 

MICROALGAE 
Malesia 

Malaysia, Cape Rachado 
Hong and Sasekumar 244:1-11 

MICROFAUNA 
Indian Ocean 

Maldives 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

Red Sea 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

MYXOMYCETES 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Ing and Hnatiuk 249:1-10 

PLANKTON 
Caribbean 

SW Caribbean atolls 
Milliman and Mahnken 129:23-25 

Pacific 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

ZOOPLANKTON 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 

Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Renon, J.-P. 301:1-14 

Marshall Islands, Enewetak 
Gerber, Ray P. 247:1-22 



133 



RESEARCH 



PROGRAMS AND EXPEDITIONS 
Caribbean 

Belize 
editors 126:1-19 
Smith, S. V. 172:1-6 



Solomon Islands, Rennell and Bellona 
editors 126:1-19 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Newell, Norman D. 31:1-22 



Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Diamond, E. P. 255:1-10 
editors 126:1-19 
Gaymer, R. 118:112-125 

Chagos Archipelago 
editors 119:1-6 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 
Stoddart and Taylor (eds) 149:1-237 
Stoddart, David R. 149:1-6 

Christmas Island 
editors 126:1-19 

Maldives 
Groves, E. W. 116:57-60 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 58:1-37 
Kohn, Alan J. 101:1-12 



Western Pacific Ocean 
Taylor, W. R. 209:1-16 

Reefs 

Sachet and Dahl (eds) 172:1-169 

SITES AND SCIENTIFIC STATIONS 
Pacific 

Gilbert Islands, Tarawa 
Doran, Edwin 72:1-54 

Line Islands, Fanning 
editors 162:1-26 

Western Pacific Ocean 
Taylor, W. R. 209:1-16 

Reefs 

Dahl et al. 172:38-120 



Malesia, Christmas Island 

editors 126:1-19 



Tropical Islands 

Wentworth, C. K. 17:128-129 



Pacific (in general ) 

Taylor, W. R. 208:1-17 

Clipperton Island 
editors 126:1-19 

Mariana Islands, Guam 
Kurashina et al. 293:11-14 

Marshall Islands 
Coolidge, Harold J. 1:2-5 
editors 126:1-19 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 38:1-37 
Wiens, Herold J. 54:1-23 



Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 321:1-2 



134 



RESEARCH METHODS 



ALGAE COLLECTION 
Atolls (in general) 

Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 

ANTHROPOLOGY 
Atolls (in general) 

Emory, Kenneth P. 17:122 
Mason, Leonard 17:111-115 
Spoehr, Alexander 17:109-110 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Mason and Uyehara 17:116-121 

BOATING AND NAVIGATION 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
i Domm, S. B. 143:1-10 

BOTANY 

Atolls (in general) 

Doty, Maxwell S. 17:62 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 17:44-56 
Johnson, J. Harlan 17:63-64 
Sparrow, F. K. 17:61 

ECOLOGY 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Drew, Edward A. 193 

FAUNAL COLLECTIONS 

Atolls (in general) 

Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 
Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Islands (in general) 

Usinger, Robert L. 17:69-72 

GEOLOGY 

Atolls (in general) 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:23 



Lagoons 

Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 

Reefs 

Easton, W. H. 255:83-90 
Emery, Kenneth O. 17:20-21 
Macintyre, Ian G. 185:21-24 
Russell, Martin 17:16-18 
Wells, J. W. 17:14-15 

HYDROLOGY 

Atolls (in general) 

Cox, Doak C. 17:24-37 

MAPPING 

Atolls (in general) 

Nason, James D. 185:13-20 
Wentworth, C. K. 17:22 

Reefs 

Domm, S. B. 148;15-17 

MARINE BIOLOGY 
Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 
Hiatt, Robert W. 17:100-108 

METEOROLOGY 
Tropical Islands 

Leopold, Luna B. 17:10-13 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Tropics 

Lathrop, C. J. 17:123-124 

SOIL COLLECTIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Stone, Earl L. 17:38-43 

VARIOUS DISCIPLINES 
Atolls (in general) 

Fosberg and Sachet (eds) 17:1-129 



135 



ZOOLOGY 



ACANTHASTER PLANCI 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Endean and Stablum 167:1-62 
Endean and Stablum 168:1-26 
Frankel, E. 220:75-94 

High Islands 

Birkeland, Charles 255:55-59 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands 
Grosenbaugh, DA. 255:49-54 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 
Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Mariana Islands 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 



Indian Ocean 

Mascarene Islands 
Tirvengadum and Bour 292:49-60 

Pacific 

Ryukyu Islands 
Johnson, C.R. 162:7-9 

ANNELIDS, EARTHWORMS 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Sims, R. 149:171 

ARTHROPODS (SEE ALSO "INSECTS" AND 
"CRUSTACEANS") 
Pacific 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 



Palau Islands 
Marsh and Tsuda 170:1-16 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Polynesia, Southeast 
Devaney and Randall 169:1-21 



Phoenix Islands, Canton 
van Zwaluwenberg, R. H. 42:1-11 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Tokelau Islands 
Hinckley, Alden D. 124:1-18 



Samoa 
Flanigan and Lamberts 255:59-62 

Tonga 
Francis, M. P. 255:63-68 

Reefs 

Benson, Patton and Abraham 220:33-54 
Vine, Peter I. 166:1-10 

AMPHIBIANS 
Caribbean 

Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 



ARTHROPODS, ARACHNIDA 

Atolls (in general) 

Sachet, Marie-Helene 26:1-10 

Caribbean 

Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

BIRDS 

Atolls (in general) 

Murphy and Mayr 1:19-20 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Domm, S. B. 142:1-27 
Stoddart, Gibbs and Hopley 254:1-44 



136 



Zoology (cont.) 
Birds (cont.) 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, East Plana Cay 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Diamond, A. W. 241:141-164 

Jamaica, Cabarita Island 
Crombie, Steadman and Barber 280:1-12 

Sombrero Island 
Ogden et al. 292:61-74 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Aldabra Group and lies Gloreuses 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:37-56 
Bayne, C.J. et al. 136:83-100 
Benson, C.W. et al. 176:1-34 
Benson, C.W. 118:62-111 
Benson, C.W. 136:67-82 
Benson, C.W. 136:115-120 
Frith, C. B. 201:1-15 
Gaymer, R. 118:112-125 
Gillham, Mary E. 199:1-11 
Gillham, Mary E. 200:1-19 
Prys-Jones et al. 248:1-16 

Amirantes, African Banks 
Feare, C.J. 227:1-7 
Stoddart, Coe and Fosberg 223:1-48 
Stoddart and Poore 136:155-166 
Stoddart and Poore 136:171-182 
Stoddart and Poore 136:187-192 

Cargados Carajos Shoals 
Poklington, Willis and Palmier 158:1-8 

Chagos Archipelago 
Bourne, W. R. P. 149:175-207 
Hutson, A. M. 175:1-25 

Comoros 
Forbes-Watson, A. D. 128:1-23 

Farquhar Group, Farquhar Atoll 
Stoddart and Poore 136:7-26 



Seychelles (see also outlying Island groups) 
editors 162:1-26 

Indian Ocean 

Seychelles 
Feare, C.J. 226:1-29 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 273:7-38 

Tromelin Island 
Brooke, R. K. 255:73-82 
Staub, F. 136:197-210 

Western Indian Ocean 
Benson, C.W. 162:10-11 
Parker, I. S. C. 136:211-220 

Islands (in general) 
Bourne, W. R. P. 255:69-72 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Namoluk 
Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Central Pacific Ocean 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 

Cook Islands, Penrhyn Atoll 
Clapp, Roger B. 198:1-7 

Fiji Group, Rotuma 
Zug et al. 316:1-25 

Gilbert Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 
Moul, Edwin T. 28:1-28 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 
Clapp, Roger B. 163:1-25 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Udvardy and Warner 103:1-4 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 



137 

Zoology (cont.) 
Birds (cont.) 



Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Line Islands 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 

Marshall Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 127:1-348 
Barrett and Schreiber 314:1-46 
Clapp, Roger B. 342:1-94 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 114:1-35 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 330:1-100 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 
Temme, Manfred 292:23-28 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 

Palau Islands, Southwest 
Engbring, John 267:1-22 

Pitcairn Group 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Tuamotus 
Morrison, J.P.E. 34:1-26 
Thibault and Guyot 300:1-13 

Tuvalu 
Child, Peter 74:1-38 

Wake Island 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 114:1-35 

BIRDS, ALBATROSS 
Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands, Laysan 
Udvardy, Miklos D.F. 162:9 

BIRDS, ALDABRAN BRUSH WARBLER 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Hambler, Hambler and Newing 290:1-19 



BIRDS, BLUE PIGEON 
Indian Ocean 

Farquhar Group 
Stoddart and Benson 136:35-36 

BIRDS, BOOBIES (SULA ABBOTU) 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Assumption Island 
Stoddart, David R. 255:27-32 

BIRDS, BOOBIES (SULA SULA) 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Clapp, Roger B. 304:1-15 
Diamond, A. W. 241:165-170 

BIRDS, BUFF-BANDED RAIL 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 

BIRDS, ENDANGERED SPECIES 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Hambler, Hambler and Newing 290:1-19 
Stoddart, David R. 255:27-32 

Comoros 
Forbes-Watson, A. D. 128:1-23 

Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

Tuamotus, Makatea Island 
Thibault and Guyot 300:1-13 

BIRDS, MALAGASY TURTLEDOVE 
Indian Ocean 

Amirantes 
Benson, C.W. 136:195-196 



138 
Zoology (cont.) 

BIRDS, PALEO-ORNITHOLOGY 
Pacific 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Schubel and Steadman 325:1-14 

BIRDS, WEDGE-TAILED SHEARWATER 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 
Gross, Moulton and Huntington 99:1-11 

CORAL 
Caribbean 

Florida 
Dustan, Phillip 288:1-17 

Virgin Islands, Anegada 
Dunne and Brown 236:1-80 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Rosen, Brian Roy 233:1-24 

Chagos Archipelago 
Rosen, Brian Roy 149:67-88 

Madagascar 
Pichon, Michel 222:1-447 

Mascarene Islands 
Faure, Gerard 203:1-25 

Red Sea 
Antonius, Scheer and Bouchon 334:1-22 

Malesia 

Indonesia, Pulau Pari and Thousand Islands 
Brown, B.E. et al. 281:1-14 

Malaysia, Cape Rachado 
Hong and Sasekumar 244:1-11 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Truk 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 

Costa Rica, Golfo Dulce 
Cortes, Jorge 344:1-37 



Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Cloud, Preston E. 12:1-73 

Marshall Islands 
Odum and Odum 52:1-3 
Wells, John W. 9:1-29 

Phoenix Islands 
Dana, Thomas F. 228:1-27 
Jokiel and Maragos 221:71-98 
Maragos and Jokiel 221:55-70 

Pitcairn Group 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 

Samoa 
Lamberts, Austin E. 264:1-19 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

Reefs 

Williams and Bunkley-Williams 335:1-71 

CORAL (SOFT), OCTOCORALLIA 
Caribbean 

Guadeloupe 
Veronique, Philippot 303:1-16 

Martinique 
Veronique, Philippot 303:1-16 

Mexico, Chinchorro 
Jordan and Martin 310:1-20 

Indian Ocean 

Mascarene Islands 
Faure, Gerard 204:1-13 

CORAL, SCLERACTINIA 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Bushy and Redbill 
Wallace and Lovell 194:1-22 

Caribbean 

Mexico 
Farrell et al. 270:1-7 
Jordan and Martin 310:1-20 



139 

Zoology (cont.) 
Coral, Scleractinia (cont.) 



Indian Ocean 

(General) 
Sheppard, C. R. C. 307:1-32 

Laccadives, Minicoy 
Pillai, C. S. G. 141:1-12 

Maldives, Addu Atoll 
Wells and Davies 116:43-56 

Malesia (in general) 

Bruce, A. J. 205:1-19 

Pacific 

Tuvalu, Funafuti 
Mergner, Hans 284:1-19 

Reefs 

Buddemeier, R.W. 220:25-32 

CORAL, SCLERACTINIA: ACROPORA 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef 
Potts, D. C. 220:55-74 
Wallace and Dale 220:95-110 

CRUSTACEANS 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Whitton and Potts 238:1-8 

Pacific 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Cohic, F. 63:1-11 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 

CRUSTACEANS, BRACHYURA AND 
ANOMURA 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Taylor, J. D. 149:93-102 



Madagascar 
Peyrot-Clausad 255:101-112 

CRUSTACEANS, CIRRIPEDES 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Smith, W. A. 149:103-104 

CRUSTACEANS, COPEPODS 
Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Renon, J.-P. 301:1-14 

CRUSTACEANS, DECAPODS AND 
STOMATOPODS 
Pacific 

Mariana Islands, Saipan 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

Marshall Islands 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

Society Islands, Moorea 
Monteforte, Mario 309:1-37 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Holthuis, L. B. 24:1-66 

CRUSTACEANS, LAND CRABS 
Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Pacific 

Tokelau Islands 
Yaldwyn and Wodzicki 235:1-53 

CRUSTACEANS, PONTONIINE SHRIMP 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Bruce, A. J. 245:1-33 

Malesia (in general) 
Bruce, A. J. 205:1-19 



140 
Zoology (cont.) 

ECHINODERMS (SEE ALSO 
"ACANTHASTER PLANCF) 
Australia 

Seringapatam Atoll 
Wilson, B. R. 292:83-100 

Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Clark and Taylor 149:89-92 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Yap 
Grosenbaugh, D.A. 255:49-54 

Pitcairn Group 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 

FISH 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Potts, G. W. 241:43-52 

Sombrero Island 
Ogden et al. 292:61-74 

Virgin Islands 
Dunne and Brown 236:1-80 
Risk, Michael J. 153:1-4 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Truk 
Tsuda, Amesbury and Moras 212:1-6 

Fiji Group, Rotuma 
Zug et al. 316:1-25 

Gilbert Islands 
Banner and Randall 13:1-62 
Randall, John E. 47:1-243 
Tsuda, Roy T. 105:1-13 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Horn Archipelago, Futuna 
Galzin, Rene 292:1-10 



Marshall Islands 
Bussing, William A. 154:1-4 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Grovhoug and Henderson 221:99-158 

Pitcairn Group, Ducie 
Randall, John E. 183:21-28 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Tokelau Islands 
Gillett, Robert 319:9-18 

Tuamotus 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 
Harry, Robert R. 18:1-190 

FORAMINIFERA 
Pacific 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Green, Owen 324:7-8 

Tuamotus, Raroia 
Sperrazza, J 36:27-32 

INSECTS 

Atolls (in general) 

Zimmerman, E. C. 1:18 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Askew, R.R. 241:97-114 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Frith, D. W. 225:1-12 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Hutson, A. M. 243:1-29 

Pacific 

Cocos Island, Costa Rica 
Hogue and Miller 250:1-29 

Hawaiian Islands, Laysan 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Usinger, R. and I. Rivers 15:1-28 



141 



Tokelau Islands 
Hinckley, Alden D. 124:1-18 

INSECTS, DIPTERA 
Pacific 

Pitcairn Group 
Mathis, Wayne 327:1-15 

INSECTS, HETEROPTERA 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Polhemus, D. A. 345:1-15 
Webb, M. D. 177:1-10 

INSECTS, HOMOPTERA: COCCOIDEA: 
ICERYA SEYCHELLARUM 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Blackmore, S. 255:33-38 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Newbery and Hill 246:1-9 
Newbery and Hill 291:1-11 

INSECTS, HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group 
Webb, M. D. 177:1-10 

INSECTS, ISOPTERA: TERMITES 
Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

INSECTS, LEPIDOPTERA 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Askew, R.R. 241:121-138 
Askew, R.R. 241:139-140 

Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Astove 
Lionnet, J. F. G. 136:113-114 

INSECTS, MALLOPHAGA 
Pacific 

Central Pacific Ocean 
Amerson and Emerson 146:1-30 



Zoology (cont.) 
Insects (cont.) 

Hawaiian Islands, Laysan 
Butler and Usinger 98:1-30 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Line Islands 
Clapp and Sibley 144:1-9 
Clapp and Sibley 145:1-18 

INSECTS, ODONATA 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Askew, R.R. 241:115-120 

INVERTEBRATES 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Moulton, James M. 82:15-16 

Caribbean 

Bahamas, Cay Sal Bank 
Goldberg, Walter M. 271:1-17 

Panama, Galeta Reef 
Cubit and Williams 269:1-45 

Pacific 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Moul, Edwin T. 28:1-28 

Pitcairn Group, Henderson 
Fosberg, Sachet and Stoddart 272:1-47 

INVERTEBRATES, MARINE 

Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 

Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Taylor, J. D. 149:31-40 

Jordan, Gulf of Aqaba 
Grelet et al. 308:1-14 

Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Gibbs, P. E. 190:123-132 
Gibbs, Vevers & Stoddart 190:133-148 



142 



Zoology (cont.) 
Invertebrates, Marine (cont.) 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Banner and Randall 13:1-62 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Hiatt, Robert W. 4:1-13 

Pitcairn Group 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

INVERTEBRATES, TERRESTRIAL 

Islands (in general) 

Usinger, Robert L. 17:69-72 

MAMMALS 
Caribbean 

Jamaica, Cabarita Island 
Crombie, Steadman & Barber 280:1-12 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Pacific 

Cook Islands, Penrhyn Atoll 
Clapp, Roger B. 198:1-7 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Moul, Edwin T. 28:1-28 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

MAMMALS, CATS 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Domm and Messersmith 338:1-4 

Pacific 

Line Islands, Jarvis Island 
Rauzon, Mark J. 282:1-30 



MAMMALS, FRUIT BATS 
Pacific 

Mariana Islands 
Wiles and Glass 343:1-6 

MAMMALS, CAPROMYS INGRAHAMI 
Caribbean 

Bahamas, East Plana Cay 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 

MAMMALS, GOATS 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Coblentz and Van Vuren 306:1-6 
Coblentz, Van Vuren and Main 337:1-10 
Gould, Hill and Newbery 273:247-253 
Stoddart, David R. 255:23-26 

MAMMALS, INCLUDING MONK SEALS 
Pacific 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 
Svihla, Arthur 51:1-2 
Woodward, Paul W. 164:1-317 

MAMMALS, RATS 
Atolls (in general) 

Enders, Robert K. 1:20 

Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
editors 119:1-6 
Norman, F. I. 119:3-4 

Islands (in general) 

Bourne, W. R. P. 255:69-72 

Pacific 

Norman, F. I. 182:1-13 

Caroline Islands, Pohnpei 
Marshall, J. T. 56:1-11 

Wake Island 
Bryan, E. H. 66:1-22 



MICROFAUNA 
Indian Ocean 

Maldives 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

Red Sea 
Gerlach, S. A. 80:1-6 

MOLLUSKS 

Atolls (in general) 

Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Australia 

Seringapatam Atoll 
Wilson, B. R. 292:83-100 

Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 
Potts, G. W. 241:23-42 

Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago, Diego Garcia 
Peake, J. F. 149:173-174 
Taylor, J. D. 149:105-126 

Pacific 

Caroline Islands, Namoluk 
Marshall, Mac 189:1-54 

Cook Islands 
Morgan, H.J. 190:149-158 

Phoenix Islands, Canton 
Kay, E. Alison 221:159-170 

Pitcairn Group 
Paulay, Gustav 326:1-27 
Rehder, Harald 183:28-38 

Society Islands, Mopelia 
Sachet, Marie-Helene 274:1-37 

Tuamotus 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 
Morrison, J.P.E. 34:1-26 



143 
Zoology (cont.) 

MOLLUSKS, BrVALVES, CHAMA IOSTOMA 
Pacific 

Tuamotus, Takapoto Atoll 
Richard, Georges 292:11-22 

MOLLUSKS, BIYALVES, HETERODONTS 
Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Paulay, Gustav 298:1-31 

MOLLUSKS, GASTROPODS 
Indian Ocean 

Maldives, Male 
Kohn, Alan J. 102:1-5 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Jaluit 
Kondo, Yoshio 75:105 

MOLLUSKS, GASTROPODS, CERION 
NANUS 
Caribbean 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Hounsome and Askew 241:91-96 

MOLLUSKS, GASTROPODS, CERITHIUM 
MONIFILERUM 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Moulton, James M. 82:15-16 

REPTILES 
Caribbean 

Bahamas, East Plana Cay 
Clough and Fulk 138:1-17 

Cayman Islands, Little Cayman 
Hounsome, M. V. 241:81-90 

Jamaica, Cabarita Island 
Crombie, Steadman and Barber 280:1-12 

Puerto Rico 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 

Virgin Islands 
Heatwole, Levins, and Byer 251:1-55 



144 



Zoology (cont.) 
Reptiles (cont.) 

Indian Ocean 

Agalega 
Cheke and Lawley 273:65-108 

Mascarene Islands 
Tirvengadum and Bour 292:49-60 

Seychelles, Bird Island 
Feare, C.J. 226:1-29 

Pacific 

Cook Islands, Penrhyn Atoll 
Clapp, Roger B. 198:1-7 

Fiji Group, Rotuma 
Zug et al. 316:1-25 

Gilbert Islands, Onotoa 
Moul, Edwin T. 28:1-28 

Hawaiian Islands 
Amerson, A.B. 150:1-383 
Amerson, Clapp and Wirtz 174:1-306 
Clapp and Kridler 206:1-102 
Clapp, Kridler and Fleet 207:1-147 
Clapp and Wirtz 186:1-196 
Ely and Clapp 171:1-361 

Johnston Atoll 
Amerson and Shelton 192:1-479 

Marshall Islands, Arno 
Marshall, J. T. 3:1-38 

Papua New Guinea, Eastern 
Heatwole, Harold 180:1-32 

Pitcairn Group, Ducie 
Rehder and Randall 183:1-40 

Ryukyu Islands 
Johnson, C.R. 162:7-9 

REPTILES, MARINE TURTLES 
Caribbean 

Lesser Antilles 
Meylan, Anne Barkau 278:1-24 



Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Frith, C. B. 185:11-12 

Pacific 

Johnston Atoll 
Balazs, George H. 285:1-46 

Marshall Islands, Northern 
Fosberg, F. Raymond 135:9-12 

Phoenix Islands 
Balazs, George H. 184:1-7 

Tokelau Islands 
Balazs, George H. 279 

REPTILES, SEA SNAKES 
Pacific 

New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands 
Minton and Dunson 292:101-108 

REPTILES, TERRESTRIAL 
Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

Easter Island 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

Pitcairn Group 
Ineich and Blanc 318:1-75 

RESEARCH METHODS 
Atolls (in general) 

Hiatt, Robert W. 17:78-89 
Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 
Morrison, J.P.E. 17:74-77 

Islands (in general) 

Usinger, Robert L. 17:69-72 

RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS 
Atolls (in general) 

Zimmerman, E. C. 1:18 

SYSTEMATICS 

Atolls (in general) 

Morrison, J.P.E. 1:16-17 



145 

Zoology (cont.) 



TERRESTRIAL FAUNA 
Indian Ocean 

Chagos Archipelago 
Stoddart, David R. 149:163-170 

Pacific 

Marshall Islands, Jaluit 
Gressitt, J. L. 75:69-74 

VERTEBRATES 
Australia 

Great Barrier Reef, Capricorn Group 
Moulton, James M. 82:15-16 

VERTEBRATES, MARINE 
Pacific 

Cook Islands 
Gibbs, P. E. 190:123-132 
Gibbs, Vevers and Stoddart 190:133-148 

VERTEBRATES, TERRESTRIAL 

Atolls (in general) 

Marshall, J. T. 17:65-68 

ZOOPLANKTON 
Indian Ocean 

Aldabra Group, Aldabra Atoll 
Donaldson and Whitton 215:1-18 

Pacific 

Clipperton Island 
Renon, J.-P. 301:1-14 

Marshall Islands, Enewetak 
Gerber, Ray P. 247:1-22 

Tuamotus, Mataiva 
Delesalle, B. et al. 286:1-34 



*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1991-293-141 



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ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN NOS. 348-354 




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ATOLL 

RESEARCH 
BULLETIN 



'ssued by 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



IMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 
VASHINGTIN, D.C. U.S.A. 
ULY 1991 




ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NOS. 348-354 



NO. 348. PLANTS OF THE REEF ISLANDS OF THE NORTHERN 
GREAT BARRIER REEF 
BYF. RAYMOND FOSBERG AND DAVID R. STODDART 

No. 349. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 
BY DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 

NO. 350. PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART I. THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND DISPERSAL BY 
SEABIRDS OF PISONIA GRANDIS 
BY T.A. WALKER 

PART II. THE VASCULAR FLORAS OF BUSHY AND 
REDBILL ISLANDS 
BY T. A. WALKER, M. Y. CHALOUPKA, AND B. R. KING. 

PART III. CHANGES IN THE VASCULAR FLORA 
OF LADY MUSGRAVE ISLAND 
BY T.A. WALKER 

NO. 351. FLORE ET VEGETATION DE LTLE DE WALPOLE 

BY ALAIN RENEVIER AND JEAN-FRANCOIS CHERRIER 

NO. 352. PLANTS OF THE JAMAICAN CAYS 

BY DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 

NO. 353. LIVING AND LATE HOLOCENE FOSSIL VERTEBRATES, 

AND THE VEGETATION OF THE COCKPIT COUNTRY, JAMAICA 

BY GREGORY K. PREGILL, RONALD I. CROMBIE, DAVID W. STEADMAN, 

LINDA K. GORDON, FRANK W. DAVIS, AND WILLIAM B. HILGARTNER 

NO. 354. REEF ENVIRONMENT AND CORAL FAUNA OF SOUTHERN TATWAN 
BY CHANG-FENG DAI 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., U.SA. 

JULY 1991 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 



The Atoll Research Bulletin is issued by the Smithsonian Institution, to provide an outlet for 
information on the biota of tropical islands and reefs, and on the environment that supports the biota. 
The Bulletin is supported by the National Museum of Natural History and is produced by the 
Smithsonian Press. This issue is partly financed and distributed with funds by readers and authors. 

The Bulletin was founded in 1951 and the first 117 numbers were issued by the Pacific Science 
Board, National Academy of Sciences, with financial support from the Office of Naval Research. Its 
pages were devoted largely to reports resulting from the Pacific Science Board's Coral Atoll Program. 



All statements made in papers published in the Atoll Research Bulletin are the sole responsibility 
of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Smithsonian nor of the editors of the 
Bulletin. 



Articles submitted for publication in the Atoll Research Bulletin should be original papers in a 
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provided with a page format with which to prepare a single-spaced camera-ready copy of the 
manuscript. 

EDITORS 

F. Raymond Fosberg National Museum of Natural History 

Mark M. Littler Smithsonian Institution 

Ian G.Macintyre Washington, D. C. 20560 
Joshua I. Tracey, Jr. 

David R. Stoddart Department of Geography 

University of California 
Berkeley, CA 94720 

Bernard Salvat Laboratoire de Biologie & Ecologie 

Tropicale et Mediterraneenne 
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes 
Labo. Biologie Marine et Malacologie 
Universite de Perpignan 
66025 Perpignan Cedex, France 

BUSINESS MANAGER 



Royce L. Oliver National Museum of Natural History 

Smithsonian Institution 
Washington, D.C. 20560 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NO. 348 



PLANTS OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 

BY 

F. RAYMOND FOSBERG AND DAVID R. STODDART 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D. C, USA 

JULY 1991 



PLANTS OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 

BY 

F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 1 AND DAVID R. STODDART 2 

Abstract 

This paper records more than 380 species of vascular plants in 86 families from some 80 
islands of the Great Barrier Reef north of 16°57'S. The list increases by an order of magnitude 
the generally perceived species diversity of the coral islands of the Great Barrier Reef. 

Introduction 



This paper lists the plants of the coral islands of the Great Barrier Reef north of 
Sudbury Cay (Latitude 16°57'S.); it extends to Arden Island, Dove Island and Masig (Yorke) 
Island in Latitude 9°45'S. It is based primarily on large collections made by Stoddart (1107 
numbers, generally each in five sets) from 40 islands or island-groups, and sight records from a 
further 19 island-groups, obtained during detailed mapping of reef islands between 16°57'S 
(Sudbury Cay) and 11°36'S (Raine Island). 

These collections have been augmented by the collections made subsequently by R. 
Buckley and H. Heatwole, deposited in the Queensland Herbarium, and made available to us 
by that institution. 

We have attempted to include, so far as possible, previous literature records (dating 
back to collections by Sir Joseph Banks on Cook's first expedition in Endeavour), together with 
specimens we have found in various herbaria. Unfortunately we have been unable to trace 
(with few exceptions) the collections made by G. Tandy, botanist on the Great Barrier Reef 
Expedition 1928-29, on at least Low Isles and Three Isles. Tandy published no account of his 
work, and his material was incorporated in the general herbarium of the British Museum 
(Natural History), apparently without a separate list being kept. We think it unlikely, 
however, that he collected taxa unrecorded here. Particularly important are the records made 
by T. A. Walker of the Department of Environment and Conservation, Townsville, Queensland 
(Walker 1991, personal communications). We have included these in this paper though we 
have not seen his specimens. The phytogeography and vegetation of the northern Great 
Barrier Reef islands are discussed by Stoddart and Fosberg (1991). 



1 Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C. 

^Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 
Manuscript received 6 June 1990; revised 14 December 1990 



l> 



This list records more than 380 species in 86 families from some 80 islands. It 
dramatically revises previous understandings of the flora of the islands of the Great Barrier 
Reef. These were based on many collections from the southernmost islands (of the Bunker and 
Capricorn Groups), especially Heron Island, which continue to be among the best studied. Hill 
(1970, 76; 1974, 725) commented that 

the terrestrial flora of the cays [of the Great Barrier Reef] is a 
very restricted one, of only 30 to 40 species, practically all of 
which are of wide distribution in the Indo-West Pacific 
province. 

This paper thus increases the recognized flora of the cays of the Great Barrier Reef by an order 
of magnitude, and it shows too that the flora is characterized by plants found on no other coral 
islands in the world. The flora of the southern islands is now better known, but is no more than 
80 species. The biogeography of these distributions is discussed by Stoddart and Fosberg (1990). 

Specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, 
the Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane, and other herbaria. 

We have referenced species in this list to the general account of the flora of the Great 
Barrier Reef (especially illustrations) by Cribb and Cribb (1985). We do not, however, accept 
all of their nomenclature. 

We dedicate this paper to the memory of Sir Maurice Yonge and Professor Alfred 
Steers, whose innovative and original work in 1928-29 began the modern scientific study of the 
Great Barrier Reef. 



ACANTHACEAE 

Justicia procumbens L. 

Raine Island: Stoddart 5058 

Pseuderanthemum variabile (R. Br.) Radlk. 
Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

AGAVACEAE 

Agave sp. (probably A. rigida var. sisalana (Perrine) Engelm.) 
Morris Island: Stoddart 4989 

Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4437; Masig 
Island: Walker (1991) [as Pleomele angustifolia]; Nymph Island: Stoddart, 
sight; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991) [as Pleomele 
angustifolia] 



Dracaena fragrans Ker-Gawl. 

Green Island: Stoddart 4272 



Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce 

Sansevieria trifasciata sensu auct. non Prain 

Green Island: Fosberg 61503, Stoddart 4269 



AIZOACEAE 

Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 75 

Beanley Island: Stoddart, sight; Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick 
Island: Stoddart 4156; Bramble Cay: Limpus et al (1983); Chapman Island 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 5040; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4031; Coquet Island 
Walker, sight; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991) 
Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4813; East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 4429; 
East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4471; Farmer Cay: Walker, sight; Fife 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4948, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Fisher 
Island: Stoddart 5098; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), 
Stoddart 4258; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, 



s.n., Walker, sight; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: Mueller 
in Bailey, Fl. Qd. ['Howick Group'], Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Buckley 
3740, Stoddart 4042; Kay Island: Stoddart 5095; Leggatt Island: Stoddart, 
sight; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4314; Low Wooded Island: 
Stoddart 4567; Lowrie Island: Stoddart 4996; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, 
King (1989); Michaelmas Cay: Stoddart 4214; Masig Island: Walker (1991); 
Morris Island: Stoddart 4985; Newton Island: Stoddart 4155; Nymph Island: 
Steers (1937, p. 8), Stoddart, sight, Heatwole 122; Pelican Island: Stoddart 
4919; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4886, King (1986); Sand Island: 
Stoddart 4209; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5087, King and Limpus (1989); 
Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5029 (specimens lost); Sinclair Island: Stoddart 
4196; Stainer Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Stapleton Island: 
Stoddart 4002; Sudbury Cay: Steers (1929), Stoddart 4220; Three Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4503; Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4827; Turtle II Island: Steers (1937), Stoddart, sight; Turtle III 
Island: Buckley 3558, Stoddart 4734; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle 
V Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4615; Upolu Cay: Stoddart 
4219; Watson Island: Stoddart 4117, 4118; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4392, Walker (1991); West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4776; 
Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight. 



Sesuvium sp. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3365, 3431; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3500. 

AMARANTHACEAE 

Achyranthes aspera L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 77-78 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bramble Cay: Parmeter, s.n., Walker, s.n.; 
Binstead Island: Stoddart 5008 (collection lost); Bird Island: Heatwole 33; 
Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: Stoddart 
4035; Coquet Island: Walker, sight; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove 
Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n v Stoddart 4807, Smith and 
Buckley (1986); East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); Farmer Cay: Walker, sight; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4938 (collection lost); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, 
sight; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4083; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), 
Stoddart 4327; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4852; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); Newton Island: Stoddart 4147b; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4929; Raine 
Island: Stoddart 5053, Hacker (1990); Saunders Island: Stoddart 5067, King 
and Limpus (1989); Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4182; Stainer Island: Stoddart 
4910, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4004; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4714; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4751; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3389; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4390, Walker (1991); Wharton 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight. 



Amaranthus interruptus R. Br. 



Raine Island: Stoddart 5057; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3046(?). 



Amaranthus viridis L. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bird Island: Heatwole 28; Dove Island: Walker 
(1991); Masig Island: Walker (1991); Raine Island: Hacker (1990). 



AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Crinum pedunculatum 

Masig Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 
Crinum sp. 

Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4583; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



Eurycles amboinensis Loud. 



Cairncross Island: Veitch in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1612 ['Islands of Cairncross']; 
Dove Island: Walker (1991) [as Proiphys amboinensis]; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991) [as Proiphys amboinensis]; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker (1991) [as Proiphys amboinensis]. 



ANACARDIACEAE 

Euroschinus falcatus Hook. f. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973). 

ANNONACEAE 
Cananga odorata Hook. f. 

West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

Polyalthia nitidissima Benth. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 



APOCYNACEAE 

Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Alyxia spicata R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 81 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Carissa laxiflora Benth. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. (possibly); Turtle I Island: Buckley 3598; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n. (possibly), Walker (1991) [as Carissa 
laxifolia]; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991) [as Carissa laxifolia]. 

Carissa sp. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991). 

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don Cribb and Cribb 1985, 81-82 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Low Isles: Stoddart 4347, Heatwole, s.n.; 
Masig Island: Walker (1991). 

Cerbera manghas L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 82-83, 254 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4287. 

Nerium oleander L. 

Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4889, King (1986). 

ARACEAE 

Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott 

Green Island: Stoddart 4259. 

Philodendron sp. 

Green Island: Specht list. 



Typhonium roxburghii Schott 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3592. 

Typhonium sp. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3422. 

ARALIACEAE 

Polyscias balfouriana L. H. Bailey 

Low Isles: Stoddart 4361. 

Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) L. H. Bailey 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55053, Stoddart 4362, Heatwole, s.n. 

Polyscias paniculata Baker 

Low Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Polyscias tricochleata (Miq.) Fosberg 
Low Isles: Fosberg 55051. 



Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) Harms. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 85 

Brassaia actinophylla Endl. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Brassaia actinophylla]; Low Isles: 
Stoddart 4359; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4540; West Hope Island: 
Walker (1991). 



Schefflera sp. 

Milman Island: Buckley 3901. 

ARECACEAE (PALMAE) 

Archontophoenix alexandrae (F.v.M.) Wendl. & Drude 
Green Island: Specht list. 



Arenga australasica (Wendl. & Drude) S. T. Blake Cribb and Cribb 1985, 88 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4262. 

Calamus australis Mart. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Calamus muelleri Wendl. & Drude 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Camulus mullerii]. 

Cocos nucifera L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 88-89, 256 

Arden Island, Walker (1991); Bramble Cay: Walker, sight (dead); Dalrymple 
Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Fife Island: Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Cocos australis], 
Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart, sight; Kay Island: Stoddart, 
sight (juvenile); Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Fosberg, sight, Stoddart, 
sight; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight (juveniles); Masig Island: Walker (1991); 
Morris Island: Stoddart, sight (one individual); Night Island: Steers (1937, p. 
122, 1938, p. 92); Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; Saunders Island: Stoddart, 
sight (one juvenile); Sudbury Cay: Stoddart, sight (two seedlings); Three Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart, sight; Turtle II Island: Stoddart, sight; 
Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island (Walker 1991). 

Phoenix dactylifera L. 

Low Isles: Fosberg, sight. 

Phoenix sp. 

Three Isles: Warham (1962, p. 100), sight. 

Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.) Bl. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Specht list; Low Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 
(probably); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait. f. 

Dove Island: Walker (1991). 



Cynanchum carnosum (R. Br.) Domin 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 
Hoy a australis R. Br. 

Two Isles: Stoddart 4622, 4652. 

Ischnostemma carnosum Merr. & Rolfe 

Baird III Island: Buckley 3832; Bushy Island: Buckley 5222, 5226; ; Chapman 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannah Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Stoddart 4331; 
Lowrie Island: Buckley 5044; ; South Bird Island: Buckley 5165; Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4725; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3481, 3490; West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4459,4460; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4784. 



Sarcostemma australe R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 91 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd. [as 'Howick Group']; Ingram Island: 
Stoddart 4046; King Island: Walker, sight; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 
4581; Nymph Island: Heatwole 141; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3583, Stoddart 
4692; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4735. 



ASTERACEAE 

Bidens bipinnata L. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3408, 3436, 3660; ; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3494. 

Bidens pilosa L. Cribb and Cribb 1985,92 

Dove Island: Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Farmer 
Cay: Walker, sight; Masig Island: Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991) (?). 

Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 138; Three Isles: Stoddart 4486; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3386; Two Isles: Stoddart 4650; West Cairncross Island: Walker 
(1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Glossogyne tannensis (Spreng.) Garnock-Jones 
Glossogyne benuifolia (Labill.) Cass, ex Less. 

Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



10 



Pterocaulon sphacelatum B & H. 

Stapleton Island: Buckley 3757; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4476. 

Tridax procumbens Forst. 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4378; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 
4223; Low Isles: Fosberg 55043, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4306; Masig Island 
(Walker 1991); Turtle I Island: Buckley 3577, Stoddart 4667; Turtle III Island: 
Buckley 3556, Stoddart 4729; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4462. 

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 138; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 



Wollastonia biflora (L.) DC. Cribb and Cribb 1985,92-93 

Wedelia biflora (L.) DC. 

Coombe Island: Stoddart 4017; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 3444, Stoddart 4816; Fife Island: Stoddart 4941 
(collection lost); Green Island: Mauritzon in 1936(S), Smith, Specht and 
Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61512, Stoddart 4231, Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4848; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4551; Masig 
Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4970; Nymph Island: Stoddart 
, sight, Heatwole, s.n.; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4872, Heatwole, s.n.; Saunders 
Island: Stoddart 5064; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; Stoddart 4496 (collection 
lost); Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4601; West 
Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4393, Walker (1991). 



AVICENNIACEAE 

Avicennia eucalyptifolia Zipp. ex Miq. Cribb and Cribb 1985,236-237, 281 

Howick Island: Moldenke (1971) [this may be the same as the following 
species]. 

Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. alba (Bl.) Balch. 
Howick Island: Stoddart 4203. 



11 



Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. var. australasica (Walpers) Moldenke 

Cribb and Cribb 1985, 236 

Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4163]; Chapman Island: Stoddart 5038; East 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4762, Heatwole, s.n.; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Fisher Island: Stoddart 5102; Hampton Island: Stoddart 4211; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: 
Stoddart 4069; Lance Island: Buckley 3758a; Leggatt Island: Buckley 5015; 
Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as A. officinalis], Stoddart 4336; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4524; Lowrie Island: Buckley 3796 [or var. alba], 
Stoddart 4998; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4869, King (1986); Sand 
Island: Stoddart 4210; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4499; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4697; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3432, 3663; Turtle III Island: 
Stoddart 4745; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3503; Two Isles: Stoddart 4636; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4405; West 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4774. 



BATIDACEAE 

Batis argillicola Van Royen 

Binstead Island: Buckley 5055, 5056; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4566. 

BIGNONIACEAE 

Pandorea pandorana (Andr.) van Steenis 

Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker (1991). 

BORAGINACEAE (including EHRETIACEAE) 

Cordia subcordata Lam. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 98-99 

Aplin Island: Buckley 5254; Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bewick Island: 
Stoddart 4093; Binstead Island: Stoddart 5012 (collection lost); Bird Island: 
Stoddart 5091; Chapman Island: Stoddart 5041; Dalrymple Island: Walker, 
s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: MacGillivray in Bailey, 
Fl. Qd. [as 'Hope Island'], Stoddart 4377; Green Island: Cairns City Council 
(1933), St John (1967), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61522; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4040; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4545; Magra Island: Stoddart , sight; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4968; Newton Island: Stoddart 4159; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4720; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart , sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 
4627; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



12 



Tournefortia argentea L. f. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 95-97 

Argusia argentea (L. f.) L. F. Heine 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: 
Walker, s.n.; Bird Island: Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4027; 
Eagle Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 117) [as Tournefortia], Heatwole, s.n. 
Stoddart 4797, Smith and Buckley (1986) [as Argusia argentea]; East 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Fife Island: Stoddart 4971; Green Island: 
Cairns City Council (1933), Fosberg 61520, Stoddart 4234; Houghton Island: 
Stoddart , sight; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1041 [as 
'Howick's Group']; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4048; King Island: Walker, sight; 
Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4319, 4373; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4559; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989) [as 
Argusia argentea]; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Nymph Island: Heatwole 
145, Stoddart, sight; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5063, King and Limpus (1989) 
[as Argusia sp.]; Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5032 (collection lost); Three Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4468; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4759; Turtle V 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4595; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Wallace (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4409, Wallace 
(1990). 



BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE) 

Coronopus integrifolius (DC.) Spreng. 

Bird Island: Denham in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 51 [as Senebiera integrifolia DC.]; 
Raine Island: Stoddart 5060. 

BURSERACEAE 

Canarium australianum F. v. M. 

Binstead Island: Buckley 5057; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973); Leggatt Island: Buckley 3722a; Lowrie Island: Buckley 5047; Three 
Isles: Stoddart 4478. 

Canarium vitiense A. Gray 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Garuga floribunda Decne. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



13 



CAPPARIDACEAE (including CLEOMACEAE) 

Capparis arborea (F. Muell.) Maiden 

Arden Island: Walker (1991). 

Capparis lucida R. Br. 

Aplin Island: Buckley 5255; Arden Island: Walker (1991); Baird Island: 
Buckley 5110; Baird III Island: Buckley 3835(7); Bewick Island: Stoddart, 
sight; Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 5068, Stoddart 5037; Coombe 
Island: Stoddart 4028; Douglas Island: Buckley 5245 (sterile), 5247, Walker 
(1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Dugong Island: Buckley 5271, 5272, 5273, 
5274, 5281, 5282, 5283, 5284; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 3467 (?) 
(sterile), Stoddart 4804; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4374, Bailey, H. Qd., p. 
60 [as 'Hope Islands']; Farmer Island: Buckley 5093, 5096; Fife Island: Steers 
(1938), Heatwole, s.n., Chaloupka and Godwin (1985), Buckley 3783a; Hannah 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hay Island: Buckley 
3771(7), 3773; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: Bailey, Fl. 
Qd., p. 60 [as 'Howick's Group'], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4853; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4543, 4575; MacArthur Island: Buckley 5187(7) (sterile); 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Newton Island: Stoddart 4135; Pipon Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4873; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4684; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3420, 3659; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4758, Buckley 3559 (collection 
missing); Turtle V Island: Buckley 3524, 3533; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3515, 
Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4607; Watson Island: Stoddart 4102; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4461, Walker (1991) (7); West 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4780. 



Capparis quiniflora DC. 

Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 



Capparis sarmentosa A. Cunn. ex Benth. 

Chapman Island: Buckley 5067(7) (sterile); Douglas Island: Buckley 5241(7) 
(sterile), Walker (1991). 



Capparis sepiaria L. 



Binstead Island: Buckley 5061; Bushy Island: Buckley 5239; Dugong Island: 
Buckley 5278, 5280; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4449; Farmer Island: Buckley 
5095; Fife Island: Buckley 5028, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); MacArthur 
Island: Buckley 5185; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4923; West Hope Island: 
Walker (1991). 



14 



Capparis spinosa var. nummularia (DC.) F. M. Bailey 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bird Island: Buckley 3926; Dove Island: Walker 
(1991); Farmer Island: Buckley 3823(?); Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4847; Ingram Island: Buckley 3726, Stoddart 4074; Sinclair Island: 
Buckley 3703, 5001, Stoddart 4188; Three Isles: Stoddart 4501; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4642; Watson Island: Stoddart 4101. 



Capparis sp. 



Douglas Island: Buckley 3887; Farmer Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 117); 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Turtle III Island: Buckley 3562; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3535, 3546, 3547; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 



Cleome viscosa L. 



Coombe Island: Stoddart 4036; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: 
Walker (1991); East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); Fife Island: Steers (1938) 
[as Polanisia viscosa], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4953, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. 
Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4065; Masig Island 
Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4980; Newton Island: Stoddart 4136 
Pelican Island: Stoddart 4930 (collection lost); Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n. 
Stoddart 4897; Raine Island: Hacker (1990); Saunders Island: Stoddart 5085 
Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5025 (collection lost); Sinclair Island: Stoddart 
4181; Stainer Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Three Isles: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4668; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3364, 3403, 3410, 
3411; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4737; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3387, 3538(7); 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3479; Watson Island: Stoddart 4122; West Cairncross 
Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



CARICACEAE 

Carica papaya L. 

Green Island: Stoddart 4260. 

CASUARINACEAE 

Casuarina equisetifolia L. var. incana Benth. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 105-108, 260 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bewick Island: Stoddart 4099; Coquet Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4803; Green Island: Cairns City Council (1932) [as Casuarina 
cunninghamiana], Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61517, Stoddart 
4246; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight; Houghton Island 
Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4057 
King Island: Walker, sight; Leggatt Island: Stoddart, sight; Low Isles 



15 



Stephenson et al. (1931), Fosberg 55039, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4342; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4578; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4140; Nymph Island: Heatwole 149, Stoddart, sight; Saunders 
Island: Stoddart 5080, King and Limpus (1989); Stainer Island: Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Three Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4487; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4727; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4742; Turtle V 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4618; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



CELASTRACEAE 

Elaeodendron australe Vent. 

Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4543.; 

Elaeodendron melanocarpum F. v. M. 

East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Green Island: Smith, Specht and 
Clapham (1973); Nymph Island: Heatwole 148. 

Maytenus emarginata (Willd.) Ding Hou 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3377; Turtle VI 
Island: Buckley 3495. 

Salacia chinensis L. 

Dove Island: Walker (1991). 

CHENOPODIACEAE 

Arthrocnemum halocnemoides Nees (sensu lato) 
Halosarcia halocnemoides (Nees) P. G. Wilson 

East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. [var. 
pergranulatum]; Nymph Island: Heatwole 133; Watson Island: Stoddart 4111; 
West Hope Island: Walker (1991) [as Halosarcia halocnemoides]; Wharton 
Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Arthrocnemum leiostachyum (Benth.) Paulsen 

Nymph Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Two Isles: Stoddart 4632. 

Salicornia cinerea F.v.M. 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 119 [is this previous species?]. 



16 



Salicornia quinqueflora Bunge ex Ungern Sternberg Cribb and Cribb 1985, 110 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4157; East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4772; Fisher 
Island: Stoddart 5107; Low Isles: MacGillivray (1852), I, p. 101) [as Salicornia 
indica]; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4568; Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; 
Pipon Island: Stoddart 4904; Three Isles: Stoddart 4515; Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4828; Turtle II Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 
4744; Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle VI Island: Stoddart, sight; Two 
Isles: Stoddart 4644. 



Salsola kali L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 109 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Coombe Island: Stoddart 4022; Dalrymple 
Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker 
(1991); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4812; East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4428; Fife Island: Stoddart 4946 
(collection lost), Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Ho wick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4072; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4573; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4150; Nymph Island: Heatwole 147; Pelican Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4934; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4892; Saunders Island: 
Stoddart 5072; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4184; Stainer Island: Stoddart 4912, 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4010; Three Isles 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4502; Two Isles: Stoddart 4594; Wallace Island 
King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker, sight. 



Suaeda australis Moq. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 110-111 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4158; Binstead Island: Buckley 3806; Chapman 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 5046; East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Stoddart 4313; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4569; Newton Island: Stoddart 4152; Pipon Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4879; South Bird Island: Buckley 5163; Three Isles: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4516; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4829; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 
4743; Two Isles: Stoddart 4643; Watson Island: Stoddart 4112; West Hope 
Island: Stoddart 4380, Walker (1991); West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 
4781; Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



Suaeda sp. 



Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Leggatt Island: Stoddart, sight; Nymph 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3367, Stoddart, sight; Turtle 
IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3550, Stoddart, sight; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3517, Stoddart, sight. 



17 



COCHLOSPERMACEAE 

Cochlospermum gillivraei Benth. 

Masig Island: Walker (1991). 

COMBRETACEAE 

Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 217-218 

Baird Island: Buckley 5112; Cairncross Island: MacGillivray and Henne in 
Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 569; ; Chapman Island: Buckley 5066; Low Isles: Fosberg, 
sight; Lowrie Island: Buckley 3793, 5036; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4900; Turtle 
II Island: Buckley 3642b; Turtle IV Island: Buckley 3565; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3530; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3506. 

Terminalia arenicola Byrnes Cribb and Cribb 1985, 114 

Aplin Island: Buckley 3903; Bushy Island: Buckley 5219; Green Island: Cairns 
City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1971); Leggatt Island: 
Buckley 5009; Little Boydong: Buckley 5196. 

Terminalia catappa L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 115, 263 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart, sight; Green Island: 
Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61516, Stoddart 4286; Low Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

Terminalia melanocarpa F. v. M. 

Aplin Island: Buckley 3903; Bushy Island: Buckley 5219; Green Island: Cairns 
City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Howick Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Leggatt Island: Buckley 5009; Little Boydong: Buckley 5196; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

Terminalia muelleri Benth. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bewick Island: Stoddart 4096; Eagle Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4802; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 
567 [as 'Howick's Group']; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4049, 4052; Low Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4534; Three Isles: Stoddart 
4489; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4754; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3496; Two 
Isles: Stoddart 4602. 



18 



Terminalia platyphylla F. v. M. 

Little Boydong: Buckley 5200(7). 

Terminalia sericocarpa F. v. M. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

Terminalia sp. 

Masig Island: Walker (1991); Turtle I Island: Buckley 3613; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3637; Wallace Island: Buckley 3869; West Cairncross Island: Walker 
(1991). 

COMMELINACEAE 

Commelina ensifolia R. Br. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

Commelina lanceolata R. Br. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991). 

Commelina undulata R. Br. 

East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Green Island: Specht list; Low Isles: 
Fosberg 55033, Stoddart 4330; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4562; Nymph 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4177; Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4669; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3418; Turtle III Island: Buckley 3418; 
Watson Island: Stoddart 4121; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Commelina sp. 



Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Masig Island: Walker (1991); Three Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 



CONVOLVULACEAE 

Cuscuta australis R. Br. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 



19 



Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991). 

Ipomoea macrantha R. & S. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 116 

Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n. (possibly), 
Stoddart, sight; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker 
(1991) (?); Dugong Island: Buckley 5276a; Eagle Island: Stoddart 4830; East 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4379, 4419; Fife 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4942 (collection lost), Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973) [as Ipomoea tuba], Stoddart 4273; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n. (probably); Ingram Island: Stoddart 4077; 
Leggatt Island: Buckley 5016(7); Low Isles: Fosberg, sight, Stoddart 4340, 4341 
(collections lost); Nymph Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Raine Island: Hacker (1990); 
Saunders Island: Stoddart 5076; Sherrard Island: Buckley 5065; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4724; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3413, 3435; Turtle IV Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4605; Watson Island: Stoddart 4103; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991); West Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4783; Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight. 

Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth 

Buchan Island: Buckley 3839; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Fife Island: 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Pelican Island: Buckley 3767; Stainer Island: 
Buckley 3761. 



Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. ssp. brasiliensis (L.) v. Ooststr. 

Cribb and Cribb 1985, 116-117 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Binstead Island: Stoddart 5004 (collection lost) 
Cholmondeley Island: King et al. (1989a); Coombe Island: Stoddart 4037 
Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island 
Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Stoddart 4824; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4375; Farmer Cay: Walker, sight; Fife Island: 
Stoddart 4943 (collection lost), Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: 
Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61511, Stoddart 4228; Hannah 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; King Island: Walker, 
sight; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Fosberg 59026, Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4349; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4572; Lowrie Island: Stoddart 
5000; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989); Masig Island: Walker (1991); 
Morris Island: Stoddart 4966; Newton Island: Stoddart 4126a; Pelican Island: 
Stoddart 4931; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4895; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5081, 
King and Limpus (1989); Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4197; Stainer Island: 
Stoddart 4195, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 
4012; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4482; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 
4736; Two Isles: Stoddart 4624; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), Walker 
(1991); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal 



20 



Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 104) [as 
Ipomoea maritima R. Br.], Walker (1991). 



Ipomoea sp. 



Douglas Island: Walker (1991); East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); Masig 
Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Jacquemontia paniculata var. tomentosa (Warb.) v. Ooststr. 

Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4070, Buckley 3734; 
Leggatt Island: Buckley 5010. 



Jacquemontia sp. 

Leggatt Island: Buckley 3717(7). 

Merremia sp. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. (probably). 

Operculina turpethum (L.) Marso 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 125. 



Xenostegia tridentata L. (Austin & Staples) ssp. hastata v. Ooststr. 
Merremia hastata Desr. 
Merremia tridentata Desr. 

Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4029; Hannah 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Lowrie Island: Buckley 
5045; Pelican Island: Buckley 3766; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Saunders 
Island: Stoddart 5071; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4477; Turtle I 
Island: Buckley 3579; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3361, 3363, 3419; Turtle VI 
Island: Buckley 3491; Two Isles: Stoddart 4598; Watson Island: Stoddart 4124; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991) [as Xenostegia 
tridentata]; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991) [as Xenostegia tridentata]. 



CUCURBITACEAE 

Bryonopsis laciniosa Naud. 

East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



21 



Citrullus lanatus var. caffrorum (Alef.) Fosb. 
Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffrey 

Douglas Island: Buckley 3886, Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 
4424; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4565a; Three Isles: Stoddart 4520; West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4418, Walker (1991). 



Mukia maderaspatana R. & S. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Ingram Island: Stoddart 4044; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4565b; Turtle III Island: Buckley 3553; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3391, 3537; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3480 (collection lost). 



CYPERACEAE 

Bulbostylis barbata C. B. CI. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hay Island: 
Buckley 3769; Ingram Island: Buckley 3748b, Stoddart 4081; Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4131; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4689; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3412; 
Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4738; Watson Island: Stoddart 4125; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Cyperus bifax C. B. CI. 

Pipon Island: Stoddart 4874. 

Cyperus javanicus Houtt. 

Binstead Island: Stoddart 5049; Low Isles: Stoddart 4328. 

Cyperus pedunculatus F. v. M. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 118 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Coombe Island: Buckley 3753; Masig Island: 
Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 

Cyperus rotundus 

Arden Island: Walker (1991). 



22 



Cyperus scaber (R. Br.) Boeckeler 



Masig Island: Walker (1991); Turtle I Island: Buckley 3584, 3585, 3612, 
Stoddart 4615; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3649; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3486, 
3496(?) (collection missing), 3499. 



Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Ingram Island: 
Buckley 3739; Little Boydong: Buckley 5197; Morris Island: Stoddart 4969; 
Pelican Island: Stoddart 4921; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Stainer Island: 
Stoddart 4917. 



Cyperus sp. 

Dove Island: Walker (1991); Masig Island: Walker (1991). 

Remirea maritima Aubl. 

Coombe Island: Stoddart 4016; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 3446, 
Stoddart 4822, Smith and Buckley (1986); Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4504; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4395. 

Rhynchospora heterochaeta S. T. Blake 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3373. 
Cyperaceae indet. 

Bramble Cay: Queensland Herbarium (in Walker 1988) 

EBENACEAE 

Diospyros ferrea var. compacta (R. Br.) Fosb. 

Low Isles: Henne in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 964 

Diospyros ferrea var. humilis (R. Br.) Bakh. 

Aplin Island: Buckley 5257; Bushy Island: Buckley 3881, 5234a, 5235; Green 
Island: Gardner (1973); Halfway Island: Buckley 5209, 5213, 5215; Ingram 
Island: Buckley 3733; Three Isles: Stoddart 4473b; Turtle I Island: Buckley 
3607; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3427, 4983; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3523; Turtle 
VI Island: Buckley 3497. 



23 



Diospyros ferrea var. reticulata (R.Br.) Bakh. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 120 

Low Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Diospyros geminata ((R. Br.) F.v.m. 

Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Diospyros maritima Bl. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 120-121 

Aplin Island: Buckley 5253; Arden Island: Walker (1991); Douglas Island: 
Buckley 5243, Walker (1991); Dugong Island: Buckley 5279; East Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4438, 4452; Farmer Island: Buckley 3816, 5097; Green Island: Smith, 
Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61537; Halfway Island: Buckley 5210; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Fosberg 55054, Stoddart 4351; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4541; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Tern Island: 
Buckley 5267; Three Isles: Stoddart 4517; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4408. 

Diospyros sp. 

Halfway Island: Buckley 3875. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Acalypha amentacea ssp. wilkesiana (Muell.-Arg.) Fosberg 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4261, 4279; Low Isles: Fosberg 55050, 
Heatwole, s.n. (probably), Stoddart 4344. 

Breynia oblongifolia Muell.-Arg. 

Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3492. 

Breynia stipitata Muell.-Arg. 

Dugong Island: Buckley 5285; Low Isles: Fosberg 55032; Turtle I Island: Buckley 
3586; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3415, 3655. 

Claoxylon hillii Benth. 

Green Island: Stoddart 4257. 



24 



Claoxylon tenerifolium F.v.m. ex Baill. 
Green Island: Specht list. 

Claoxylon sp. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973) [probably C. hillii]. 



Dry-petes australasica Hutch, ex Pax. & Hoffm. 

Bird Island: Buckley 5169, 5175; ; Bushy Island: Buckley 3883, 5220, 5228, 5230, 
5236; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Farmer Island: Buckley 5094; Fife 
Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and 
Clapham (1973); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hay Island: Buckley 3777; 
Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; MacArthur Island: Buckley 5183,5186; Three 
Isles: Stoddart 4473; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4675,4693,4694,4722; Turtle VI 
Island: Buckley 3511; Two Isles: Stoddart 4656; West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 



Endospermum medulosum L. S. Smith 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Euphorbia chamissonis (Kl. & Gke.) Boiss. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 122-123 

Euphorbia atoto sensu auct. non Forst f. (as Euphorbia atoto) 

Arden Island: Walker (1991) [as Euphorbia atoto]; Coombe Island: Stoddart 
4023; Dalrymple Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991) [as 
Euphorbia atoto]; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4821; Fife Island: 
Steers (1938), Stoddart 4949, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985) [as Chamaesyce 
atoto]; Green Island: Gardner (1973), Specht list, Stoddart 4230; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4857; Ingram 
Island: Buckley 3725(?), Stoddart 4045; Low Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4346; Magra Island: Buckley 3838, King (1989) [as Euphorbia atoto]; Masig 
Island: Walker (1991) [as Euphorbia atoto]; Morris Island: Stoddart 4986; 
Newton Island: Stoddart 4133; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4932; Saunders 
Island: Buckley 3846, Stoddart 5073; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4190; Stainer 
Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4470; Two Isles: Stoddart 4613; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991) [as 
Euphorbia atoto]; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991) [as Euphorbia atoto]. 



Euphorbia cyathophora Murr. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 123 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4274; Masig Island: 
Walker (1991). 



25 



Euphorbia heterophylla L. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

Euphorbia hirta L. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Hannah Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Fosberg 55030, Stoddart 4355 (collection lost); Masig 
Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Buckley 3788, Stoddart 4964; Three 
Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4672. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Kl. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973). 

Euphorbia sparrmannii Boiss. 

Pipon Island: Stoddart 4885. 

Euphorbia tannensis Spreng. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 123-124 

Coombe Island: Stoddart 4033; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4820; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4368; Farmer 
Island: Buckley 3819(?), Walker: sight; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4950, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985) [as Chamaesyce tannensis]; Green Island: 
Gardner (1973), Specht list, Fosberg 61504, Stoddart 4227; Hannah Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4856; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4038, 4066; Low Isles: Stephenson 
et al. (1931) [as Euphorbia eremophila], Fosberg 55042, Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4307; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4560; Magra Island: King (1989); 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4982; Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4134; Nymph Island: Heatwole 131; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4933; 
Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4894; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5084; 
Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4192; Three Isles: Mueller in Bailey, H. Qd., p. 1400, 
Heatwole, s.n, Stoddart 4505; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4670; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3396, 3656; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4757; Two Isles: Stoddart 4616; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4383. 

Excoecaria agallocha L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 219 

Baird III Island: Buckley 3834; Bewick Island: Stoddart 4166; Binstead Island: 
Buckley 3802; Chapman Island: Stoddart 5042, Buckley 3811; East 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4765; Fisher Island: Buckley 5087, Stoddart 
5103; Hannibal Island: Buckley 5194; Howick Island: Stoddart 4206; Leggatt 
Island: Buckley 5004, 5017; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4325; 
Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4546; Lowrie Island: Buckley 3797, 5037, 
Stoddart 4994; MacArthur Island: Buckley 3853(7), 5180, 5181; Newton Island: 



26 



Stoddart , sight; Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 
4700; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3643, 3647; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; 
Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4388; West 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4778. 



Flueggia microcarpa Blume 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1426 [as 'Howick's Group']. 

Glochidion sp. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Macaranga tanarius Muell.-Arg. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 124-125 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), 
Stoddart 4276; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1452 [as 
'Howick's Group']; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4556; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4474, 4485. 

Mallotus nesophilus Muell.-Arg. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973), Specht list. 

Mallotus repandus Muell.-Arg. 

Three Isles: Stoddart 4519. 

Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit. 

Green Island: Stoddart 4270; Low Isles: Stoddart 4302. 

Phyllanthus amarus Schum. 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55031; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991). 



27 



Phyllanthus novae-hollandiae Muell.-Arg. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bushy Island: Buckley 5231; Dalrymple Island: 
Walker, s.n.; Farmer Island: Buckley 3820; Ingram Island: Buckley 3741 c(?), 
3742(7); Pelican Island: Buckley 3765(7); Turtle II Island: Buckley 3666; West 
Hope Island: Walker (1991) (7). 



Phyllanthus reticulatus Poit. 

East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4431; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4055; Pelican 
Island: Stoddart 4924; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3591(7); ; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3402(7); Turtle V Island: Buckley 3540(7); Turtle VI Island: Buckley 
3504(7); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hope 
Island: Walker (1991). 



Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

Phyllanthus sp. 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Wallace Island: King et al. 
(1989b), Walker (1991). 

Synostemon bacciformis (L.) Webster 

Ingram Island: Stoddart 4066. 

EUPOMATIACEAE 

Eupomatia cf. bennettii F. v. M. 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55049. 
Eupomatia (?) 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE) 

Abrus precatorius L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 126 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: 
Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Stoddart 4831; Fife 
Island: Stoddart 4963, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, 



28 



Specht and Clapham (1973); Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4865; Ingram Island: 
Stoddart 4076; Low Isles: Stoddart 4329; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4531; 
Morris Island: Stoddart 4976; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4925; Turtle I Island: 
Buckley 3572, Stoddart 4678; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3421, 3648; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4651; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4410, Walker 
(1991). 



Acacia or aria F. v. M. 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3581, Stoddart 4690. 

Bauhinia binata Blanco 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n., West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

Bauhinia hookeri F. v. M. 

Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Newton Island: Stoddart 4144; Turtle I Island: 
Buckley 3610, Stoddart 4723; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3416. 

Bossiaea sp. 

West Hope Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 104) [as Bossioea]. 

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 103-104, 257 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Binstead Island: Buckley 3803, Stoddart 5013 
(collection lost); Dove Island: Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 105) [as Guilandina bonduc], Stoddart, sight; Fife 
Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and 
Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61515(7), Stoddart 4238(7); Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: 
Stoddart 4321; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5027 
(collection lost); Three Isles: Stoddart 4494; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3599; 
West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973), Stoddart 4263. 



Caesalpinia major (Medic.) Dandy & Exell 

Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4589; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4397. 



29 



Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 127 

Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Urb. 
Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC. 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4180; Bushy Island: Buckley 3885; Chapman Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Coquet Island: Walker, sight; Dove Island: Walker (1991); 
Eagle Island: Stoddart 4818; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4444; Farmer Island: 
Walker, sight; Fife Island: Steers (1938), Buckley 3785, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4226; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram 
Island: Stoddart 4051; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4548; Masig Island: 
Walker (1991); Newton Island: Stoddart 4137; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Stoddart 4896; Three Isles: Stoddart 4484; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3587, 
Stoddart 4679; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4741; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3390; 
Two Isles: Stoddart 4604; Watson Island: Stoddart 4106, 4120; West Cairncross 
Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope 
Island: Walker (1991). 



Canavalia sericea A. Gray 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Cassia occidentalis L. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973) [as Cassia sp.]; Morris Island: Stoddart, sight; 
Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4883. 

Crotalaria linifolia L.f. 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 128, 137. 

Crotalaria medicaginea Lam. 

Hay Island: Buckley 3772; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3714(?). 

Crotalaria pallida Ait. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973) [as Crotalaria sp. cf. 
lanceolatum], Fosberg 61506, Stoddart 4225; Low Isles: Fosberg 55035, 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4303. 

Crotalaria trifoliastrum Willd. var. trifoliastrum 
Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



30 



Crotalaria sp. 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 137. 



Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain 
Low Isles: Fosberg, sight. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 127-128 



Derris trifoliata Lour. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 129 



Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Turtle V Island: Buckley 
3535, 3548, 3549; West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Desmodium sp. aff. trichostachyon Benth. 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3374. 



Erythrina insularis Bailey 



Bird Island: MacGillivray (185271, p. 119) [as Erythrina], Stoddart 5090; 
Farmer Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 1170 [as Erythrina], Stoddart, sight; 
Turtle I Island: Bailey in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 428 [as 'Turtle Island']. 



Erythrina phlebocarpa Bailey 



Douglas Island: Walker (1991) (?); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Fosberg, sight; West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Erythrina variegata var. orientalis (L.) Merr. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 130 



Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Gardner (1973) [as Erythrina indica 
var. variegata], Specht list, Stoddart 4247. 



Erythrina vespertilio Benth. 



Bird Island: Buckley 5176(7); Farmer Island: Buckley 3821, 5098; Green Island: 
Specht list. 



Erythrina sp. 

Green Island: St John (1967) [probably Erythrina variegata var. orientalis]. 



31 



Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit 

Dove Island: Walker (199); Green Island: Specht list. 

Pithecellobium grandiflorum Benth. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973), Specht list, Stoddart 4285; Three Isles: Stoddart 
4481. 

Pithecellobium lovellae F. M. Bailey- 
Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 

Pongamia pinnata (L.) Merr. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 132 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), 
Fosberg 61536, Stoddart 4239; Low Isles: Fosberg, sight; West Hope Island: 
Walker (1991). 

Rhynchosia australis Benth. 

Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Rhynchosia cunninghamii Benth. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [this may be Rhynchosia minima DC.]. 

Rhynchosia minima DC. 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3580; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3362. 

Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Pers. 

Raine Island: Hacker (1990); Stainer Island: Buckley 3760. 

Sesbania sp. 

Raine Island: Stoddart 5050 (probably Sesbania cannabina). 

Sophora tomentosa L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 133 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
Stoddart 4800; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: 



32 



Stoddart 4370; Farmer Cay: Walker, sight; Green Island: R. Roe in 1937 (S), 
Cairns City Council (1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61520, 
Stoddart 4240; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4570; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 
4193; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3588; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3375, Stoddart, 
sight; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4733; Two Isles: Stoddart 4612; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 
4396, Walker (1991). 



Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 133-134 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Chapman 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4823; East 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4376; Green Island: R. Roe in 1937(S), Smith, Specht 
and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61507, Stoddart 4233; Halfway Island: Buckley 
3872; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4068; Low 
Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Fosberg 55038, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4301; 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart, sight; Nymph Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4878; Sinclair Island: Buckley 3904, 
Stoddart 4195; Three Isles: Stephenson 650, Tandy and Stephenson 642, 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4491 (collection lost); Two Isles: Stoddart 4611; West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4454, Walker (1991). 



FLAGELLARIACEAE 

Flagellaria indica L. 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4088; Binstead Island: Stoddart 5007 (collection lost); 
Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Stoddart 4805; East Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4434; Fife Island 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4962, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island 
Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4281; Hannibal Island 
Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Buckley 3744, Stoddart 4053; Low Isles 
Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4326; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4535 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Nymph Island: Heatwole 140; Pipon Island 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4898; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West 
Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4463, Walker 
(1991). 

GOODENIACEAE 

Scaevola sericea Vahl Cribb and Cribb 1985, 135-136 

Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. 
Scaevola koenigii Vahl 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bird Island: Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: 
Stoddart 4025; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); 
Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4799, Smith and Buckley (1986); East 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4440; Fife 
Island: Steers (1938) [as Scaevola frutescens]; Green Island: Cairns City Council 
(1933) [as Scaevola koenigii], Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), St John 



33 



(1962), Fosberg 61509, Stoddart 4248; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker, 
sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4851; Ingram Island: Stoddart 
4039; Low Isles: R. Brown in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 907 [as Scaevola 
fcoem'gn],Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Scaevola koenigii], Heatwole, s.n., 
Fosberg 55037, Stoddart 4300; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4544; Magra 
Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989); Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris 
Island: Stoddart 4975; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5088, King and Limpus (1989) 
[as Scaevola sp.]; Three Isles: Stoddart 4495 (collection lost); Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4685; Turtle II Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 
4732; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4610; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4412, Walker (1991). 



GUTTIFERAE 

Calophyllum inophyllum L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 112-113, 262 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Cairns City Council 
(1933), Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4253; Low Isles: Fosberg 
55048, Stoddart 4320, 4364. 

Calophyllum sil Lauterb. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

HERNANDIACEAE (including GYROCARPACEAE) 

Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. 

Arden Island: Walker, s.n., Walker (1991); Douglas Island: Walker (1991); 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Hernandia sonora L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 137 

Hernandia peltata Meisn. 

West Hope Island: Stoddart 4398. 



HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Enhalus acoroides (L.f.) Royle Cribb and Cribb 1985, 242 

Low Isles: Stoddart 4299. 



34 



Halophila minor (Miq. ex Zoll.) Den Hartog 
Halophila ovata sensu auct. non Gaud. 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55023, Stoddart 4310; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4533; 
Nymph Island: Stoddart 4739; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4909. 



Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook, f . Cribb and Cribb 1985, 242-243 

Green Island: S. T. Blake 22083 (in Den Hartog 1970), Den Hartog 909 (in Den 
Hartog 1970), Fosberg 55022; Ho wick Island: Tandy (in Den Hartog 1970); Low 
Isles: Tandy 102 (in Den Hartog 1970), Den Hartog 991 (in Den Hartog 1970); 
Turtle I Island: Tandy (in Den Hartog 1970) [as 'Turtle Island']. 



Halophila spinulosa (R. Br.) Aschers.Cribb and Cribb 1985, 243-244 

Turtle I Island: Tandy (in Den Hartog 1970) [as 'Turtle Island']. 

Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrb.) Aschers. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 244-245 

Bird Island: Stoddart 5094; Green Island: Den Hartog 900 (in Den Hartog 1970); 
Low Isles: Tandy (in Den Hartog 1970), Den Hartog 992 (in Den Hartog 1970), 
Fosberg 55020, Stoddart 4309, 4360; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4532; Pipon 
Island: Stoddart 4907. 

ICACINACEAE 

Gomphandra australiana F.v.m. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

LAMIACEAE (LABIATAE) 

Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55027, Heatwole, s.n. 

LAURACEAE 

Cassytha filiformis L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 139-140 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Coombe Island: Stoddart 4018; Coquet Island: 
Walker, sight; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4825; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4447; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4960, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht 
and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61505, Stoddart 4229; Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1314 [as 'Howick 
Group'], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4844; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4080; Low 



35 



Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Heatwole, s.n.; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 
4588; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4988; Nymph 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart, sight; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5089; Three 
Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4591; Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle 
VI Island: Buckley 3501; Two Isles: Stoddart 4599; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4457, Walker (1991). 



Cassytha glabella R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 268 

Nymph Island: Heatwole 142(?). 

Cassytha pubescens R. Br. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3359. 

Cryptocarya cunninghamii Meisn. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Cryptocarya hypospodia F.v.M. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Cryptocarya sp. 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985). 

LILIACEAE 

Dianella caerulea Sims, sensu lato 

Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4687. 

Schelhammera multiflora R. Br. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

LORANTHACEAE 

Loranthus odontiocalyx F. v. M. 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1381 [as 'Howick's Group']. 



36 



Loranthus auandang Lindl. 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1381 [as 'Howick's Group']. 

LYTHRACEAE 

Petnphis acidula Forst. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 145 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Arnold Island: Buckley 3907; Beanley Island 
Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: Stoddart 4095, 4194; Binstead Island 
Stoddart 5017 (collection lost); Bird Island: Stoddart 5092; Chapman Island 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 5039; Coquet Island: Stoddart, sight; Dalrymple 
Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); East Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4767; Fisher Island: Stoddart 5099; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4846; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4062; Leggatt 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4557; Lowrie Island: 
Buckley 3794, Stoddart 4995; Newton Island: Stoddart 4151; Nymph Island: 
Heatwole 130, Stoddart , sight; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4899; Saunders Island: 
Stoddart 5083; Sherrard Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 116) [as Pemphis 
acida], Stoddart 5024 (collection lost); Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, I, pp. 
105-106) [as Pemphis acida], Stephenson et al. (1931), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4490 (collection lost); Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4688; Turtle II Island: Buckley 
3424, 3658, Stoddart 4490; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4753; Turtle rv Island: 
Buckley 3566, Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3531, Stoddart, sight; 
Turtle VI Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4630; West Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4381, Walker (1991); West Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4775. 

MALVACEAE 

Abutilon asiaticum Miquel var. australiense (Hochr. ex Britt.) Fosb. 

Abutilon indicum sensu auct. non (L.) Sweet Cribb and Cribb 1985, 146-147 

Abutilon albescens 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 5048; 
Coombe Island: Stoddart 4024; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4817; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4433; Farmer 
Island: Walker, sight; Fife Island: Steers (1938) [as Abutilon sp.], Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4957, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, 
Specht and Clapham (1973) [as Abutilon sp.]; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Ingram Island: Buckley 3737; King Island: 
Walker, sight; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4549; Magra Island: King (1989) 
[as Abutilon indicum]; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 115) [ as Sida on 'Claremont No VI' Island], Stoddart 
4979; Newton Island: Stoddart 4145; Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; Pelican 
Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 115) [as Sida], Stoddart 4927; Piper's Island: 
Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 119 [as Abutilon graveolens W. & A.]; Pipon Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4888; Raine Island: Stoddart 5052, Hacker (1990); 



37 



Saunders Island: Stoddart 5079, King and Limpus (1989) [as Abutilon indicum]; 
Sherrard Island: Stoddart, sight; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4183; Stainer 
Island: Buckley 3764(7), Stoddart 4911, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985) 
Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4005; Three Isles: Stoddart 4509; Turtle I Island 
Stoddart 4716; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3388, 3536; Two Isles: Stoddart 4600. 
Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b) [as Abutilon indicum], Walker (1991); West 
Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4389, Walker (1991). 



Hibiscus Hliaceus L. Cribb and Cribb 1985,147-148 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Green Island: Cairns 
City Council (1933), Fosberg 61525, Stoddart 4242; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4580; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Two 
Isles: Stoddart 4623; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Hibiscus sp. cf. rosa-sinensis L. 

Green Island: Stoddart 4278. 

Modiola sp. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973). 

Sida rhombifolia L. (?) 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. (possibly); Low Isles: Fosberg 55034. 



Sida spinosa L. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Little Boydong: Buckley 3865; Mac Arthur 
Island: Buckley 3847; Morris Island: Buckley 3790; Wallace Island: Buckley 
3871; West Hope Island: Walker (1991) (?). 



Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa Cribb and Cribb 1985, 148-149 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4092; Buchan Island: Buckley 3842(7); Bushy Island: 
Buckley 5218; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4369; Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), St John (1962), Smith, 
Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4245; Halfway Island: Buckley 5211; 
Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: Stoddart 4854; Ingram 
Island: Stoddart 4060; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3716, Stoddart, sight; Low 
Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4332; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 
4586; Lowrie Island: Stoddart 5001; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Pipon 
Island: Stoddart 4893; Three Isles: Stoddart 4493 (collection lost); Turtle III 
Island: Buckley 3560, Stoddart 4731; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), 
Walker (1991); Watson Island: Stoddart 4109; West Hope Island: Stoddart 
4384, Walker (1991). 



38 



Thespesia populneoides (Roxb.) Kosteletsky 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Newton Island: Stoddart 4141; West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991). 



Thespesia sp. 

Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Turtle V Island: Buckley 3667(1). 

MELIACEAE 

Aglaia elaeagnoides Benth. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 151 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Halfway Island: Buckley 
3878; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4555; Three Isles: Stoddart 4511; Turtle I 
Island: Buckley 3601, Stoddart 4674; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3512; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4596. 

Dysoxylum muelleri Benth. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Melia azedarach var. 
Melia composita Willd. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Melia composita], Smith, Specht 
and Clapham (1973). 

Pseudocarapa nitudula (Benth.) Merr. & Perry 
Green Island: Specht list. 

Turraea brownii C. DC. 

Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

Vavaea amicorum Benth. 

Green Island: Specht list; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3575. 



39 



Xylocarpus australasicus Ridley- 



Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4173]; Binstead Island: Stoddart 5015; 
Farmer Island: Buckley 5099; Fisher Island: Buckley 5092, Stoddart 5100; 
Lowrie Island: Buckley 5039. 



Xylocarpus granatum (L.) Koen. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 220-221, 272 

Binstead Island: Buckley 5059, 5060; Bushy Island: Buckley 3860; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; MacArthur Island: Buckley 5179; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3645; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4791. 



Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.) Roem. 

Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4169]; Fisher Island: Buckley 5089. 

MENISPERMACEAE 

Hypserpa decumbens (Benth.) Diels 

Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Pachygone ovata Miers ex Hook. f. & Thorns 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Specht list; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker 
(1991). 

Pycnarrhena sp. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Tinospora smilacina Benth. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 4435; Hannah 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hay Island: Buckley 
3770; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3576, 3606; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3360, 3398; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3520; West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

MORACEAE 

Cudrania cochinchinensis (Lour.) Kudo & Masam 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Specht list. 



40 



Cudrania javanensis (Miq.) Tree. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61530. 

Ficus benjamina L. 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Ficus coronata Reinw. ex Bl. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. (possibly juvenile); Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Ficus drupacea Thunb. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 156 

Bird Island: Buckley 5172; Bushy Island: Buckley 3884(7), 5224; Douglas 
Island: Buckley 5248, Walker (1991); Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4241; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Fosberg 55052, Stoddart 4345; 
MacArthur Island: Buckley 5189; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

Ficus fraseri Miq. 

Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4176. 

Ficus hispida L.f. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Ficus infectoria Roxb. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 

Ficus microcarpa L. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973), Specht list. 



Ficus obliqua Forst. f . Cribb and Cribb 1985, 156-157 

(var. petiolaris) 

Douglas Island: Walker (1991) (?); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973) [var. petiolaris]; Little Boydong: Buckley 3867; Two Isles: Stoddart 
4625, 4653; West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991) (?). 



41 



Ficus opposita Miq. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 157-158 

Bushy Island: Buckley 5227; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Ho wick 
Island: Stoddart 4861; Ingram Island: Buckley 3731(7), 5019; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4542; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Nymph Island: Heatwole 
134; Saunders Island: Buckley 3844; Sinclair Island: Buckley 3704; Three Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4475; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3569, Stoddart 4721; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3487; Two Isles: Stoddart 4658. 



Ficus pilosa Reinw. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 

Ficus virens var. sublanceolata (Miq.) Corner 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Green Island: Specht list; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

Ficus aff. virens Ait. 

Bushy Island: Buckley 5223, 5225; Dugong Island: Buckley 5286b. 



Ficus sp. 



Coquet Island: Walker, sight; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Green Island: 
Fosberg 61521, 61528, 61535; Farmer Island: Walker, sight; Hannibal Island: 
Walker, sight; Ingram Island: Buckley 3729; Low Isles: Fosberg 55052; 
MacArthur Island: Buckley 3854; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Pipon Island: 
King (1986); West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 



Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch. 



Bird Island: Buckley 5177; Three Isles: Stoddart 4512; Turtle I Island: Buckley 
3582; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3654, 4986; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3510; Two 
Isles: Stoddart 4626 4654; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 



MORINGACEAE 

Moringa oleifera Lam. 

Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4887. 



42 



MYOPORACEAE 

Myoporum acuminatum R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 159 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4094; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4858; 
Ingram Island: Buckley 3727, 3738, Stoddart 4043, 4064; Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4143; Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 
4186; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4671; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3378; Turtle V 
Island: Buckley 3534, 3541, Stoddart, sight; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3485; 
Two Isles: Stoddart 4609. 

MYRISTICACEAE 

Myristica insipida R. Br. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Myristica insipidia], Smith, 
Specht and Clapham (1973). 

MYRSINACEAE 

Aegiceras corniculatum Blanco Cribb and Cribb 1985,222-223,274 

Baird III Island: Buckley 3831; Low Isles: Stoddart 4318; Morris Island: 
Buckley 3706. 

MYRTACEAE 

Eugenia carissoides F. v. M. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 160 

(as E. reinwardtiana) 

Bushy Island: Buckley 5229, 5232; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Green 
Island: Specht list; Halfway Island: Buckley 3877b; MacArthur Island: 
Buckley 3850, 5184; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3570, 3611, Stoddart 4683; Turtle V 
Island: Buckley 3528; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3505; Two Isles: Stoddart 4655; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n. 

Eugenia rariflora Benth. ? 

Green Island: Fosberg 61529. 

Eugenia reinwardtiana (Bl.) DC. 

West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 



43 



Eugenia suborbicularis Benth. 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3574, 3614; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3407. 

Osbornia octodonta F. v. M. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 224 

Beanley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4165], 
Stoddart 4090; Binstead Island: Stoddart, sight; Chapman Island: Stoddart 
5044; Coquet Island: Stoddart, sight; East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4764; 
Fisher Island: Stoddart 5105; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4199; Leggatt Island: Buckley 5007, Stoddart, sight; 
Low Isles: Stoddart 4337; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4525; Lowrie Island: 
Stoddart 4997; Morris Island: Stoddart, sight; Newton Island: Stoddart 4153; 
Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4901; Three Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4514; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3603, Stoddart 
4703; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3646, Stoddart, sight; Turtle III Island: Buckley 
3563, Stoddart 4748; Turtle IV Island: Buckley 3567, Stoddart, sight; Turtle V 
Island: Buckley 3544; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3484, Stoddart, sight; Two 
Isles: Stoddart 4631; Watson Island: Stoddart 4104; West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4404; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4788. 

Syzygium rubiginosum Merr. & Perry 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Three Isles: MacGillivray 
(1852, 1, pp. 105-106) [as Calyptranthus]. 

NYCTAGINACEAE 

Boerhavia cf. acutifolia (Choisy) J. W. Moore 
Boerhavia dominii 

Eagle Island: Stoddart 4814; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4563; Newton 
Island: Stoddart 4128; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5086a; Two Isles: Stoddart 
4619. 

Boerhavia chinensis L. 

Fife Island: Stoddart 4955; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4926; Pipon Island: 
Stoddart 4877. 



Boerhavia coccinea Mill. (?) 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: 
Walker, s.n.; Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Stainer Island: 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985). 



44 



Boerhavia fistulosa Fosb. var. fistulosa 

Coombe Island: Stoddart 4021; East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4426; 
Michaelmas Cay: Stoddart 4215; Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4007; Three Isles: 
Stoddart 4521; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4750; West Hope Island: Stoddart 
4394; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4782. 



Boerhavia fistulosa Fosb. var. puberuliflora Fosb. 

East Hope Island: Stoddart 4426; Fife Island: Stoddart 4954; Morris Island: 
Stoddart 4984; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5086b; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 
4187; Stainer Island: Stoddart 4916. 

Boerhavia mutabilis R. Br. 

Coombe Island: Stoddart 4030; Nymph Island: Heatwole 136(?); Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4666. 

Boerhavia repens L. (sensu lato) 

Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Specht list. 

Boerhavia tetrandra sensu Walker non Forst. f. 

Arden Island, Douglas Island, Masig Island, Wallace Island, West Cairncross 
Island, West Hannibal Island, West Hope Island (all records under this name 
by Walker 1991); Cholmondeley Island: King et al. (1989a); Raine Island: 
Hacker (1990); Magra Island: King (1989); Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b). 



Boerhavia spp. 



Bird Island: Heatwole 131; Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Eagle Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Green Island: Specht list; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Pipon Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Saunders Island: King and Limpus (1989); Stainer Island: 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n. [These are specimens 
which we have not seen, determined by the collector as Boerhavia diffusa L., 
which we consider not to occur in Australia]. 



Pisonia grandis R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 164-168 

Bird Island: Stoddart, sight; Cairncross Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 120); 
Douglas Island: Buckley 5244, 5251; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove 
Island: Walker (1991); East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Wallace Island: 
Buckley 3868, 5204, King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4391, Walker (1991). 



45 



OLACACEAE 

Olax pendula L.S. Smith 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

OLEACEAE 

Jasminum aemulwn R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 170 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4280; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3578; Turtle 
II Island: Buckley 3430, 3662. 

Jasminum didymum Forst. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Ingram Island: Stoddart 
4079. 

Jasminum simplicifolium Forst. f. 

Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931); Fosberg 55029. 

Jasminum volubile Jacq. 

Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4726; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3638. 

Jasminum sp. 

Green Island: Fosberg 61538. 

Linociera ramiflora DC. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4284; Low Isles: 
Stoddart 4324. 

OPILIACEAE 

Cansjera leptostachya Benth. 

Green Island: Specht list; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991). 



46 



Opilia amentacea Roxb. 

West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 



ORCHIDACEAE 



Dendrobium discolor Lindl. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 172 



Low Isles: Stoddart 4354; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4538; Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4691, Buckley 3616. 



Orchidaceae indet. 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3617. 

PANDANACEAE 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 173-176, 275 



Pandanus tectorius Parkinson 
Pandanus adscendens St John 
Pandanus oblatiapicalis St John 
Pandanus pedunculatus R. Br. 
Pandanus sinuvadosus St John 
Pandanus viridinsularis St John 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: 
Walker (1991); Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Pandanus 
pedunculatus], Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stone (1982), St John 26266, 
26269 in St John (1967, p. 527) [as Pandanus adscendens], St John 26267 in St John 
(1962, p. 310) [as Pandanus oblatiapicalis], St John 26268 in St John (1962, p. 
329) [as Pandanus sinuvadosus], St John 26270 in St John (1962, p. 339)[as 
Pandanus viridinsularis], Stoddart 4256; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4539; 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n. [as Pandanus sp.]; 
Three Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 4522; Two Isles: Stoddart, sight; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n. [as Pandanus sp.], Walker (1991); West 
Hope Island: Steers (1938, p. 73), Stoddart 4417, Walker (1991). 



PASSIFLORACEAE 



Passiflora foetida L. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 177 



Green Island: Specht list; Stoddart 4265; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
King Island: Walker, sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931), Fosberg 55036, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4308; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4554; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: 
Stoddart 4983; Nymph Island: Heatwole 146, Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4882; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3594, Stoddart 4719; 
West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



47 



Passiflora herbertiana Lindl. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 

PEDALIACEAE 

Josephinia imperatricis Vent. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: 
Walker (1991); Fife Island: Steers (1938) [as Josephinia grandiflora], Buckley 
5031; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1140 [as 'Howick's Group']; 
Low Isles: R. Brown and Henne in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1140 [as Josephinia 
grandiflora]; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight; Masig Island: Walker (1991); 
Morris Island: Buckley 3786, Stoddart 4981; Pelican Island: A. Cunningham in 
Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1140; ; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5070; Three Isles: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, pp. 105-106), MacGillivray in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1140, 
Stephenson et al. (1931) [all as Josephinia grandiflora], Stoddart 4467; West 
Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 

PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Rivina humilis L. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973), Specht list. 

PLUMBAGINACEAE 

Aegialitis annulata R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 225 

Beanley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4164]; 
Binstead Island: Stoddart 5014 (collection lost); Chapman Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 5045; Coquet Island: Stoddart, sight; East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4768; Fisher Island: 
Stoddart 5101; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Mueller in 
Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 943 [as 'Howick's Group'], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4202; 
Leggatt Island: Stoddart, sight; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), Stoddart 
4338; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4526; Lowrie Island: Buckley 5051, 
Stoddart 4991; Morris Island: Stoddart, sight; Newton Island: Stoddart 4148 
Nymph Island: Heatwole 126, Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4902 
Sand Island: Stoddart 4208; Sherrard Island: Stoddart, sight; Three Isles 
Stoddart 4498; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4701, 4702; Turtle II Island: Buckley 
4984, 4985; Stoddart, sight; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4746; Turtle IV Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3526, Stoddart, sight; Turtle VI 
Island: Buckley 3483, Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4646; Watson 
Island: Stoddart 4107; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4382; West Pethebridge 
Island: Stoddart 4777; Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



48 



POACEAE (GRAMINEAE) 

Cenchrus echinatus L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 179-180 

Bramble Cay: Queensland Herbarium, s.n. (in Walker 1988); Coombe Island: 
Buckley 3754, Stoddart 4026; Coquet Island: Walker, sight; Eagle Island: 
Buckley 3443; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4436; Green Island: Specht list, 
Stoddart 4221; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4008. 

Cenchrus cf. elymoides F. v. M. 

Akone Island: Buckley 3908. 

Cymbopogon refractus (R. Br.) Camus 
Green Island: Specht list. 

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. 

Bird Island: Heatwole 32. 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. 

Akone Island: Buckley 3909b; Green Island: Stoddart 4288b; Halfway Island; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Raine Island: Hacker (1990); West Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 

Dactyloctenium australe Steud. 

Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4015; Saunders 
Island: Buckley 3845; Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4001. 

Digitaria ctenantha (F. v. M.) Hughes 

Newton Island: Stoddart 4126b; Stainer Island: Buckley 3762b; Turtle II 
Island: Buckley 3371, 3664; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3482; West Hope Island: 
Walker (1991). 

Digitaria sp. 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4277 (sterile). 



49 



Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 180 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4222, 4288a; Masig Island: Walker (1991); 
Raine Island: Stoddart 5061, Hacker (1990). 



Eragrostis cumingii Steud. 

Ingram Island: Buckley 3748a; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3589; reported by 
Lazarides from the Great Barrier Reef, island not listed. 



Eragrostis sororia Domin 

Farmer Island: Buckley 3825b. 

Eragrostis sp. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Little Boydong: Buckley 3844, 3867. 

Heteropogon contortus (L.) R. & S. 

Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4841; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Heteropogon triticeus (R. Br.) Stapf ex Craig 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4100; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 
1861 [as 'Howick's Group'] [as Heteropogon insignis Thur.]. 

Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) Hubb. 

Dove Island: Walker (1991); Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as 
Imperata arundinacea], Specht list; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris 
Island: Buckley 3787, Stoddart 4987; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Lepturus repens (Forst. f.) R. Br. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 180-181 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beanley Island: Stoddart, sight; Binstead 
Island: Stoddart 5003 (collection lost); Bird Island: Denham in Bailey, Fl. Qd., 
p. 1919, Heatwole 30; Bramble Cay: Queensland Herbarium (in Walker 1988), 
Parmeter, s.n.; Bushy Island: Walker (1991); Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4013; Douglas Island: Walker 
(1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 4425, 4448; Eagle Island: Smith 
and Buckley (1986); Farmer Island: Stoddart , sight; Fife Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4959; Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4254; Hannah Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Houghton Island: Stoddart, 
sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931), 



50 



Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4305; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4564; Lowrie 
Island: Stoddart 4999; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989); Masig 
Island: Walker (1991); Michaelmas Cay: Stoddart 4217; Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4217; Nymph Island: Heatwole 139(?), Stoddart, sight; Pelican 
Island: Stoddart 4918; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Raine Island: H.M.S. 
Challenger collection in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 1919, Stoddart 5051, 5059, Hacker 
(1990); Saunders Island: Stoddart 5066, King and Limpus (1989); Sinclair 
Island: Stoddart 4174; Stainer Island: Stoddart 4913, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4011; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4676; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Turtle VI Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4647; 
Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b); Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4453, Walker (1991); Wharton Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



Lepturus stoddartii Fosberg 



Eagle Island: Stoddart 4832; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4082, 4282; Low Isles: 
Fosberg 55044; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3399; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4749; 
Turtle V Island: Buckley 3394. 



Lepturus sp. 

Turtle VI Island: Buckley 351 8(?) (sterile). 

Panicum antidotale Retz. 

Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. 

Panicum maximum Jacq. 

Three Isles: Stoddart 4480, 4584. 



Panicum miliiforme Presl 



Buchan Island: Buckley 3843; Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles, 
Heatwole, s.n.; Wallace Island: Buckley 3870. 



Panicum muticum Forssk. 

Stainer Island: Buckley 3762a. 

Panicum trichoides Sw. 

Douglas Island: Buckley 3890, Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n. 



51 



Spinifex hirsutus Labill. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 181-182 

Bushy Island: Buckley 5240; Cholmondeley Island: King et al. (1989a); Farmer 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989); 
Saunders Island: Stoddart 5062, King and Limpus (1989); Wallace Island: King 
et al. (1989b). 



Spinifex longifolius R. Br. 

Farmer Island: Buckley 3814; Milman Island: Buckley 3897. 

Spinifex sericea R. Br. 

Masig Island: Walker (1991); Wallace Island: Walker (1991); West Hope 
Island: Walker (1991). 

Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth Cribb and Cribb 1985, 182-183 

Akone Island: Buckley 3909a(?); Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beanley 
Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: Stoddart 4191; Cholmondeley Island: 
Buckley 5208; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4014; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; 
Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
Stoddart 4808; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4427; East Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4770; Eagle Island: Smith and Buckley (1986); Farmer Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Fife Island: Buckley 5030, Stoddart 4958, Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4266; Ingram Island: 
Stoddart 4071; Kay Island: Stoddart 5096; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3715, 5005, 
Stoddart, sight; Low Isles: Fosberg 55024, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4348; 
Magra Island: Stoddart, sight; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Michaelmas 
Cay: Stoddart 4213; Morris Island: Stoddart 4977; Newton Island: Stoddart 
4139; Nymph Island: Heatwole 132; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4920; Pipon 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4870; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5069; 
Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5036 (collection lost); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 
4006; Tern Island: Buckley 5269; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4500; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3369, 3370 [var. minor]; Turtle III Island: Buckley 3554, 
Stoddart 4278; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3529; Two Isles: Stoddart 4648; Upolu 
Cay: Stoddart 4218; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4456, Walker (1991); West Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4779. 

Stenotaphrum micranthum (Desv.) Hubb. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 183-184 

Bird Island: Heatwole 29; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), 
Roe 1047. 



52 



Themeda arguens Hack. 



Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hay Island: Buckley 3775; Ingram Island: 
Buckley 3752, Stoddart 4078; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3590, Stoddart 4673; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3372. 



Thuarea involuta (Forst. f.) R. Br. ex R. & S. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 184-185 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Coombe Island: Stoddart 4032; Dalrymple 
Island: Walker, s.n.; Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4809, Smith and 
Buckley (1986); East Hope Island: Stoddart 4443; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973), Fosberg 61519, Stoddart 4251; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4067; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4574; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Three Isles: 
Stoddart 4506; Two Isles: Stoddart 4593; West Cairncross Island: Walker 
(1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Tricholaena rosea Nees 

Rhynchelytrum repens sensu auct. non (Willd.) Hubb. 

Low Isles: Fosberg 55025, Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4356; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991) [as Rhynchelytrum repens]. 

Poaceae indet. 

Bramble Cay: Walker (1988) 

PODOCARPACEAE 

Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don 

Green Island: Specht list. 

Podocarpus sp. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

POLYPODIACEAE 

Drynaria quericifolia (L.) J. Sm. 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3603, Stoddart 4718. 

Drynaria rigidula (Sw.) Bedd. 

Low Isles: Stoddart 4343; West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



53 



Nephrolepis biserrata (Sw.) Schott ? 

Nephrolepis hirsutula sensu auct. non (Forst. f.) Presl 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4271. 



Platyceriwn bifurcatum (Cav.) C. Chr. 

Low Isles: Stoddart 4357; West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



PORTULACACEAE 



Portulaca australis Endl. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Arnold Island: Buckley 5261; Chapman Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Eagle Island: Stoddart 4834; Dove Island: Walker (1991); East 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight; Morris 
Island: Buckley 3792(7), Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4884; Turtle I 
Island: Stoddart 4665; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3405; Turtle V Island: Buckley 
3532; Two Isles: Stoddart 4649; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; West 
Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Portulaca oleracea L. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 186 



Bramble Cay: Parmeter, s.n., Walker, s.n.; Bird Island: Heatwole 27 or 28; 
Buchan Island: Buckley 3840; Bushy Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: 
Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker, s.n.; Fisher Island: Buckley 3827b; Magra 
Island: King (1989); Raine Island: Hacker (1990); Stapleton Island: Buckley 
3755; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991). 



Portulaca 



sp. 



Bird Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Buckley 5049. 



Ingram Island: Buckley 3730; Lowrie Island: 



RHAMNACEAE 



Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brong. 



Cribb and Cribb 1985, 187 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bewick Island: Stoddart 4098; Dalrymple 
Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 
4442; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4947, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61508, 
Stoddart 4236; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Mueller in 
Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 270 [as 'Howick's Group'], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4855; 
Ingram Island: Stoddart 4063; Low Isles: Fosberg 55028, Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4353; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4561; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); Morris Island: Buckley 3711, Stoddart 4967; Newton Island: Stoddart 



54 



4132; Nymph Island: Heatwole 129, Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4880; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5078; Sherrard Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Sinclair Island: Stoddart 4175; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4471; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3414, 3651; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 
4755; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3383, 3551, Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 
4617; Watson Island: Stoddart 4105; West Cairncross Island: Walker (1991); 
West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 4402, 
Walker (1991). 



Schistocarpaea sp. 

Green Island: Gardner (1973). 



Ventilago sp. 

Green Island: Specht list. 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 



Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Bl. 



Binstead Island: Buckley 3801 (?); Fisher Island: Buckley 3829, 5084, 5088, 
Stoddart 5097; Pirie Island: Buckley 5193; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3596, 
Stoddart 4698. 



Bruguiera exaristata Ding Hou 



Chapman Island: Buckley 3810; East Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4760; 
Fisher Island: Buckley 5086; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Leggatt Island: 
Buckley 3719, 5013; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4528, 4537; Lowrie Island: 
Stoddart 4993; Nymph Island: Heatwole 120; South Bird Island: Buckley 
5160; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3608; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3641a, Stoddart, 
sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4635; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4387; West 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4785. 



Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lam. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 227-228, 276 

Baird Island: Buckley 5105, 5108; Baird III Island: Buckley 3836; Bewick 
Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4162], Stoddart 4085; East Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4763; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Stoddart 
4198, 4204; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3720(7), 5008(7), 5014; Low Isles: 
Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Bruguiera rheedii], Stoddart 4315; Newton Island: 
Stoddart 4147a; Three Isles: Stoddart 4663; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4826; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3433, Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: Stoddart 4641; West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4406; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4790. 



55 



Bruguiera sexangula (Lour.) Poir. 



Watson Island: Stoddart 4110 [following A. McCusker, Flora of Australia, 22 
(1984)]. 



Bruguiera sp. 



Baird III Island: Buckley 3830; Buchan Island: Buckley 3841; Bushy Island: 
Buckley 3857; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3718; South Bird Island: Buckley 5162b. 



Carallia brachiata (Lour.) Merr. 
Carallia integer rima DC. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B. Rob. var. australis C. T. White 

Cribb and Cribb 1985, 228-230, 276 
(as C. tagal) 

Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4527, 4536; Lowrie Island: Stoddart 4992; Pipon 
Island: Stoddart 4903; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4786. 



Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. var. tagal 

Baird Island: Buckley 5106; Bewick Island: Thom [as Stoddart 4168, 4170, 4171, 
4172], Stoddart 4086; Bushy Island: Buckley 3859; East Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4761; Leggatt Island: Buckley 5012; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. 
(1931) [as Ceriops tagal], Stoddart 4317; Lowrie Island: Buckley 3795(?), 5033; 
Newton Island: Stoddart 4154; South Bird Island: Buckley 5162a; Three Isles: 
Stoddart 4510; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3605, Stoddart 4699; Turtle II Island: 
Buckley 3640; Two Isles: Stoddart 4634, 4637; Watson Island: Stoddart 4113; 
West Hope Island: Stoddart 4385, 4386; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 
4787. 



Rhizophora apiculata Bl. 

Hay Island: Buckley 3778; Lance Island: Buckley 3758b (sterile). 

Rhizophora lamarckii Montr. 

Bushy Island: Buckley 3856(?). 



56 



Rhizophora mucronata var. stylosa (Griff.) Schimper 

Cribb and Cribb 1985, 230-232, 277-278 (as R. stylosa) 
Rhizophora stylosa Griff. 

Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: Thorn [as Stoddart 4160]; 
Binstead Island: Buckley 3805, Stoddart 5018 (collection lost); Bird Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Bushy Island: Buckley 3858; Chapman Island: Stoddart 5047; 
Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East 
Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4766; Fisher Island: Buckley 3827a, 5090, 
Stoddart 5106; Hampton Island: Stoddart 4212; Hannah Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4200, 4205, 4840; Ingram Island: Buckley 3749; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3713, 
5006; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Rhizophora mucronata], Stoddart 
4339; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4523; Lowrie Island: Buckley 5050, 
Stoddart 4990; Morris Island: Buckley 3705; Newton Island: Stoddart 4146, 
4149; Nymph Island: Heatwole 120, Stoddart, sight; Pipon Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4881, King (1986) [as Rhizophora stylosa]; Sand Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5033 (collection lost); South Bird 
Island: Buckley 5166; Three Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Rhizophora 
mucronata], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4497 (collection lost); Turtle I Island: 
Stoddart 4695; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3635, Stoddart, sight; Turtle III 
Island: Buckley 3557, Stoddart 4747; Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle 
V Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle VI Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4633; Watson Island: Stoddart 4108, 4110a; West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4403; West Pethebridge Island: Stoddart 4789. 



Rhizophora sp. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3644; Wharton Island: Buckley 3759. 

RUBIACEAE 

Canthium coprosmoid.es F. v. M. 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3615; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3429, 3636; Turtle VI 
Island: Buckley 3509. 

Canthium vacciniifolium F. v. M. 

Cairncross Island: Mueller in Bailey, H. Qd., p. 764, Walker (1991). 

Canthium sp. ? 

Turtle I Island: Buckley 3573; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3507. 



57 



Guettarda speciosa L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 188-189, 279 

Bewick Island: Stoddart, sight; Bird Island: Stoddart 5093; Coquet Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Eagle Island: Stoddart 4798; East Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), Specht list, Stoddart 
4249; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; 
Ho wick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4860; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4047; 
Leggatt Island: Stoddart, sight; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4558; Masig 
Island: Walker (1991); Nymph Island: Stoddart, sight; West Cairncross 
Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope 
Island: Walker (1991). 



Ixora klanderiana F. v. M. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61534; Ingram 
Island: Buckley 5024; Nymph Island: Heatwole 143(?). 



Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. 

Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: 
Heatwole, s.n. [The above records should be considered doubtful, as we have not 
seen the specimens]. 



Morinda citrifolia L.Cribb and Cribb 1985, 189-190 

Bewick Island: Stoddart, sight; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Douglas Island: 
Walker (1991) (?); Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933), St John (1967), 
Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 4275; Howick Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Stoddart 4863; Low Isles: Stoddart 4316; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 
4530; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Milman Island: Buckley 3899 (reticulate?); 
Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4483; Two Isles: Stoddart 4608; West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4399, Walker (1991). 



Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. 
Dove Island: Walker (1991). 

Spermacoce buckleyi Fosb. 

Fife Island: Steers (1938) (?), Stoddart 4956; Howick Island: Stoddart 4868; 
Ingram Island: Stoddart 4059; Newton Island: Stoddart 4130; Sinclair Island: 
Buckley 3701. 

Spermacoce everistii Fosb. 

Milman Island: Buckley 3896. 



58 



Spermacoce marginata Benth. 



Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985) [this may possibly be Spermacoce 
buckleyi Fosb.]; Howick Island: MacGillivray and Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., 
[as 'Ho wick's Group'] [this may possibly be Spermacoce buckleyi Fosb.]. 



Spermacoce sp. 

Dove Island: Walker (1991). 

RUTACEAE 

Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle 
Low Isles: Fosberg 55055. 

Clausena brevistyla Oliv. 

East Hope Island: MacGillivray in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 213 [as 'Hope Islands']. 

Flindersia ifflaiana F. v. M. 

Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933). 

Glycosmis pentaphylla Corr. 

Douglas Island: Buckley 5260, Walker (1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 
4432; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Hannibal Island: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Stoddart 4866; Low Isles: Stoddart 4333; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3513; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker 
(1991). 

Micromelum minutum (Forst.) Leem. 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4097; Cairncross Island: Mueller in Bailey, H. Qd., p. 
212 [as Micromelum pubescens Bl.]; Douglas Island: Buckley 3892, Walker 
(1991); East Hope Island: Stoddart 4430; Green Island: Specht list; Hannibal 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4859, 4867; 
Low Isles: Stoddart 4323; Nymph Island: Heatwole 123; Turtle I Island: 
Buckley 3604, Stoddart 4717; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3409, 3657, 4982; West 
Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991). 



59 



SANTALACEAE 

Exocarpos latifolius R. Br. 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4087; Bird Island: Buckley 5173; East Cairncross 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Farmer Island: Buckley 5104; Halfway Island: Buckley 
3874, 3879, 5214; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Wooded Island: 
Stoddart 4552; Milman Island: Buckley 3900; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4682; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3488; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Stoddart 
4458, Walker (1991). 

SAPINDACEAE 

Alectryon sp. 

Turtle II Island: Buckley 3645. 



Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 194 

Cupania anacardioides A. Rich. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Hay Island: Buckley 3379. 



Dodonaea platyptera F. v. M. 

Hay Island: Buckley 3768. 

Dodonaea viscosa L. 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61513; Hannah 
Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Masig Island: Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

Ganophyllum falcatum Bl. 

Farmer Island: Buckley 3813, 5102; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham 
(1973), Stoddart 4290; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4054; Turtle I Island: Buckley 
3600(?); Two Isles: Stoddart 4621; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Walker (1991); West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



SAPOTACEAE 



Manilkara kauki Dubard 



Aplin Island: Buckley 3902; Arden Island: Walker (1991); Baird Island: 
Buckley 5111; Baird III Island: Buckley 3833; Bewick Island: Stoddart 4091; 



60 



Bird Island: Buckley 5168, 5178; Bushy Island: Buckley 5233; Cairncross Island: 
A. Cunningham in King (1827, 1, p. 383) [as Mimusops kauki]; Dalrymple Island: 
Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: Walker (1991); Douglas Island: Buckley 5242, 
Walker (1991); East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Farmer Island: Buckley 
5103a; Halfway Island: Buckley 3876; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Ingram Island: Buckley 3732, Stoddart 4056; Leggatt Island: Buckley 3722b; 
Little Boydong: Buckley 5199; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4550; MacArthur 
Island: Buckley 3848, 5190; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Newton Island: 
Stoddart, sight; Nymph Island: Heatwole 118; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4875; Pirie Island: Buckley 5191; Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, 1, 
pp. 105-106) [as Mimusops kauki], Stoddart 4518; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3609 
(collection lost), Stoddart 4681; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3428, 4981; Two Isles: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 107) [as Mimusops kauki], Stoddart 4628; Wallace 
Island: Buckley 5205, 5206, King et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West Cairncross 
Island: Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Mimusops elengi L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 195 

Eagle Island: Buckley 3448; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4423; Fife Island: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 114) [as Mimusops], Heatwole, s.n.; Green Island: St 
John (1962) [as Mimusops parviflora], Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973); Hay 
Island: Buckley 3780; Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 961 [as 
'Howick's Group'] [as Mimusops browniana Benth.]; Ingram Island: Buckley 
3743, 5020, 5022, Stoddart 4073; Low Isles: Stoddart 4335, 4365.; Nymph 
Island: Heatwole 144; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3650; West Hope Island: 
Stoddart 4400, 4413, Walker (1991). 



Pouteria obovata (R. Br.) Baehni Cribb and Cribb 1985, 196 

Planchonella obovata (R. Br.) Pierre 

Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4801; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4446; 
Green Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Sideroxylon obovatum], St John 
(1962) [as Planchonella obovata], Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973) [as 
Planchonella obovata], Fosberg 61525, 61527, Stoddart 4267, 4282; Howick 
Island: Stoddart 4843; Ingram Island: Buckley 3728, 3745, 5026, 5027; Low Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4358, 4366; Nymph Island: Heatwole 135; South Bird 
Island: Buckley 3928; Tern Island: Buckley 5266; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3508; Two Isles: Stoddart 4597. 



Pouteria pohlmaniana (F. v. M.) Baehni 
Farmer Island: Buckley 3826. 

Pouteria sericea (R. Br.) Baehni Cribb and Cribb 1985, 196-197 

Eagle Island: Buckley 3447. 



61 



'Sideroxylon argenteum Spreng.' 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 958 [as 'Ho wick's Group']. 

SOLANACEAE 

Capsicum frutescens L. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. (probably). 



Physalis angulata L. 

Physalis minima sensu auct. non L. 

Low Isles: Stoddart 4350. 



Physalis sp. 

Little Boydong: Buckley 5198(?). 

Solarium seaforthianum 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

Solarium torvum Sw. 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 



Solarium viridifolium Dunal 
Solarium viride R. Br. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; East Hannibal 
Island: Walker (1991); Fife Island: Steers (1938), Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 3784, 
Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n. 



Solarium sp. 

West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

SONNERATIACEAE 

Sonneratia alba J. Sm. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 234 

Arnold Island: Buckley 5262; Baird Island: Buckley 5107, 5109; Bewick Island: 
Stoddart 4161, 4167; Binstead Island: Buckley 3804, Stoddart 5019 (collection 



62 



lost); Chapman Island: Buckley 5070, Stoddart 5043; Fisher Island: Stoddart 
5104; Howick Island: Stoddart 4201, 4839, 4852; Morris Island: Buckley 
3707(?); Pipon Island: Stoddart 4905; Three Isles: Stoddart 4664; Turtle V 
Island: Buckley 3521; Two Isles: Stoddart 4640; West Pethebridge Island: 
Stoddart 4773. 



STERCULIACEAE 

Sterculia quadrifida R. Br. 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4289; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4585.; 

SURIANACEAE 

Suriana maritima L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 199 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beanley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: 
Stoddart 4089; Bird Island: Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4020; 
Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: 
Walker (1991); Eagle Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 109), Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4810, Smith and Buckley (1986); East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Fife Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Hannibal Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Houghton Island: Stoddart, sight; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4850; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4058; King Island: Walker, sight; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4529; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight, King (1989); 
Morris Island: Stoddart 4973; Nymph Island: Heatwole 121, Stoddart, sight; 
Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4871; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5082, 
King and Limpus (1989) [as Suriana sp.]; Sherrard Island: MacGillivray (1852, 
I, p. 116), Stoddart 5026 (collection lost); Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, I, 
pp. 105-106), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4469; Turtle II Island: Stoddart 4752; 
Turtle IV Island: Stoddart, sight; Turtle V Island: Stoddart, sight; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4592; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991). 

TACCACEAE 

Tacca leontopetaloides (L.) O. Ktze. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Dove Island: 
Walker (1991); Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Stoddart 
4255; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Turtle II Island: Buckley 3423; West 
Cairncross Island: Walker (1991). 

TILIACEAE 

Grewia orientalis L. 

Green Island: Specht list. 



63 



Grewia oxyphylla Burret 

Fife Island: Buckley 3782; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4587.; 



Triumfetta repens Merr. & Rolfe Cribb and Cribb 1985, 211-201 

Triwnfetta procumbens sensu auct. non Forst. f. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4811; 
Green Island: Specht list; Howick Island: Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 155 [as 'Howick 
Group'] [as Triumfetta procumbens Forst. fj; Ingram Island: Buckley 3724; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3564; Two Isles: Stoddart 4639; Wallace Island: King 
et al. (1989b), Walker (1991); West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker 
(1991). 



Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. 

Green Island: Specht list, Stoddart 4250. 

ULMACEAE 

Celtis paniculata (Endl.) Planch. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 202 

Bushy Island: Buckley 5221; Douglas Island: Walker (1991) (?); Farmer Island: 
Buckley 5100, 5101; Little Boydong: Buckley 3864, 5201; MacArthur Island: 
Buckley 3849, 3853; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); 
West Hope Island: Walker (1991). 

Celtis philippinensis Blanco 

Douglas Island: Buckley 3891, 5252; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3426, 3665. 

Celtis sp. 

Green Island: Fosberg 61531. 

URTICACEAE 

Pipturus argenteus (Forst. f.) Wedd. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Green Island: Mauritzon in 1936 (S); Masig 
Island: Walker (1991). 



64 



VERBENACEAE 

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 204-205 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bushy Island: 
Buckley 5217; Chapman Island: Buckley 5069; Coombe Island: Stoddart 4019; 
Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: 
MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 109), Heatwole, s.n., Buckley 3440(?), Stoddart 4806; 
East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4441; 
Farmer Island: Stoddart, sight; Fife Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4940 
(collection lost), Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green Island: Gardner (1973), 
Specht list, Stoddart 4237; Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island 
Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: Stoddart 4334; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4571 
Masig Island: Walker (1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4965; Newton Island 
Stoddart 4129; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4890; Saunders Island 
Stoddart 5077; Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, 1, pp. 105-106), Stoddart 4507 
Turtle I Island: Buckley 3195; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3646b; Turtle V Island 
Buckley 3527; Two Isles: Stoddart 4645; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole 
s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West Hope Island 
Walker (1991). 



Clerodendrum sp. 

Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n.; Lowrie Island: Stoddart 5002; Morris Island: MacGillivray 
(1852, I, p. 115); Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n. 



Lantana camara L. 

East Hope Island: Stoddart 4439; Low Isles: Fosberg 55046, Heatwole, s.n., 
Stoddart 4363; Masig Island: Walker (1991). 



Premna serratifolia L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 205 (as P. corymbosa) 

Premna obtusifolia R. Br. 
Premna corymbosa Burm. f. 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Bewick Island: Stoddart 4179; Dugong Island: 
Buckley 5277; Douglas Island: Walker (1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); 
East Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n.; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4372; Fife 
Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4951, Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Green 
Island: Cairns City Council (1933) [as Premna obtusifolia], Smith, Specht and 
Clapham (1973), Fosberg 61518, Stoddart 4244; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4845; Ingram Island: Stoddart 4050; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as 
Premna obtusifolia], Tandy 538 (BM), Heatwole, s.n., Fosberg 55040; Low 
Wooded Island: Stoddart 4579; Lowrie Island: Buckley 5038(7); Masig Island: 
Walker (1991); Morris Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 115) [as Premna], 
Buckley 3708; Newton Island: Stoddart 4138; Pelican Island: Stoddart 4928; 



65 



Saunders Island: Stoddart 5065; Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, I, pp. 105- 
106) [as Premna obtusifolia], Stephenson 667 (BM), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4479; Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4677; Turtle II Island: Buckley 3417, 3661; 
Turtle V Island: Buckley 3542; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3516; Two Isles: 
Stoddart 4620; Watson Island: Stoddart 4114; West Cairncross Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4416, Walker (1991). 



Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl Cribb and Cribb 1985, 205-206 

Bewick Island: Stoddart 4084; Eagle Island: Stoddart 4833; Green Island: 
Specht list, Stoddart 4224; Masig Island: Walker (1991); Three Isles: 
Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4492 (collection lost). 



Vitex negundo var. bicolor (Willd.) Lam Cribb and Cribb 1985, 207 

Arden Island: Walker (1991) (?) [as Vitex negundo]; East Hope Island: Stoddart 
4637; Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973), Gardner (1973), Fosberg 
61523, Stoddart 4235; Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Vitex trifolia], 
Stoddart 4322; Three Isles: Stoddart 4466; Turtle I Island: Buckley 3593, 3597; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3380, 3381, 3382; West Hope Island: Stoddart 4411, 
Walker (1991). 



Vitex ovata Thunb. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 207-208 

Arden Island: Walker (1991) (?); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4815; 
Farmer Island: Walker, sight; Fife Island: Stoddart 4956, Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4849; Ingram Island: 
Stoddart 4041; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4577; Masig Island: Walker 
(1991); Morris Island: Stoddart 4974; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5074; Sinclair 
Island: Stoddart 4189; Stainer Island: Chaloupka and Godwin (1985); Three 
Isles: MacGillivray (1852, I, pp. 105-106), Heatwole, s.n.; Turtle III Island: 
Stoddart 4756; Two Isles: Stoddart 4614; Wallace Island: King et al. (1989b), 
Walker (1991). 



Vitex trifolia var. subtrisecta (O. Ktze.) Moldenke 

Arden Island: Walker (1991) [as Vitex trifolia]; Green Island: Specht list [as 
Vitex trifolia]; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n. [as Vitex trifolia], Stoddart 4466. 



VITIDACEAE (including LEEACEAE) 

Cayratia acris 

Arden Island: Walker (1991). 



66 



Cay ratio, cardiophylla 



Arden Island: Walker (1991) (?); Douglas Island: Walker (1991); West Hope 
Island: Walker (1991). 



Cayratia clematidea Domin 

Green Island: Smith, Specht and Clapham (1973). 



Cayratia grandifolia (Warb.) Merr. & Perry 

East Hope Island: Stoddart 4371; Fife Island: Stoddart 4961, Chaloupka and 
Godwin (1985); Howick Island: Stoddart 4862; Ingram Island: Buckley 5025(?), 
Stoddart 4061; Low Wooded Island: Stoddart 4547; Pipon Island: Heatwole, 
s.n.; Sinclair Island: Buckley 5003b [as Sinclair-Morris Islands]; Three Isles: 
Stoddart 4513; Two Isles: Stoddart 4606; Watson Island: Stoddart 4115; West 
Hope Island: Stoddart 4407. 



Cayratia saponaria (Seem.) Domin 
Vitis saponaria Seem. 

Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Piper's Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 117), 
MacGillivray in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 280; West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, 
s.n., Walker (1991); West Hannibal Island: Walker (1991). 



Cayratia trifolia (L.) Domin 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Arnold Island: Buckley 3906; Binstead Island: 
Buckley 5062; Chapman Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Douglas Island: Buckley 5246, 
Walker (1991); Dugong Island: Buckley 5286a; Farmer Island: Buckley 3825a; 
Hannibal Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Low Wooded 
Island: Stoddart 4576; Morris Island: Buckley 3709; Nymph Island: Heatwole 
124; Pipon Island: Stoddart 4876; Saunders Island: Stoddart 5068; Sinclair 
Island: Buckley 5003a [as Sinclair-Morris Islands]; Three Isles: Heatwole, s.n.; 
Turtle I Island: Stoddart 4680; Turtle III Island: Stoddart 4739; Turtle V 
Island: Buckley 3539; Two Isles: Stoddart 4629; West Hannibal Island: 
Walker (1991). 



Cayratia sp. 



Arden Island: Walker (1991); East Hannibal Island: Walker (1991); Farmer 
Island: MacGillivray (1852, I, p. 117) [as Cissus sp.]; Green Island: Specht list; 
Turtle II Island: Buckley 3401; Turtle III Island: Buckley 3561; Turtle V Island: 
Buckley 3543; Turtle VI Island: Buckley 3502. 



67 



Leea sambucina Willd. 

Howick Island: Mueller in Bailey, Fl. Qd., p. 384 [as 'Howick's Group]. 

ZOSTERACEAE 

Cymodocea rotundata Ehr. & Hempr. ex Aschers. 

Batt Reef: Tandy 84 (BM) (in Den Hartog 1970); Pipon Island: Stoddart 4906. 

Cymodocea serrulata (R. Br.) Aschers. & Magnus. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 239 

Green Island: S. T. Blake 22084 (BRI) (in Den Hartog 1970). 

Halodule uninervis (Forssk.) Aschers. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 240 

Low Isles: Stephenson et al. (1931) [as Diplanthera uninervis], Den Hartog 908 
(in Den Hartog 1970), S. T. Blake 22086 (BRI) (in Den Hartog 1970), Fosberg 
55021, Stoddart 4311,4312. 

Syringodium isoetifolium (Aschers.) Dandy Cribb and Cribb 1985, 240 

Pipon Island: Stoddart 4908. 

Zostera capricorni Aschers. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 246 

Nymph Island: Stoddart 4792. 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

Tribulus cistoides L. Cribb and Cribb 1985, 209-210 

Arden Island: Walker (1991); Beesley Island: Stoddart, sight; Bewick Island: 
Stoddart 4178; Bramble Cay: Queensland Herbarium (in Walker 1988); Bushy 
Island: Walker (1991); Chapman Island: Stoddart, sight; Coombe Island: 
Stoddart 4034; Dalrymple Island: Walker, s.n.; Douglas Island: Walker 
(1991); Dove Island: Walker (1991); Eagle Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 
4819; East Hope Island: Stoddart 4445; Farmer Island: Walker, sight; Fife 
Island: Steers (1938), Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4956a, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Green Island: Specht list; Hannah Island: Heatwole, s.n.; Howick 
Island: Mueller in Bailet, Fl. Qd., p. 172 [as 'Howick's Group'], Heatwole, s.n.; 
Ingram Island: Stoddart 4075; Magra Island: Stoddart, sight; Masig Island: 
Walker (1991); Michaelmas Cay: Stoddart 4216; Morris Island: Stoddart 
4978; Newton Island: Stoddart 4142; Nymph Island: Heatwole 127; Pelican 
Island: Stoddart 4922; Pipon Island: Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4891; Raine 
Island: Stoddart 5055, Hacker (1990); Saunders Island: Stoddart 5075, King 



68 



and Limpus (1989); Sherrard Island: Stoddart 5023 (collection lost); Sinclair 
Island: Buckley 3702; Stainer Island: Stoddart 4914, Chaloupka and Godwin 
(1985); Stapleton Island: Stoddart 4003; Three Isles: MacGillivray (1852, I, 
pp. 105-106) [as Tribulus], Heatwole, s.n., Stoddart 4508; Turtle III Island: 
Stoddart 4740; Turtle V Island: Buckley 3384; Unnamed (Forth) Island: 
Buckley 3894; Wallace Island: Buckley 5207; Watson Island: Stoddart 4123; 
West Cairncross Island: Heatwole, s.n., Walker (1991); Wharton Island: 
Heatwole, s.n., Walker, sight. 



Tribulus sp. 

Eagle Island: Buckley 3442. 



69 



Appendix 1. Species with propagules recorded from Low Isles by Crome 

(1975) 



ARALIACEAE 

Kissodendron australianum Seem. 

ARECACEAE (PALMAE) 



Archontophoenix alexandrae Wendle. & Drude 
Calamus sp. 



BURSERACEAE 

Canarium australianum F. v. M. 



COMBRETACEAE 



Terminalia sericocarpa F. v. M. 



ELAEOCARPACEAE 

Elaeocarpus grandis F. v. M. 
Elaeocarpus grahamii F. v. M. 
Elaeocarpus largiflorens C. T. White 



ICACINACEAE 

Gomphandra australiana F. v. M. 

LAURACEAE 

Cryptocarya sp. aff. C. cinnamomifolia Merr. 
Cryptocarya corrugata White & Francis 
Cryptocarya hypospodia F. v. M. 
Cryptocarya mackinnoniana F. v. M. 
Cryptocarya sp. 

Beilschmiedia sp. aff. B. oligandra J. E. Sm. 
Endiandra hypotephra F. v. M. 
Endiandra muelleri Meisen. 
Endiandra montana White 
Litsea leefeana Merr. 



70 



MELIACEAE 



Disoxylum micranthum Merr. & Peng. 

Dysoxylum sp. 

Xylocarpus granatum (L.) Koen. 



MENISPERMACEAE 

Hypserpa laurina Biels 

MYRISTICACEAE 

Myristica muelleri Warb. 

PANDANACEAE 

Freycinetia excelsa F. v. M. 

PIPERACEAE 

Piper sp. 

PODOCARPACEAE 

Podocarpus neriifolius 0. Don 

RHIZOPHORACEAE 

Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob 

ROSACEAE 

Prunus turnerana (F. M. Bailey) Kalkm. 

SAPINDACEAE 

Ganophyllum falcatum Bl. 

SAPOTACEAE 

Pouteria obovata (R. Br.) Baehni (as Planchonella obovoidea) 



71 



SOLANACEAE 



Solarium mauritianum Scop. 
Solarium torvum L. 



VTTIDACEAE (including LEEACEAE) 
Cayratia sp. (as Cissus sp.) 



Appendix 2. Species with propagules recorded from Raine Island by Hacker 

(1990) 



ANACARDIACEAE 



Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume 
Semecarpus australiensis Engl. 



APOCYNACEAE 



ARECACEAE 



Cerbera manghas L. 

Cerbera sp. (?) 

Neisosperma sp. aff. N. kilneri 



Cocos nucifera L. 

Nypa fruticans van Wurmb. 



BARRINGTONIACEAE 

Barringtonia asiatica (L.) Kurz 



CONVOLVULACEAE 



Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. 
I. macrantha Roemer & Schultes 
Merremia peltata (L.) Merr 



COMBRETACEAE 

Terminalia catappa L. 



72 



EUPHORBIACEAE 



Actephila lindleyi (Steudel) Airy Shaw (?) 
Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. 



Pangium edule Reinw. 



Calophyllum inophyllum L. 



Hernandia peltata Meisner 



^ 



Caesalpinia crista L. 

Dioclea sp. 

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. 

E. pursaetha DC. 

Entada sp. 

Erythrina variegata L. 

Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) Kuntze 

Mucuna spp. 



Xylocarpus granatum Koenig 



Pandanus spp. 



Heritiera littoralis Dryander 



FLACOURTIACEAE 



GUTTIFERAE 



HERNANDIACEAE 



LEGUMINOSAE 



MELIACEAE 



PANDANACEAE 



STERCULIACEAE 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 



Bruguiera sp. 
Rhizophora sp. 



Guettarda speciosa L. 



73 



RUBIACEAE 



Appendix 3. Island localities 



Aplin 


11°12'S. 


143°02'E. 


Arnold 


11°31'S. 


143°04'E. 


Baird 


12°15'S. 


143°13'E. 


Beesley 


12°11-1/2'S. 


143°12'E. 


Bewick 


14°26'S. 


144°49'E. 


Binstead 


13°13'S. 


149°34'E. 


Buchan 


11°51'S. 


143°19'E. 


Chapman 


12°53'S. 


143°36'E. 


Cholmondeley 


11°23'S. 


143°04'E. 


Combe 


14°24'S. 


144°54'E. 


Coquet 


14°32-1/2'S. 


144°59'E. 


Douglas 


11°14'S. 


142°59'E. 


Dove 


10°00'S. 


145°02'E. 


Dugong 


10°30'S. 


143°05'E. 


Eagle 


14°42'S. 


145°23'E. 


East Cairncross 


11°15'S. 


142°56'E. 


East Hannibal 


11°16'S. 


142°57'E. 


East Hope 


15°44'S. 


145°28'E. 


East Pethebridge 


14°44'S. 


145°06'E. 


Farmer 


12°15'S. 


143°13'E. 


Fife 


13°39'S. 


143°43'E. 


Fisher 


12°16'S. 


143°14'E. 


Green 


16°45-1/2'S. 


145°58-1/2*E 


Halfway 


11°24'S. 


142°58'E. 


Hampton 


14°34'S. 


144°53'E. 


Hannibal 


11°36'S. 


142°57'E. 


Houghton 


14°31-1/2'S. 


144°58'E. 


Hay 


13°40'S. 


143°41'E. 


Ingram-Beanley 


14°25'S. 


HS^'E. 


Kay 


12°14'S. 


143°16'E. 


Leggatt 


14°33'S. 


144°40'E. 


Little Boydong 


11°29'S. 


143°02'E. 


Low 


16°23'S. 


145°34'E. 


Low Wooded 


15°05'S. 


145°23'E. 


Lowrie 


13°17'S. 


145°36'E. 


Macarthur 


11°44'S. 


142°59'E. 


Magra 


11°51-1/2'S. 


143°17'E. 


Newton 


14°30'S. 


144°55'E. 


Nymph 


14°39-1/2'S. 


145°15'E. 



74 



Pipon 


12 14-1/2'S. 


143°13-1/2'E. 


Michaelmas 


16°36-1/2'S. 


145°59'E. 


Milman 


11°10'S. 


143°01'E. 


Morris 


13°30'S. 


143°43'E. 


Night 


13°11'S. 


149°34'E. 


Pelican 


13°55'S. 


143°50'E. 


Pirie 


11°35'S. 


142°54'E. 


Raine 


11°36'S. 


144°01'E. 


Saunders 


11°42'S. 


143°11'E. 


Sherrard 


12°59'S. 


143°34'E. 


Sinclair-Morris 


14°33'S. 


144°54'E. 


South Bird 


11°47'S. 


143°06'E. 


Stainer 


13°57'S. 


143°50'E. 


Stapleton 


14°19'S. 


144°51'E. 


Sudbury 


16°57'S. 


146°09'E. 


Three 


15°07'S. 


145°17'E. 


Turtle I 


14°44'S. 


145°11'E. 


Turtle II 


14°44'S. 


145°12'E. 


Turtle III 


14°44'S. 


145°11'E. 


Turtle IV 


14°43-1/2'S. 


145°12'E. 


Turtle V 


14°42'S. 


145°12'E. 


Turtle VI 


14°43'S. 


145°10-1/2'E 


Two 


15°01'S. 


145°27'E. 


Upolu 


16°41'S. 


145°56'E. 


Wallace 


11°27*S. 


143°02'E. 


Watson 


14°28'S. 


144°49'E. 


West Cairncross 


11°15'S. 


142°56'E. 


West Hannibal 


11°36'S. 


142°57"E. 


West Hope 


15°45'S. 


145°27'E. 


West Pethebridge 


14°44'S. 


145°05 , E. 


Wharton 


14°07'S 


144°00'E. 



R. Buckley supplied coordinates for islands on which he collected. 



Acknowle dgements 



The curation of specimens as they arrived from the field during the Royal Society and 
Universities of Queensland Expedition to the Northern Great Barrier Reef in 1973 was carried 
out by the staff of the Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane. We thank the late Dr. S. Everist, then 
Director, and his staff, for coping with this material. The Queensland Herbarium subsequently 
made available to us the collections later made by R. Buckley and H. Heatwole. Final 
determinations on this large body of material were made by Fosberg during Stoddart's tenure of 
a Regents Fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution in 1985. We thank the Royal Society, the 
University of Queensland, and James Cook University for the support of the 1973 expedition. 



75 



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Hill, D. 1974. An introduction to the Great Barrier Reef. Proceedings of the 2nd International 
Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 723-731. 



76 



King, B. R. 1986. Seabird islands no. 160: Pipon Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. 
Corolla, 10(3), 78-80. 

King, B. R. 1989. Seabird islands no. 193: Magra Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. 
Corolla, 13(2), 47-48. 

King, B. R., Hicks, J. and Oldroyd, A. 1989. [cited as King et al. 1989a]. Seabird islands no. 190: 
Cholmondeley Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Corolla, 13(2), 41-42. 

King, B. R. and Limpus, C. J. 1989. Seabird islands no. 192: Saunders Island, Great Barrier Reef, 
Queensland. Corolla, 13(2), 45-46. 

King, B. R., Limpus, C. J., Hicks, J. and Oldroyd, A. 1989. [cited as King etal. 1989b]. Seabird 
islands no. 191: Wallace Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Corolla, 13(2), 43-44. 

King, P. P. 1827. Narrative of a survey of the intertropical and western coasts of Australia. 

Performed between the years 1818 and 1822. London: John Murray. 2 vols., 451 and 637 
pp. 

MacGillivray, J. 1852. Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S. 'Rattlesnake', commanded by the 
late Captain Owen Stanley, R.N., F.R.S., etc., during the years 1846-1850. London: T. 
and W. Boone. 2 vols., 402 and 395 pp. 

McCosker, A. 1984. Rhizophoraceae. Flora of Australia [Canberra: Bureau of Flora and Fauna], 
22, 1-10. 

Smith, G. C. and Buckley, R. C. 1986. Seabird islands no. 161: Eagle Island, Great Barrier Reef, 
Queensland. Corolla, 10(3), 81-83. 

Smith, L., Specht, R. L. and Clapham, A. R. 1973. Plants of Green Island. In J. M. Wright: 
Visiting Green Island (Cairns: G. K. Bolton), 44-45. 

Specht, R. L., compiler. No date. Plants of Green Island. Cairns: Queensland National Park and 
Wildlife Service, typescript, 4 pp. 

St John, H. 1962. Revision of the genus Pandanus Stickman. Part 12. Queensland Pandanus. 
Pacific Science, 16, 291-346. 

St John, H. 1967. Revision of the genus Pandanus Stickman, Part 23. Three Australian species of 
Pandanus. Pacific Science, 21, 523-532. 

Steers, J. A. 1929. The Queensland coast and the Great Barrier Reefs. Geographical Journal, 74, 
232-257, 340-367, discussion, 367-370. 

Steers, J. A. 1937. The coral islands and associated features of the Great Barrier Reefs. 
Geographical Journal, 89, 1-28, 119-139; discussion, 140-146. 

Steers, J. A. 1938. Detailed notes on the islands surveyed and examined by the Geographical 
Expedition to the Great Barrier Reef in 1936. Reports of the Great Barrier Reef 
Committee, 4, 51-96. 



77 



Stephenson, T. A., Stephenson, A., Tandy, G. and Spender, M. A. 1931. The structure and ecology 
of Low Isles and other reefs. Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 
1928-29, 3, 17-112. 

Stoddart, D. R. and Fosberg, F. R. 1991. Phytogeography and vegetation of the reef islands of 
the northern Great Barrier Reef. Atoll Research Bulletin, 349, 1-26. 

Stone, B. C. 1982. Pandanus tectorius Parkins, in Australia: a conservative view. Botanical 
Journal of the Linnean Society 85, 133-146. 

Verdcourt, B. 1975. New sectional names in Spermacoce. Kew Bulletin, 30, 366. 

Walker, T. A. 1988. The flora and fauna of Bramble Cay, January 1987. Queensland Naturalist, 
28, 32-36. 

Walker, T. A. 1991. Pisonia islands of the Great Barrier Reef. 1. The distribution, abundance 
and dispersal by seabirds of Pisonia grandis. Atoll Research Bulletin, 350. 

Warham, J. 1962. Bird islands within the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait. Emu, 62, 99-111. 



78 



Index of Specific Names 



Abrus precatorius 27 

Abutilon albescens 36 

Abutilon asiaticum 36 

Abutilon graveolens 36 

Abutilon indicum 36 

Acacia oraria 28 

Acalypha amentacea 23 

Achyranthes aspera 4 

Actephila lindleye 72 

Aegialitis annulata 47 

Aegiceras corniculatum 42 

Agave rigida 3 

Aglaia elaeagnoides 38 

Alectryon sp 59 

Aleurites moluccana 72 

Alstonia scholaris 6 

Alyxia spicata 6 

Amaranthus interruptus 5 

Amaranthus viridis 5 

Archontophoenix alexandrae 7,69 

Arenga australasica 8 

Argusia argentea 12 

Arthrocnemum halocnemoides 15 

Arthrocnemum leiostachyum 15 

Avicennia eucalyptifolia 10 

Avicennia marina 10,11 

Barringtonia asiatica 71 

Batis argillicola 11 

Bauhinia binata 28 

Bauhinia hookeri 28 

Beilschmidia oligandra 69 

Bidens bipinnata 9 

Bidens pilosa 9 

Boerhavia acutifolia 43 

Boerhavia chinensis 43 

Boerhavia coccinea 43 

Boerhavia dominii 44 

Boerhavia fistulosa 44 

Boerhavia mutabilis 44 

Boerhavia repens 44 

Boerhavia tetrandra 44 

Boerhavia sp 44 

Bossiaea sp 28 

Brassaia actinophylla 7 

Breynia oblongifolia 23 

Breynia stipitata 23 

Bruguiera cylindrica 54 

Bruguiera exaristata 54 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza 54 

Bruguiera sexangula 55 

Bruguiera sp 55 



Bryonopsis laciniosa 20 

Buchanania arborescens 71 

Bulbostylis barbata 21 

Caesalpinia bonduc 28 

Caesalpinia crista 72 

Caesalpinia major 28 

Caesalpinia pulcherrima 28 

Calamus australis 8 

Calamus muelleri 8 

Calamus sp 68 

Calophyllum inophyllum 33, 72 

Calophyllum sil 33 

Calotropis procera 8 

Cananga odorata 5 

Canarium australianum 12,69 

Canarium vitiense 12 

Canavalia maritima 29 

Canavalia obtusifolia 29 

Canavalia rosea 29 

Canavalia sericea 29 

Cansjera leptostachya 45 

Canthium coprosmoides 56 

Canthium vaccinii folium 56 

Canthium sp 56 

Capparis arborea 13 

Capparis lucida 13 

Capparis quiniflora 13 

Capparis sarmentosa 13 

Capparis sepiaria 13 

Capparis spinosa 14 

Capparis sp 14 

Capsicum frutescens 61 

Carallia brachiata 55 

Carallia integerrima 55 

Carica papaya 14 

Carissa laxiflora 6 

Carissa sp 6 

Cassia occidentalis 29 

Cassytha filiformis 34 

Cassytha glabella 35 

Cassytha pubescens 35 

Casuarina equisetifolia 14 

Catharanthus roseus 6 

Cayratia acris 65 

Cayratia cardiophylla 66 

Cayratia clematidea 66 

Cayratia grandifolia 66 

Cayratia saponaria 66 

Cayratia trifolia 66 

Cayratia sp 66,70 

Celtis paniculata 63 



79 



Celtis philippinensis 63 

Celtis sp 63 

Cenchrus echinatus 48 

Cenchrus elymoides 48 

Cerbera manghas 6,71 

Cerbera sp 71 

Ceriops tagal 55,70 

Cissus sp 71 

Citrullus lanatus 21 

Citrus aurantiifolia 58 

Claoxylon hillii 23 

Claoxylon tenerifolium 24 

Claoxylon sp 24 

Clausena brevistyla 58 

Cleome viscosa 14 

Clerodendrum inerme 64 

Clerodendrum sp 64 

Cochlospermum gillivraei 17 

Cocos nucifera 8,71 

Colubrina asiatica 53 

Commelina ensifolia 18 

Commelina lanceolata 18 

Commelina sp 18 

Commelina undulata 18 

Cordia subcordata 11 

Coronopus integrifolius 12 

Crinum pedunculatum 5 

Crinum sp 5 

Crotalaria linifolia 29 

Crotalaria medicaginea 29 

Crotalaria pallida 29 

Crotalaria trifoliastrum 29 

Crotalaria sp 30 

Cryptocarya cinnamomifolia 69 

Cryptocarya corrugata 69 

Cryptocarya cunninghamii 35 

Cryptocarya hypospodia 35, 69 

Cryptocarya mackinnoniana 69 

Cryptocarya sp 35,69 

Cudrania cochinchinensis 39 

Cudrania javanensis 40 

Cupania anacardioides 59 

Cupaniopsis anacardioides 59 

Cuscuta australis 18 

Cymbopogon refractus 48 

Cymodocea rotundata 67 

Cymodocea serrulata 67 

Cynanchum carnosum 9 

Cynodon dactylon 48 

Cyperus bifax 21 

Cyperus javanicus 21 

Cyperus pedunculatus 21 

Cyperus rotundus 21 

Cyperus scaber 22 



Cyperus stoloniferus 22 

Cyperus sp 22 

Dactyloctenium aegyptium 48 

Dactyloctenium australe 48 

Dalbergia candenatensis 30 

Dendrobium discolor 46 

Derris trifoliata 30 

Desmodium trichostachyon 30 

Dianella caerulea 35 

Digitaria ctenantha 48 

Digitaria sp 48 

Dioclea sp 72 

Diospyros ferrea 22,23 

Diospyros geminata 23 

Diospyros maritima 23 

Diospyros sp 23 

Diplocyclos palmatus 21 

Disoxylum micranthum 70 

Disoxylum sp 70 

Dodonaea platyptera 59 

Dodonaea viscosa 59 

Dracaena angustifolia 3 

Dracaena fragrans 3 

Drynaria quericifolia 52 

Drynaria rigidula 52 

Drypetes australasica 24 

Dysoxylum muelleri 38 

Elaeocarpus grahamii 69 

Elaeocarpus grandis 69 

Elaeocarpus largiflorens 69 

Elaeodendron australe 15 

Elaeodendron melanocarpum 15 

Eleusine indica 49 

Emilia sonchifolia 9 

Endiandra hypotephra 69 

Endiandra montana 69 

Endiandra muelleri 69 

Endospermum medulosum 24 

Enhalus acoroides 33 

Entada phaseoloides 72 

Entada pursaetha 72 

Entada sp 72 

Eragrostis cumingii 49 

Eragrostis sororia 49 

Eragrostis sp 49 

Erythrina insularis 30 

Erythrina phlebocarpa 30 

Erythrina variegata 30,72 

Erythrina vespertilio 30 

Erythrina sp 30 

Eugenia carissoides 42 

Eugenia rariflora 42 

Eugenia reinwardtiana 42 

Eugenia suborbicularis 43 



80 



Euphorbia atoto 24 

Euphorbia chamissonis 24 

Euphorbia cyathophora 24 

Euphorbia heterophylla 25 

Euphorbia hirta 25 

Euphorbia pulcherrima 25 

Euphorbia sparrmannii 25 

Euphorbia tannensis 25 

Eupomatia bennettii 27 

Euroschinus falcatus 5 

Eurycles amboinensis 5 

Excoecaria agallocha 25 

Exocarpos latifolius 59 

Ficus benjamina 40 

Ficus coronata 40 

Ficus drupacea 40 

Ficus fraseri 40 

Ficus hispida 40 

Ficus infectoria 40 

Ficus microcarpa 40 

Ficus obliqua 40 

Ficus opposita 41 

Ficus pilosa 41 

Ficus virens 41 

Ficus sp 41 

Flagellaria indica 32 

Flindersia ifflaiana 58 

Flueggia microcarpa 26 

Freycinetia excelsa 70 

Ganophyllum falcatum 59,70 

Garuga floribunda 12 

Glochidion sp 26 

Glossogyne benuifolia 9 

Glossogyne tannensis 9 

Glycosmis pentaphylla 58 

Gomphandra australiana 34,69 

Grewia orientalis 62 

Grewia oxyphylla 63 

Guettarda speciosa 56,73 

Guilandina bonduc 28 

Gyrocarpus americanus 33 

Halodule uninervis 67 

Halophila minor 34 

Halophila ovalis 34 

Halophila ovata 34 

Halophila spinulosa 34 

Halosarcia halocnemoides 15 

Heritiera littoralis 72 

Hernandia peltata 33, 72 

Hernandia sonora 22 

Heteropogon contortus 49 

Heteropogon insignis 49 

Heteropogon triticeus 49 

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 37 



Hibiscus tiliaceus 37 

Hoya australis 9 

Hypserpa decumbens 39 

Hypserpa laurina 70 

Hyptis suaveolens 34 

Imperata arundinacea 49 

Imperata cylindrica 49 

Intsia bijuga 72 

Ipomoea aquatica 19 

Ipomoea macrantha 19,71 

Ipomoea nil 19 

Ipomoea pes-caprae 19,71 

Ipomoea sp 20 

Ischnostemma carnosum 9 

Ixora klanderiana 57 

Jacquemontia paniculata 20 

Jacquemontia sp 20 

Jasminum aemulum 45 

Jasminum didymum 45 

Jasminum simplicifolium 45 

Jasminum volubile 45 

Jasminum sp 45 

Josephinia grandiflora 47 

Josephinia imperatricis 47 

Justicia procumbens 3 

Kissodendron australianum 69 

Lantana camara 64 

Leea sambucina 67 

Lepturus repens 49 

Lepturus stoddartii 50 

Lepturus sp 50 

Leucaena leucocephala 31 

Linociera ramiflora 45 

Litsea leefeana 69 

Loranthus odontiocalyx 35 

Loranthus quandang 36 

Lumnitzera racemosa 17 

Macaranga tanarius 26 

Malaisia scandens 41 

Mallotus nesophilus 26 

Mallotus paniculatus 26 

Mallotus repandus 26 

Manilkara kauki 59 

Maytenus emarginata 15 

Melia azedarach 38 

Melia composita 38 

Merremia hastata 20 

Merremia peltata 71 

Merremia tridentata 20 

Merremia sp 20 

Micromelum minutum 58 

Micromelum pubescens 58 

Mimusops elengi 60 

Mitracarpus hirtus 57 



81 



Modiola sp 37 

Morinda citrifolia 57 

Moringa oleifera 41 

Mucuna sp 71 

Mukia maderaspatana 21 

Myoporum acuminatum 42 

Myristica insipida 42 

Myristica muelleri 70 

Neisosperma kilneri 71 

Nephrolepis biserrata 52 

Nephrolepis hirsutula 52 

Nerium oleander 6 

Nypa fruticans 71 

Olax pendula 45 

Operculina turpethum 20 

Opilia amentacea 46 

Osbornia octodonta 43 

Pachygone ovata 39 

Pandanus adscendens 46 

Pandanus oblatiapicalis 46 

Pandanus pedunculatus 46 

Pandanus sinuvadosus 46 

Pandanus tectorius 46 

Pandanus viridinsularis 46 

Pandanus sp 72 

Pandorea pandorana 11 

Pangium edule 72 

Panicum antidotale 50 

Panicum maximum 50 

Panicum miliiforme 50 

Panicum muticum 50 

Panicum trichoides 50 

Passiflora foetida 46 

Passiflora herbertiana 47 

Pedilanthus tithymaloides 26 

Pemphis acidula 36 

Philodendron lacerum 6 

Philodendron sp 6 

Phoenix dactylifera 8 

Phoenix sp 8 

Phyllanthus amarus 26 

Phyllanthus novae-hollandiae 26 

Phyllanthus reticulatus 27 

Phyllanthus tenellus 27 

Phyllanthus sp 27 

Physalis angulata 61 

Physalis sp 61 

Piper sp 70 

Pipturus argenteus 63 

Pisonia grandis 44 

Pithecellobium grandiflorum 31 

Pithecellobium lovellae 31 

Planchonella obovata 60 

Planchonella obovoidea 70 



Platycerium bifurcatum 53 

Podocarpus neriifolius 52, 70 

Podocarpus sp 52 

Polyalthia nitidissima 5 

Polyscias balfouriana 7 

Polyscias guilfoylei 7 

Polyscias paniculata 7 

Polyscias tricochleata 7 

Pongamia pinnata 31 

Portulaca australis 53 

Portulaca oleracea 53 

Portulaca sp 53 

Pouteria obovata 60,70 

Pouteria pohlmaniana 60 

Pouteria sericea 60 

Premna corymbosa 64 

Premna obtusifolia 64 

Premna serratifolia 64 

Proiphys amboinensis 5 

Prunus turnerana 70 

Pseuderanthemum variabile 3 

Pseudocarapa nitudula 38 

Pterocaulon sphacelatum 10 

Ptychosperma elegans 8 

Pycnarrhena sp 39 

Remirea maritima 22 

Rhizophora apiculata 55 

Rhizophora lamarckii 55 

Rhizophora mucronata 56 

Rhizophora stylosa 56 

Rhizophora sp 56,72 

Rhynchelytrum repens 52 

Rhynchosia australis 31 

Rhynchosia cunninghamii 31 

Rhynchosia minima 31 

Rhynchospora heterochaeta 22 

Rivina humilis 47 

Salacia chinensis 15 

Salicornia cinerea 15 

Salicornia quinqueflora 16 

Salsola kali 16 

Sansevieria hyacinthoides 3 

Sansevieria trifasciata 3 

Sarcostemma australe 9 

Scaevola koenigii 32 

Scaevola sericea 32 

Scaevola taccada 32 

Schefflera actinophylla 7 

Schefflera sp 7 

Schelhammera multiflora 35 

Schistocarpaea sp 54 

Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea 57 

Semecarpus australiensis 71 

Sesbania cannabina 31 



82 



Sesbania sp 31 

Sesuvium portulacastrum 3 

Sesuviwn sp 4 

Sida rhombifolia 37 

Sida spinosa 37 

Sideroxylon argenteum 61 

Solarium mauritianum 71 

Solarium seaforthianum 61 

Solarium torvum 61, 71 

Solarium viride 61 

Solarium viridifolium 61 

Solarium sp 61 

Sonneratia alba 61 

Sophora tomentosa 31 

Spermacoce buckleyi 57 

Spermacoce everistii 57 

Spermacoce marginata 58 

Spermacoce sp 58 

Spinifex hirsutus 51 

Spinifex longifolius 51 

Spinifex sericea 51 

Sporobolus virginicus 51 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 65 

Stenotaphrum micranthum 51 

Sterculia quadrifida 62 

Suaeda australis 16 

Suaeda sp 16 

Suriana maritime 62 

Synostemon bacciformis 27 

Syringodium isoetifolium 67 

Syzygium rubiginosum 43 

Tacca leontopetaloides 62 

Terminalia arenicola 17 

Terminalia catappa 17,71 

Terminalia melanocarpa 17 

Terminalia muelleri 17 

Terminalia platyphylla 18 

Terminalia sericocarpa 18,69 

Terminalia sp 18 

Thalassia hemprichii 34 

Themeda arguens 52 

Thespesia populnea 37 

Thespesia populneoides 38 

Thespesia sp 38 

Thuarea involuta 52 

Tinospora smilacina 39 

Tournefortia argentea 12 

Tribulus cistoides 67 

Tribulus sp 68 

Tricholaena rosea 52 

Tridax procumbens 10 

Triumfetta procumbens 63 

Triumfetta repens 63 

Triumfetta rhomboidea 63 



Turraea brownii 38 

Typhonium roxburghii 7 

Typhonium sp 7 

Vavaea amicorum 38 

Ventilago sp 54 

Vernonia cinerea 10 

Vigna marina 32 

Vitex negundo 65 

Vitex ovata 65 

Vitex trifolia 65 

Vitis saponaria 66 

Wedelia biflora 10 

Wollastonia biflora 10 

Xenostegia tridentata 20 

Xylocarpus australasicus 39 

Xylocarpus granatum 39,70,72 

Xylocarpus moluccensis 39 

Zostera capricorni 67 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NO. 349 



PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 

BY 
DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., U.S.A. 

JULY 1991 



PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 

BY 
DAVID R. STODDART 1 AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 2 

Introduction 

Until 1973 the vegetation and flora of the reef islands of the northern Great Barrier 
Reef were among the least known of those of all the world's reef islands. Apart from collections 
made by Joseph Banks, on Cook's first expedition in Endeavour, Robert Brown with Flinders in 
Investigator, Allan Cunningham with Philip Gidley King, and (on a larger scale) F. von 
Mueller, included in Bailey's Flora of Queensland (1899-1905), the only extensive floristic 
records were those of MacGillivray (1852), who recorded 19 species from a total of 12 islands 
during the voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake in 1846-1850. Steers (1938, 92) listed 10 species from 
Fife Island, determined by W. D. Francis, and Stephenson et al (1931) 25 species from Low Isles 
and 12 species from Three Isles, all presumably based on collections by G. Tandy. Den Hartog 
(1970) has summarised sea-grass records, mainly from Low Isles. Otherwise the only island in 
the northern province for which a full floristic record existed was Green Island, where a large 
proportion of the species is exotic (Smith, Specht and Clapham 1973, Gardner 1973). It is not 
perhaps surprising, therefore, that it was generally concluded that 

'the terrestrial flora of the cays is a very restricted one, of only 30 to 40 species, 
practically all of which are of wide distribution in the Indo-West Pacific 
province and are characteristic of strand line environments and of environments 
of shifting lime sand' (Hill 1970, 76; 1974, 725). 

Such an interpretation is certainly reinforced by (and indeed largely derives from) 
work on the Bunker and Capricorn Islands at the southern end of the Reef. These islands are 
well known both from earlier studies (Longman 1913, White and Macgillivray 1926, 
Macgillivray and Rodway 1931), more detailed recent work at Heron Island (Fosberg and 
Thorne 1961, Gillham 1963), at Wilson, Northwest, Hoskyn and Fairfax Islands (Cribbs 1965, 
1969, 1972, 1986), and throughout the southern islands by Chaloupka and Domm (1985, 1986). 
Most of these southern islands have 20-40 species of vascular plants, with a substantial 
proportion of introductions, a total flora of ca 80 species, and a restricted series of vegetation 
types dominated by Pandanus and Pisonia forest and herbaceous communities. At Heron Island, 
with the largest number of species (51), half (26) are introductions (Chaloupka and Domm 1986, 
1540). 



1 Department of Geography, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 

^Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
D.C. 

Manuscript received 6 June 1990; revised 14 December 1990 



Studies during the Royal Society and Universities of Queensland Expedition to the 
northern Great Barrier Reef in 1973 revealed a markedly different picture. 1107 numbers of 
plants, generally each in five sets, were collected from 40 islands or island-groups, and sight 
records were obtained from a further 19 island -groups during detailed mapping of the islands 
between 16°57'S in the south (Sudbury Cay) and 11°36'S in the north (Raine Island). These 
collections, together with others made subsequently by R. Buckley, H. Heatwole, and T.A. 
Walker, comprise Over 380 species of flowering plants in 86 families, together with some 
lichens and fungi. Not only is the flora different in important respects from that of any other 
reef province so far studied, reflecting its Australian affinities, but the vegetation units which 
can be recognised do not in some cases have counterparts in other reef areas. This paper 
discusses the biogeography and floristics of the northern islands, and describes the main 
vegetation units of the islands and their relationship to topography, substrate and other 
ecological controls. It should be read in conjunction with the systematic treatment of the flora 
by Fosberg and Stoddart (1991). 



Biogeography 

The known flora of the reef islands (i.e. excluding high islands) of the Great Barrier 
Reef is ca 410 species and subspecies; this figure does not include the large number of records of 
exotic pot plants made by Fosberg (1961) at Heron Island. Of these, over 330 are known only 
from the northern area (north of Cairns, 16°45'S), 33 are known only from the Bunker and 
Capricorn Islands in the south, and only 43 are common to both provinces. These figures derive 
from the listing of the plants of the northern islands by Fosberg and Stoddart (1991), and of the 
southern islands by Chaloupka and Domm (1986). While some revision of the numbers is to be 
expected and while there are possibilities of nomenclatural differences in the two lists, there is 
no question of the remarkable distinctiveness in the floras of the two sets of islands. This 
difference had not previously been recognized before these recent collections were made on the 
northern Great Barrier Reef. Table 1 lists plants only recorded from the northern islands, Table 
2 those only recorded from the southern islands (25 of the 33 species there listed are judged by 
Chaloupka and Domm (1985) to be introductions), and Table 3 lists the species common to both 
provinces. A major element in this distribution pattern is the absence of mangroves, sea-grasses, 
and rock-platform succulents from the southern province: 15 species of mangroves, 7 of sea- 
grasses, and 4 succulents are recorded only north of Cairns, while two species of sea-grasses are 
common to both north and south. If these ecological groups are excluded from the analysis, the 
northern sector has some 330 species of vascular plants, of which perhaps one-third are 
introduced. 

The first striking point about the floras of the southern and northern islands is that the 
former are Indo-Pacific or pantropical in character and the latter are distinctively Australian. 
In the south the two dominant vegetation units are Pisonia forest and Pandanus tectorius forest, 
both of wide distribution. Other common trees are the wide-ranging Casuarina equisetifolia, 
Cordia subcordata, Celtis paniculata, and Pipturus argenteus. The strand flora comprises wide- 
ranging Indo-Pacific species including the shrubs Tournefortia argentea, Scaevola taccada, and 
Suriana maritima, as well as common herbs. 

In the north, the main tree species are strikingly different. Casuarina and Cordia are 
widespread, but both Pisonia and Pandanus are relatively uncommon, though there is a single 
specimen of both as species and in forming vegetation units, and neither Celtis nor Pipturus 



have been recorded (the latter more than fifty years ago at Green Island). The common 
woodland trees include Aglaia elaeagnoidea, Diospyros maritima, Eugenia carrisoides, 
Exocarpos latifolia, Ficus opposita, Manilkara kauki, Mimusops elengi, Pouteria obovata, 
Terminalia arenicola, and Terminalia muelleri. Among larger shrubs Capparis lucida is very 
common. Most of these species are unknown in the vegetation of Indian and Pacific Ocean reef 
islands, and they impart a distinctively Australian aspect to the flora. This was recognised by 
Fosberg (1974), who identified a 'Coral Sea element' on some of the Great Barrier Reef cays, but 
the five species he then named comprising it included three mangroves and only one tree species 
(Ficus opposita) from the above list. Because this flora appears to be largely restricted to the 
northern Barrier Reef, and to be absent in the south, and because there are at present no records 
to suggest that these characteristic plants reach the more remote reef islands of the open Coral 
Sea, it may be more appropriate to speak of a 'North Queensland element' than a 'Coral Sea 
element'. As a further qualification, it should be noted that there are some conspicuous 
anomalies in labelling the southern flora Indo-Pacific in character and the northern one 
Australian. For example the common Indo-Pacific atoll trees Guettarda speciosa and Thespesia 
populnea are among the most widespread in the north, but are unaccountably absent in the 
south. 

The Australian component on the northern islands extends also to the inland (but not 
the coastal) shrubs. In addition to Capparis lucida these include Elaeodendron australe, 
Elaeodendron melanocarpus, Micromelum minutum, the very common and distinctive Myoporum 
acuminatum, and Vitex trifolia. The inland shrub flora does also include, however, several 
very wide-ranging species which may have successfully established themselves after being 
introduced. They include Clerodendrum inerme, Colubrina asiatica, Caesalpinia bonduc, and 
Premna corymbosa. Distinctively Australian vines in these inland communities include species 
of Cayratia and Hoya. 

The second striking point to note is that if the island woodland flora is of clear 
Australan affinity, the littoral flora has a more Indo-Pacific or cosmotropical composition: 
this alone suggests that the two components have very different dispersal mechanisms and 
histories. Widespread and common coastal shrubs include Pemphis acidula (strangely absent in 
the south), Scaevola taccada, Suriana maritima, and Tournefortia argentea; common herbs 
Achyranthes aspera, Canavalia maritima, Cassytha filiformis, Cleome viscosa, Euphorbia 
atoto, Ipomoea macrantha, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Tribulus cistoides, 
Tridax procumbens, Vigna marina, and Wollastonia biflora; and common grasses Lepturus 
repens, Spinifex hirsutus, Sporobolus virginicus, and Thuarea involuta. The littoral trees 
Casuarina equisetifolia, Cordia subcordata, Guettarda speciosa, and Thespesia populnea also 
fall into this category. A few Australian endemics, notably Euphorbia eremophila and 
Josephinia imperatricis, are found in both inland and nearshore situations. 

Nevertheless, in spite of this heavy Indo-Pacific strand representation, a number of 
expected species are rare or missing in the northern reef islands. Hernandia sonora was seen 
only as a seedling on West Hope Island; Calophyllum inophyllum (other than probably 
planted trees on Green Island and Low Isles) is also found on the reef islands only as a seedling, 
though common on Lizard Island (Byrnes et al. 1977); Morinda citrifolia is more widespread but 
frequently only as a seedling, as on West Hope, Low Wooded Island, and Two Isles; Cordia 
subcordata is present on Low Wooded Island only as a seedling. Drift seeds of Barringtonia 
asiatica are widespread but do not survive, and the species is unrepresented in the flora, in 
spite of its abundance north of Torres Straits. Many other species are represented by drift seeds 
along the beach crests (Entada and Mucuna are very abundant) but never germinate. The drift 
seeds of Low Isles and Raine Island have recently been reported by Crome (1975) and Hacker 
(1990). 



The coconut Cocos nucifera presents a similar case. There are obviously planted trees on 
Green Island, Low Isles and Three Isles, though those on the latter (survivors of plants reported 
by the 1928-1929 Expedition) were felled by casual visitors in 1973. There are probably planted 
trees on Nymph, Turtle II, Turtle IV and Turtle V Islands. There is a single tree on Morris 
Island. Otherwise in the whole province we observed but sixteen recently planted juveniles on 
Magra, one on Saunders, one on Kay, and two germinating nuts on Sudbury Cay, an otherwise 
unvegetated island where the species will not survive. Walker (1990) has recorded the species 
on five further islands. Steers (1938, 92) also found planted coconuts at Night Island, which 
was not visited in 1973. The absence of natural coconuts on this coast is remarkable. Cook found 
two nuts covered with barnacles at the Endeavour River in 1770 (Banks 1962, II, 86, 88), Flinders 
(1814, II, 49) found one in Shoalwater Bay, and King (1820, 1, 194) a single mature tree at Cape 
Cleveland in 1819. The contrast with the high islands of the Torres Straits, where Flinders 
(1814, II, 111) found 'abundant' coconuts at Murray Island is of obvious cultural rather than 
natural origin. However, during 1898-1899, Cdr Parry, H.M.S. Dart, surveying the inner reefs, 
planted a number of islands with coconuts 'for the use of navigators or for the benefit of 
shipwrecked mariners' (Day 1967, 290), but this seems to have had little lasting effect. It is 
worth noting that few of the high islands of the northern reef province possess coconuts either, 
though there is a small plantation on the Forbes Islands near Cape Grenville. 

Two immediate questions arise from this discussion of plant biogeography on the Great 
Barrier Reef. First: why are the Barrier Reef islands so different from those of Indo-Pacific 
reefs in general? Second: why is the Australian element so obvious in the northern islands and 
absent in the south? Two possibilities may be suggested. First, the flora of the northern islands 
may be to some degree inherited from that of last low sea-level times (before 6000 years B.P.) 
when the entire coastal shelf was dry and presumably vegetated; such persistence from earlier 
and different environmental conditions has been proposed to account for the existence of 
distinctive elements in the flora of Laysan Atoll (Schlanger and Gillett 1976). By contrast the 
isolated Bunker and Capricorn reefs in the south rise from a much deeper shelf, open to the 
Pacific. Second, the floras may have been much modified by man. Thus in the Torres Straits 
region the fruits of Manilkara kauki were a valued food (Harris 1977, 433) and this and similar 
species may have been introduced, encouraged, or selectively preserved on inhabited or visited 
reef islands. There is certainly evidence (in the vegetation of some islands, in soil constituents, 
and in archaeological remains) for considerable human impact on some islands, and this will be 
discussed in a later section. 

Two further biogeographical points may be made. The first is that ferns are almost 
entirely absent from the northern islands, and appear to be wholly so in the south. This is 
particularly remarkable given the dispersal abilities of this group. There are introduced 
decorative ferns at Low Isles and Green Island, but the only native ferns appear to be species of 
Drynaria on Turtle I. It is remarkable that the leather fern Acrostichum, which is widespread 
on the coast of Queensland, does not reach the reef islands, even in those with extensive 
mangrove communities. Second, we have found only a single species of orchid (possibly two) on 
the northern islands; there are none in the south. The contrast in both cases with the 
neighbouring islands of Melanesia is striking, and emphasises the distinctiveness of the 
Barrier Reef area. 



Numerical relationships 

The data at present available are inadequate for a rigorous numerical analysis of 
species distribution on the different islands, partly because of the small number of islands with 



comprehensive collections, partly because of the diversity of island types which makes the 
direct comparison of islands on the basis of area alone a meaningless exercise (a point which 
has been subsequently made by Buckley). 

Restricting the analysis to sand cays (i.e. excluding the more complex low wooded 
islands with their extensive mangroves), we have data for 18 islands ranging in size from less 
than 0.03 ha to 16.3 ha, approximately the same range as in Niering's (1956) analysis of the 
Kapingamarangi islands. There is only the weakest trend of increasing number of species with 
increasing area: indeed, the two largest islands are Green Island, a forested island with ca 60 
native plant species in a total of 114 species, and Raine Island, a seabird island with only 13 
species; this latter total is exceeded by several islands only one-tenth the size of Raine. The 
sand cays of low wooded islands, while differing in degree of separation from their associated 
shingle ridges and mangroves, range in size form 0.4 to 16 ha. These again show no obvious trend 
in floristic diversity with increasing size, though several are known to be seriously 
undercollected. They are also not strictly comparable with isolated sand cays, since the 
shingle and mangrove components represent an adjacent reservoir of potential colonisers, 
usually immediately to windward of the cay. 

Finally, the ten islands of the Bunker and Capricorn Groups in the southern province 
provide additional data. These range ins size from 1.9 to 116.7 ha. Two of those with high 
species numbers have a large number of introductions. Eight of the islands, with areas varying 
by a factor of 52, all have between 22 and 40 species (Chaloupka and Domm 1986). There is 
again no simple relationship between island area and floristic diversity. 

The northern and the southern Barrier Reef islands do, however, appear to show 
distinct differences in their physical characteristic. The southern islands are in general much 
larger than the northern ones (respectively: mean length 1020 and 460 m, mean width 365 and 
170 m, mean area 28.0 ha and 5.8 ha, range in area 2-105 ha and 0.4-27.3 ha; numbers in sample 
10 and 17). Yet the usual number of native species on the southern islands is 19-30 and on the 
northern, better-collected islands the total species number is at least 30 and in some cases 
greater than 45. The species-area relationship is thus very broadly inverse. As already 
indicated, this appears to result from a biogeographical control, in that many northern species 
are absent from the southern species pool, and a further ecologically important factor is that 
the rainfall in the southern islands is only one-half that in the north (mean annual rainfall at 
Heron Island 965 mm, and at Green Island and Low Isles 2152 and 2027 mm respectively). 

Variation in species numbers in the northern islands, which is real though clearly 
exaggerated by the incompleteness of collections, must largely reflect ecological factors rather 
than simply size. These include edaphic factors, including surface phosphatisation and the 
relative proportion of sand and shingle; the presence or absence of ground-nesting sea-birds; and 
human interference. Certainly a great deal more work is required before useful conclusions can 
be drawn about diversity-area relationships. With present knowledge these appear to overlap 
the distributions previously established for reef islands in Belize, Kapingamarangi, and the 
Leeward Hawaiian Islands. 



Vegetation types 

The main characteristics of reef islands in the northern province have been described by 
Stoddart et al (1978) and by McLean and Stoddart (1978). Islands are of the following types: 



(a) Unvegetated sand cays, usually oval-shaped, up to 400 m long and 120 m wide, 
with a mean area of 0.5 ha. 

(b) Vegetated sand cays, up to 580 m long and 250 m wide, with a mean area of 5.8 
ha. The upper surfaces of these cays range in height from 5 to 7.3 m, but many of 
the larger ones have a lower terrace at 3.5-4.5 ha. 

(c) Low wooded islands, reefs with windward shingle ramparts and platforms of 
cemented shingle-rock, a leeward sand cay, and a reef-top mangrove swamp of 
variable extent. The leeward cays of low wooded islands resemble ordinary 
vegetated sand cays, but are often larger (mean area 12 ha), and may be partly 
surrounded by mangroves. 

(d) Complex sand and shingle island, in which no simple distinction can be made 
between a sand cay and shingle ramparts. 

The main types of sediment encountered by (McLean and Stoddart 1978, Scoffin and McLean 
1978) are: 

(a) Carbonate sands. 

(b) Coral shingle and rubble ridges. 

(c) Lithified coral rubble and shingle forming moderate to well cemented rock 
platforms at levels varying from inter tidal to 2.8 m. 

(d) Intertidal sediments varying from silty sands to coral rubble. 

The only significant non-limestone material on the cays is pumice, either in the form of large 
boulders or small pebbles, which very locally may form a complete surface cover. Some islands 
have superficial phosphorites formed following guano deposition by seabirds. 

This section provides a simple empirical classification and description of the main 
vegetation units of the islands, in terms both of species composition and of location with respect 
to the main topographic features of the islands. 



1. Initial plant colonisation on sand cays 

Unvegetated cays in the northern province vary from sandbores overtopped by swash at 
high tide, up to 0.4 ha in area (e.g. Binstead Cay, Chapman Cay, Pickersgill Cay), to larger 
islands such as Arlington, Sudbury and Mackay (0.5-1.4 ha) and relict islands of 0.4-2.8 ha 
which have undergone major cyclone damage and which may have been vegetated in the past 
(e.g. Ashmore, Ellis, Waterwitch). Some of these larger islands are intermittently colonised by 
vascular plants. Sudbury in 1929 had 'seven small seedlings, one of Ipomoea (?) and six of 
Sesuvium portulacastrum' (Steers 1929, 257); in 1936 there were no plants at all (Steers 1938, 67- 
68); and in 1973 there were three coconut seedlings and a small patch of Sesuvium. Mackay in 
1929 'was well covered in its higher parts by grasses and creeping plants' (Steers, 1929, 257) by 
1936, following a cyclone in 1934, the continuous vegetation cover had disappeared and had 
been replaced by two or three clumps of grass, a single Ipomoea, and a few other plants (Steers 
1938, 70); in 1973 there were four coconut seedlings but no other plants. In 1936 Arlington had a 
vegetated area of 0.05 ha, with grasses and creepers, but was being eroded (Steers 1938, 68); in 



1973 it had no plants or even drift seeds. Pickersgill, once slightly vegetated, had no plants in 
1929 (Spender 1930, 265) or 1973. 

The size of islands lacking any terrestrial vegetation (up to 2.8 ha in the case of 
Waterwitch) is surprising. On the Belize barrier reef all cays larger than 0.1 ha are vegetated, 
and at Kapingamarangi Atoll 50 are all islets larger than 0.01 ha. The difference presumably 
reflects the greater instability of Great Barrier Reef islets in an area of high tidal range and 
cyclonic activity. 



2. Beach-crest scrub and herbaceous vegetation with trees 

Beach crest vegetation on the vegetated sand cays in variable in composition and 
structure, partly as a function of island size. On small islands (Stapleton, Coombe, Eagle), 
where the cay surface lacks a woodland cover, the beach crest vegetation consists of a continous 
cover of herbs and grasses, extending inland, interrupted by scattered shrubs. On larger islands 
(Bird, Green, Farmer, East Hope) there is a more continuous zone of shrubs and low trees, with 
only scattered patches of herbs and grasses. 

The tallest beach crest tree is Casuarina equisetifolia, which reaches 7-10 m on 
Bewick, Eagle, Ingram, Low, Low Wooded, Newton, Three, Turtle I and Two Isles. This species 
always occurs as scattered trees, and never forms a continuous woodland. In places, as at Green, 
some have been toppled by beach retreat; elsewhere height gradients suggest progressive 
colonisation following beach aggradation, as on the western spit of Ingram. Other occasional 
trees in this habitat are Guettarda speciosa (up to 5 m tall), Thespesia populnea (which 
reaches a height of 8 m on East Hope), and Cordia subcordata. Only Cordia forms a distinct 
zone of woodland, and then only on the north side of East Hope. 

The most common shrubs are Scaevola taccada, which only occasionally exceeds 2 m in 
height and rarely forms a continuous zone, in contrast to many Indo-Pacific locations, and 
Suriana maritima, which is widespread but only forms a distinct vegetation unit on the south 
and east sides of Bird Island; except for one locality this latter species is absent from the 
mainland coast of Queensland. Shrubs found more rarely include Tournefortia argentea, 
Sophora tomentosa (up to 4 m tall on Green Island), and Pemphis acidula. 

Common herbs include Ipomoea pes-caprae, especially on smaller islands such as 
Coombe, Canavalia rosea, Euphorbia eremophila, Salsola kali and Josephinia imperatricis. 
Common grasses are Lepturus repens, Sporobolus virginicus, Thuarea involuta, and Spinifex 
hirsutus. Thuarea forms a dense sward on low dunes on the east side of Ingram, but interspersed 
with shrubs. On Raine, however, there is an extensive zone 20-50 m wide round the entire 
perimeter of the island of Lepturus grassland on a sand substrate, and while this species is one 
for the most common plants of the northern islands its occurrence as a monospecific vegetation 
unit is here unique, though common in drier parts of the Pacific, e.g. in the Phoenix Islands. 



3. Scrub and succulent sward of rock platforms 

Most low wooded islands are fringed on their windward sides by lithified rubble and 
shingle platforms which differ in height and degree of dissection. The lower platform stands 
at 1.6-2.4 m, and the upper at 2.6-3.8 m above LLWS datum. Three types of vegetation are 
associated with these platforms: 



(a) Low extensive monospecific scrub, usually 1-1.5 m tall, of Aegialitis annulata or 
Avicennia marina, at an elevation of 1.0-2.0 m; this scrub is almost completely submerged at 
HWS, and has a very even crestline and sharp boundaries. 

(b) Succulent mats on the rock surface, consisting of Suaeda australis, Salicornia 
quinqueflora, Arthrocnemum (2 species), and Sesuvium portulacastrum. These mats are best 
developed on the horizontal surface of the upper platform, especially in areas frequently 
wetted by spray. Succulent mats are found on virtually all islands with platforms. 

(c) Outposts on the inner upper platforms of the vegetation of shingle ridges, notably 
Pemphis acidula and Sporobolus virginicus. Pemphis is so extensive that it is treated 
separately (type 5). 



4. Scrub and herbaceous cover of windward shingle ramparts 

Ramparts of shingle, often in multiple ridges, are frequently lodged on the inner edges 
of conglomerate platforms. Much of the shingle is old and weathered, and its surface consists of 
bare, blackened and eroded coral fragments. In addition to Pemphis, the vegetation is 
dominated by Suriana maritima, Myoporum acuminatum, and Capparis spinosa, with scattered 
patches of Boerhavia repens, Tribulus cistoides, Lepturus repens, Sesuvium portulacastrum, 
Achyranthes aspera, and Ipomoea pes-caprae. The substantial stems of the vine Cayrathia 
stretch across the surface. In places there are low patches of Abutilon. 

On inner older ridges the vegetation becomes more continuous and dense. On Green Ant 
Island, Low Isles, for example, Caesalpinia reaches 8 m in height, Micromelum minutum 3 m, 
Vitex, 2.5 m, Glycosmis 3 m, and Clerodendrum 2-3 m. Such vegetation either ends abruptly as 
the single surface passes under mangrove swamp, or its merges into inland scrub and scrub 
woodland (types 8 and 9). 



5. Pemphis scrub and scrub-woodland 

Pemphis acidula is one of the most common species on the northern islands, especially 
in exposed situations on rocky and thin shingle substrates; its absence from the southern Barrier 
Reef islands has already been noted. It occurs in three distinct situations: 

(a) On the seaward shores of sand cays, for example on Bewick, Bird, Chapman and 
Sherrard. It is relatively uncommon on such sandy substrates, even where underlain by 
beachrock, but may form a zone up to 5 m wide, as on the north and northeast sides of Bird and 
the south shore of Three, and may reach heights of 4-6 m. 

(b) On the inner margin of upper conglomerate platforms on the windward sides of low 
wooded islands, either on rock or on thin shingle ridges. It is extremely common in this habitat, 
where it is usually 3-5 m tall (exceptionally 6 m at East Pethebridge and 8 m at Fisher). At 
Low Wooded a Pemphis zone extends with few interruptions for about 1500 m along the south 
side of the island, and at Turtle V the zone is up to 50 m wide. In profile the shrubs are often 
wind-sheared, and in plan may show distinct windrows, giving the outer edge a crenulate 
margin. Such windrows have fairly constant bearing: 302° at Coquet, 300-320° at East 
Pethebridge, 298° at West Pethebridge, 305° at Sinclair-Morris, 320° at Turtle II. Generally 
Pemphis forms a shrub, but on some islands it occurs as a substantial tree with clear trunks up to 



1 m in diameter; these were seen at Houghton, East Pethebridge, West Pethebridge and Turtle I. 
It might be noted that the references to Suriana maritima in similar habitats by Steers (1937, 
1938), in accounts of King, Hay and Turtle I, probably all refer to Pemphis. 

(c) At the junction between sand cay and mangrove swamps, on low wooded islands 
where the two units are in contact. Here Pern-phis forms laterally extensive but narrow and 
often rather open zone, occasionally intermixed with Osbornia octodonta, as on Bewick, Coquet, 
Howick, Houghton and Turtle IV. 



6. Mixed scrub and herbaceous vegetation of sand cays 

An open mosaic of low shrubs, herbs, vines and grasses is widely distributed on sandy 
substrates in the interiors of smaller (and lower) sand cays, including the discrete sand cays of 
some low wooded islands. Typical of such islands are Beesley, Coombe, Eagle, Fife, Ingram, 
Magra, Morris, Pelican, Saunders, Sinclair, Stainer and Stapleton; all are presumably younger 
cays than the more densely vegetated and higher islands of other low wooded islands and the 
mixed sand an shingle cays. 

Usually there are no single dominants. Some ten shrub species are represented, of 
which the most common are Clerodendrum inerme (1-3 m tall), Capparis lucida (reaching a 
height of 4 m at Coombe), Colubrina asiatica (1-3 m tall), Premna serratifolia (2-5 m tall), and 
Scaevola taccada, Tournefortia argentea is moderately widespread as a shrub, but on Coombe 
and Saunders it occurs as a tree up to 6 m tall. 

The ground cover between these taller shrubs is very varied and often of low density. It 
includes the herbs Boerhavia repens, Tribulus cistoides, Euphorbia eremophila, Euphorbia 
chamissonis, Wollastonia biflora, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Cleome viscosa, Canavalia rosea, 
Triumfetta procumbens, Achyranthes aspera, Portulaca australis, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis; 
the vines Ipomoea macrantha, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Cassytha filifomis, Cayratia species, 
Vigna marina, Abrus precatorius, and Hoya; and the grasses Sporobolus virginicus and Lepturus 
repens. 

Each of the smaller cays may have ten species or fewer in total; islands such as 
Sinclair, Pelican, Stainer and Lowrie are good examples of islands with 1-3 species of shrub and 
3-7 species of other plants. 



7. Herbaceous communities on seabird islands 

These represent a modification of type 6 on Coombe, Michaelmas, Raine, Stapleton, and 
parts of Stainer, Morris and Magra. Shrubs are uncommon, and if present may be leafless and 
dead; usually only a few specimens of Cordia, Colubrina and Capparis are present. The tallest 
plants may be spindly Abutilon asiaticum, with a ground cover of Achyranthes aspera, 
Lepturus repens, and Boerhavia repens. Similar patches of Abutilon and Boerhavia on shingle 
ridges of otherwise more densely vegetated islands usually suggest a local concentration of 
ground-nesting seabirds. On the main bird islands the vegetation cover is very patchy, with 
large bare areas. 



10 



8. Scrub woodland of sandy cays 

This type is similar to type 6, but with a number of taller trees. These include some 
littoral species, such as Casuarina equisetifolia (reaching 15 m in height at Green), Cordia 
subcordata, and Thespesia populnea (3 m tall at Bewick), but also Terminalia muelleri (up to 10 
m tall) and Terminalia arenicola (up to 4 m tall). Common shrubs are Capparis lucida, 
Colubrina asiatica, Clerodendrum inerme, Micromelum minutum, Myoporum acuminatum, 
Caesalpinia bonduc, and Pemphis acidula. The ground cover is rather less diverse, with 
Lepturus repens, Achyranth.es aspera and Euphorbia atoto. 



9. Woodland of sand and sand-shingle islands 

A number of larger islands are covered with dense, largely close-canopied woodland, 
which is undoubtedly less well-known than it ought to be. Of the 40 tree species recorded from 
the islands, up to 10-12 species are recorded in woodland from East Hope, Howick, Ingram, Low, 
Three, The Turtles, and Two Isles. 

Common trees are Diospyros maritima, usually 5-6 tall but reaching 15 m at East Hope, 
Aglaia eleagnoidea (4-5 m tall), Pouteria obovata (5-10 m), Terminalia arenicola (3-12 m) 
Terminalia muelleri (3-10 m), Mimusops elengi (4-8 m), and Manilkara kauki. There is dense 
Manilkara woodland at Two Isles, where MacGillivray (1852, I, 107) described trees of this 
species 20 m tall and 1 m in diameter. Most trees now seem to be only 8 m tall; the tallest noted 
on the northern islands were on Low Wooded (10 m) and Turtle I (15 m). Other trees 3-8 m tall 
found in similar closed woodland include Guettarda speciosa, Ficus opposita, Ficus obliqua, 
Ficus drupacea, Malaisia scandens, Exocarpos latifolia, Eugenia carissoides, Diospyros ferrea, 
Macaranga tanarius, Cordia subcordata, and Ganophyllum falcatum. One of the of tallest trees 
on the islands is Erythrina insularis, reaching 10-15 m in height and often an emergent, but it is 
apparently confined to Bird and Farmer Islands, on both of which it was first recorded by 
MacGillivray (1852). In addition Cunningham recorded 'a strong luxuriant tree, having a stem 
six feet in diameter, whose base is much like the spurred bulb of a tropical fig' at Cairncross 
(King 1827, 1,383-384), to which he gave the name Gueltarda octandra. This may be Guettarda; 
we did not visit Cairncross in 1973, nor see any tree as large as this on the northern islands. 

The paucity of Pisonia woodland has already been mentioned, and has recently been 
examined by Walker (1991a). There is forest on Bird Island, and occasional trees on West Hope 
(respectively at 11°46'S and 15°45'S). Interior phosphate rock is associated with the Pisonia 
forest on Bird, and the occurrence of similar rock on Green Island suggests the former existence of 
Pisonia there too. There is Pisonia woodland with phosphate rock on the tiny island of Bushy 
Cay on Redbill Reef, at 21 °S, but the most extensive Pisonia is in the Bunker and Capricorn 
Islands, south of 23°S. There it forms a tall forest on Heron and Northwest Islands, isolated 
groves on Hoskyn, and occurs occasionally on Wilson (Cribb 1965, 1969, 1972; Fosberg 1961); it is 
also recorded from Masthead, Tyron, One Tree, Fairfax, Lady Musgrave and Wreck Islands 
(Macgillivray and Rodway 1931). Why Pisonia is so rare in the north is unknown. Similarly 
Pandanus tectorius is rare in the north and nowhere forms a vegetation unit. In the south there 
are extensive Pandanus groves with deep litter on Wilson, One Tree and Hoskyn Islands (Cribb 
1965, 1972). 

In addition to the tree species, the islands with tall woodland have a number of 
characteristic shrubs, mostly 3-5 m tall. They include Premna serratifolia, Myoporum 
acuminatum, Elaeodendron australe, Glycosmis pentaphylla, Phyllanthus reticulatus, and 



11 



Microtnelum minutum. These are well seen at such islands as Howick, Turtle I, Low Wooded 
and Ingram. 

Because of the canopy density, herbs and grasses are few; where they occur they are the 
same as those represented in type 8. 



10. Mangroves 

The mangrove vegetation of the northern islands has been discussed in a separate paper 
(Stoddart 1979) and will only be briefly outlined here. Mapping of 21 low wooded islands with 
mangroves yielded a mean mangrove area of 19.7 ha, but with extremes ranging from 0.3 to 125.4 
ha; 12 of the reefs have less than 12 ha of mangroves. As a percentage of the reef top the mean 
mangrove cover is 18.2%, the range 1.1-67.7%, and the modal class (classes of 10%) is 0-10%. 
Elevations in the following account refer to the datum of LLWS; the height of MHWN is 1.6 m 
and MHWS 2.3 m. The following main types of mangrove vegetation may be recognised: 

(a) Aegialitis annulata scrub, 1-2 m tall, on higher reef flat and lower conglomerate 
platform surfaces on the windward sides of low wooded islands. It is very common from 
Chapman in the north to Low Isles in the south; it has not been recorded on the reef south of Low 
Isles. Though usually a low shrub, this species forms trees up to 5 m tall in clearings in mature 
mangrove woodland, e.g. at Nymph and Turtle I. The windward scrub forms mainly in the 
height interval 1.3-1.6 m LLWS. 

(b) Avicennia marina scrub, 1.5 m (exceptionally 3 m) tall, occurring in similar 
situations to Aegialitis scrub on low wooded islands. On platforms it occurs up to 1.6 m above 
datum. 

(c) Avicennia woodland in the lee of platforms and shingle ramparts. This reaches 
heights of 8 m at Chapman and Sherrard and 10 m at Fisher, but it never forms a very extensive 
unit. 

(d) Ceriops thicket, consisting of dense slender trees of Ceriops tagal at higher levels 
(up to 2.5 m), often immediately in the lee of platforms or close to the mangrove shore of low- 
wooded-island sand cays. Exceptionally this species is found in ponded situations between 3.5 
and 4.4 m above datum; at Low Wooded Island it reaches 3.0 m. The trees frequently reach a 
height of 5 m (e.g. at Lowrie, West Pethebridge, and Turtle I), but at East Pethebridge they 
reach 8 m and at Low Wooded 10 m. In other places they may only reach 2-4.5 m. 

(e) Rhizophora mucronata var. stylosa woodland. This is the dominant mangrove 
community of the reef tops, and exceptionally forms a closed canopy forest 20 m tall, with stilt 
roots reaching 3 m above the surface. Tall Rhizophora woodland (8-15 m) is found at Chapman, 
Fisher, Low, Low Wooded, East Pethebridge, West Pethebridge and Sherrard. The edge of the 
mangrove, where it extends only part of the way across the reef top, is either a wall of tall 
trees, as at Three Isles, or an extensive field of seedlings up to 2 m tall, as at West Hope. There 
may be occasional trees of Sonneratia alba along the margin, e.g. at Chapman; this species has 
not been recorded on the Reef south of Three Isles. 

(f) Osbornia thicket. A woodland of closely-set trees of Osbornia octodonta is 
characteristic of high-standing substrates at the junction of mangrove swamp and shingle ridge 
on the windward sides of low wooded islands. Because of its exposed situation, the trees are 
often wind-sheared, and frequently movement of the shingle ridges during storms has left tall 
trees of Osbornia standing on the reef flat outside the ridges. In dense Osbornia woodland many 



12 



of the trunks and branches are almost horizontal towards the edge of the unit, presumably in 
response to light. The woodland reaches heights of 8-9 m at Low, Low Wooded and West 
Pethebridge, but also forms a low scrub 2-4 m tall at Chapman, Bewick, and Sinclair-Morris. 

(g) Mangroves at higher levels. Perhaps the most extensive of these is Bruguiera 
woodland, though not enough is known of its local extent to define and map a vegetation unit. It 
is well developed at Bewick, Watson, Newton and Howick, and is usually 5-8 m tall. More 
work is needed to define the occurrences of the three different species (B. cyclindrica, B . 
exaristata, B. gymnorrhiza) which are present. Excoecaria agallocha is common round cay and 
shingle ridge margins, usually as scattered trees 3-6 m tall. Xylocarpus australasicus and X. 
granatum also occur in similar situations, and even on dry land, again as tall individual trees; 
this genus has not so far been recorded south of the Howick Group. 



11. Sea-grass meadows 

Extensive meadows of sea-grasses on reef tops not occupied by mangroves are dominated 
by Thalassia hemprichii. They have been described at Low Isles by Den Hartog (1970), who 
notes that this species, though widespread on the reefs, is apparently absent from the 
mainland coast. Species of other genera (Halophila, Halodule, Zostera, Enhalus) are also 
present but less conspicuous; Halodule often forms a narrow zone of turf at the foot of beaches on 
fine sand in sheltered water. 



12. Man-modified vegetation 

It is at present impossible to estimate the degree of human modification of the 
vegetation of the northern islands, though there is little doubt that many were regularly 
visited or occupied by aborigines over a long period, some have since been occupied by 
Europeans, and the often abrupt contrasts between the vegetation units of adjacent and similar 
islands suggests some degree of disturbance. Several types of modification may be suggested: 

(a) Anthropogenic grasslands. Several cays are covered with a probably man-induced 
grassland in place of the expected scrub or scrub woodland. This is most apparent at Three Isles, 
where they cay is largely covered with Panicum maximum 1.5 m tall. Much of Bewick Cay is 
covered with grasses, including Heteropogon triticeus up to 1.7 m tall. Imperata cylindrica on 
Morris reaches 1 m and so does Heteropogon contortus on Howick. 

(b) Agave thicket. Agave rigida var. sisalana covers about half the vegetated area 
(i.e. about 2.3 ha) on Morris Island. It was not seen by MacGillivray (1852) in 1846, but W. 
Macgilivray (1910, 220) found 'a clump of sisal hemp' in October 1910. It is probably now 
impossible to eradicate, and will doubtless extend to cover the island. Fortunately it has not 
been introduced elsewhere. 

(c) Modification by Europeans on cays now inhabited (Low, Green) or inhabited in the 
past (Pipon): the removal of natural woodland and scrub, the introduction of exotic trees and 
decorative plants, and the arrival of weeds. 

(d) Possible modification of woodland by aborigines, especially through the selective 
encouragement of useful trees. 



13 



Ecological factors 

It would be premature to attempt any full explanation of the vegetation patterns here 
reported, but it might be useful to draw attention to certain factors which may have influenced 
their development. 



Age 

As a result of the 1973 Expedition a great deal is known of the age of topographic 
features on the reef tops in the northern province. The sediments of older, higher parts of sand 
cays cluster in the range 2900-3400 years B.P., and it appears that the main outlines of the 
larger islands were formed before 3000 years B.P. It is these areas which support the closed- 
canopy woodland. The lower terrace which in places surrounds these higher central core- 
islands is composed of sediments averaging about 2700 years in age, but the feature itself may 
have formed much more recently than this. The age difference between the two levels on the 
bigger cays, and between the larger islands and the smaller ones, certainly supplies a major 
reason for the difference in vegetation between them (for details, see McLean and Stoddart 
1978). As previously mentioned, it is, moreover, possible that some part of the flora of the 
larger forested islands is relict from last glacial times (ca 8000 years B.P.) when the northern 
coastal shelf was dry land and when the present reefs were limestone hills upon it. 

It has also been found that the more extensive mangrove forests of the low wooded 
islands overlie fossil reefs, the oldest of which date from the time when sea-level reached 
approximately its present level after the last main transgression. The oldest microatolls in 
such reef-top reefs date from 6310 years B.P.; others extend to 2370 years B.P., and some are still 
forming as reef tops grow up to present sea-level. It is also likely that mangroves owe their 
initial location on reef tops to the sheltering effect of windward shingle ramparts, and the ages 
of the upper conglomerate platform (a cemented rampart) on the low wooded islands range from 
4420 to 3050 years and cluster between 3300 and 3600 years B.P. It has been suggested that 
mangroves are more extensive where such reef-top reefs formed earliest, and that the formation 
of a field of microatolls on the reef top triggers the rapid expansion of mangrove vegetation 
(Stoddart 1979). Hence differences in initial reef geometry could control the great differences 
found in the extent of mangroves between adjacent reefs, because of the different amounts of 
limestone deposition needed to bring the reef to present sea-level. 



Rainfall 

It has already been mentioned that the mean annual rainfall at Green Island (2152 mm) 
and Low Isles (2027 mm) is substantially greater than that at Heron Island in the south (965 
mm). There are no other island records available between Low Isles and Thursday Island (1739 
mm). Nevertheless, some of the islands north of Princess Charlotte Bay had a distinctly arid 
aspect (admittedly during the 1973 dry season), and the rainfall at Raine Island could well be 
as low as 1000 mm. Rainfall variation within the northern province could thus be an important 
ecological control. 



14 



Cyclones 

Cyclones have occurred roughly 6-12 times per decade during the present century in the 
northern province. They have major topographical effects, especially in altering the location 
and size of shingle ramparts, and thus incidentally through movement of the substrate leading 
to destruction of vegetation. They also have direct effects on the vegetation itself, mainly 
through wind action. This is most marked in mangrove woodland. Steers (1938) noted extensive 
devastation of mangroves on Houghton, Wilkie and Night Islands, and the same was seen in 
1973 on Newton and Houghton. The effects of this periodic destruction on pattern and succession 
in the mangrove woodlands has yet to be investigated. Wind damage during cyclones is 
undoubtedly also responsible for the feeling of some taller trees, such as Casuarina at Three 
Isles. 



Seabirds 

A number of the reef islands are important seabird nesting sights (Serventy et al 1971, 
Lavery and Grimes 1971, Kikkawa 1976). The birds have both mechanical and chemical effects 
on soil and vegetation, and we have noted the characteristic vegetation of seabird islands 
(type 7). Three groups of seabirds are important modifiers of vegetation: 

(a) Boobies. The Brown Booby Sula leucogaster nests at Waterwitch, Ashmore, 
Pandora (all unvegetated), and Raine (in unvegetated areas). The Masked Booby Sula 
dactylatra nests on Pandora (unvegetated) and on unvegetated parts of Raine. These heavy 
birds would undoubtedly locally suppress vegetation in any nesting area; and they may have 
been more widespread in the past. 

(b) Terns and Noddies. The Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata nests in extremely large numbers 
on Michaelmas and Stapleton, as well as on Raine, Pandora, Low, Upolu and Saunders. The 
Noddy Anous stolidus nests mainly on Michaelmas but also on Raine, Howick and Upolu. The 
nesting areas have a vegetation of grasses (Lepturus re-pens) and herbs (notably Boerhavia 
repens), and other plants, especially shrubs, are probably suppressed. Walker (1991a) has 
discussed the role of the Black Noddy Anous minutus, the Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus, and 
the Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus, in the dispersal of Pisonia grandis. 

(c) The Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. This breeds and is still numerous on Coombe, 
Pelican and Sinclair. Its effects are much more local than those of the other seabirds, but 
nevertheless identifiable. 

Not a great deal of work has been done on the effects on vegetation of tropical seabirds 
on reef islands, but reference may be made to Gillham's observations (1977a, 1977b) on Aldabra 
and Cosmoledo Atolls. 



Landbirds 

The Torres Strait Pigeon Ducula spilorrhoa is likely to be of particular significance in 
the dispersal of plants with fleshy fruits, and it could be particularly important in explaining 
the distribution of some of the distinctively Australian trees of the larger cays. It is seasonally 
abundant at Cairncross, Howick, Hope, East Pethebridge, and Low (where it has recently been 
studied by Crome 1975), and probably at many other islands. It would be interesting to compare 



15 



its food preferences with the plant species present on the cays: Crome (1975) has provided a 
list of propagules at Low Isles not present as viable plants in the present flora. 



Turtles 

Sea turtles, notably the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas, are probably relatively 
uncommon on most northern islands at the present day. The major exception is Raine Island, 
which is probably the largest Green Turtle rookery in the world, with a population of 11,000 in 
1974. The turtles nest in Lepturus grassland, which undergoes constant mechanical disturbance 
in consequence. It is likely that turtle rookeries were much more extensive in the past. 



Man 

The presumed effects of both aboriginal and European man on island vegetation has 
been mentioned several times. Beaton (1978) has summarised archaeological evidence of the 
occupation of the northern islands, especially for the reef islands Howick, Pipon, Ingram, 
Bewick, Nymph and the Turtles. 



16 



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19 



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ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NO. 350 



PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PARTI. THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND DISPERSAL BY SEABIRDS 
OF PISONIA GRANDIS 
BY T.A. WALKER 

PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART II. THE VASCULAR FLORAS OF BUSHY AND REDBILL ISLANDS 
BY T. A. WALKER, M. Y. CHALOUPKA, AND B. R. KING. 

PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART HI. CHANGES IN THE VASCULAR FLORA OF LADY MUSGRAVE ISLAND 
BY T.A. WALKER 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., U.SA. 

JULY 1991 



4 



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Mean Monthly Rainfall (mm) 



L 

ONDJFMAMJJAS 



Thursday Island 
36 years (1950-1985) 
annual mean 1741 mm 
annual median 1699 mm 
(60 metre gauge) 
(104 metre peak) 



Figure 1-1. The Great Barrier Reef showing localities 
referred to in the text. Mean monthly rainfall data is 
illustrated for the four cays and the four rocky islands 
where records are available. Sizes of the ten largest 
cays on the Great Barrier Reef are shown below - 
three at the southern end (23 -24S) and seven at the 
northern end (9- US). 



400 
300 



400 
300 




ONDJFMAMJJAS 

l 

ONDJFMAMJJAS 

1 

ONDJFMAMJJAS 



ONDJFMAMJJAS 




Lizard Island 
14 years (1973-1986) 
annual mean 1 532 mm 
annual median 1459 mm 
(10 metre gauge) 
(354 metre peak) 



Low Islet 

97 years (1887-1984) 
annual mean 2080 mm 
annual median 2038 mm 



Fitzroy Island 
24 years (1962-1986) 
annual mean 2693 mm 
annual median 2694 mm 
(107 metre gauge) 
(269 metre peak) 




Pine Islet 

52 years (1934-1986) 

annual mean 878 mm, annual median 814 mm 

(58 metre high gauge, 68 metre island peak) 



North Reef Island 
16 years (1961-1977) 
annual mean 1067 mm, 



annual median 1013 mm 



Heron Island 

26 years (1956-1982) 

annual mean 1039 mm, annual median 1026 mm 

Lady Elliot Island 

47 years (1939-1986) 

annual mean 1 177 mm, annual median 1 149 mm 



ONDJFMAMJJAS 



PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART I. THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND DISPERSAL BY 

SEABIRDS OF PISONIA GRANDIS 

BY 

T. A. WALKER 



ABSTRACT 

Pisonia grandis was located on forty-four Great Barrier Reef islands from literature reports and 
during field surveys between 1983 and 1989. The abundance and maximum dimensions of Pisonia 
were measured for most islands. The highest trees are 1 6- 1 8 m which is much lower than the 30 m 
trees reported elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region. Less than 160 ha of Pisonia forest is present in 
total and 94% is concentrated on cays on the southern Great Barrier Reef especially on North West 
Island. Northern islands have greater floristic diversity and with rare exception Pisonia appears 
unable to form forests there. Possible reasons for this are discussed. Sixteen species of birds were 
observed with Pisonia fruits attached to their feathers and the primary dispersal agents are identi- 
fied as the Black Noddy Anous minutus and the Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus. The distribution 
of Pisonia is closely associated with the distribution of colonies of these two seabirds. Destruction 
of Pisonia by human activities has been significant since European settlement but relatively minor 
compared to that elsewhere throughout its range. 

INTRODUCTION 

Pisonia grandis R. Br. is a remarkable tree of Indo-Pacific islands between the latitudes of 24°N and 
24°S. Its unusual features have fascinated botanists since Rumphius (1750) and island cultures 
have assigned it a variety of roles from culinary to that of sacred plant not to be possessed on 
penalty of death (Stemmerik 1964). A tall attractive species with large leaves, smooth bark, 
buttress-like roots and spreading canopy it often forms a shady forest characterised by near absence 
of undergrowth and other trees. Pisonia grandis occurs almost entirely on small islands supporting 
colonies of seabirds or imperial pigeons (Ridley 1930, St. John 1951, Airy Shaw 1952, Stemmerik 
1964). This unique distribution has been attributed both to the spread of seeds by birds and to 
enhancement of growth by bird guano (Airy Shaw 1952, Stemmerik 1964). 

Pisonia grandis forest on coraline substrate tends to produce a rich peat-like acidic humus over- 
laying phosphate rock (Fosberg 1957). Consequently this forest has been cleared for agriculture 
(particularly coconut) or phosphate mining on most islands throughout the Indo-Pacific (Fosberg 
1974, 1983; Manner et al. 1985). The Great Barrier Reef is one region where islands with uncut 
Pisonia forests remain. It has been suggested that phosphatic cay rock requires the presence of 
seabird guano and Pisonia humus for its formation (Fosberg 1957) and Pisonia therefore has 

Department of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 5391, Townsville 4810, Australia. 
Manuscript received 12 October 1989; revised 28 November 1990 



considerable historical importance in generation of commercial Indo-Pacific rock phosphate 
deposits. The presence of phosphatic cay rock would also indicate past abundance of Pisonia 
where it is presently absent or scarce. 

The Great Barrier Reef province (GBR) extends across fifteen degrees of latitude from 9°S to 24°S 
(Fig. 1-1) and contains approximately 950 islands. Most are rocks and islands of continental origin. 
Approximately 160 coral cays occur (the term "cay" is used here in its correct sense for true islands 
and does not include submerging sandbanks) and of these all except twenty-five are sited along the 
northern half of the GBR (9°S to 18°S). The most studied cays are the southernmost fifteen: the 
Capricorn and Bunker Groups and Lady Elliot Island. These cays are wooded and their often 
extensive Pisonia grandis forests and vegetation have been described in detail (see references in 
note 13 on page 8). The only other wooded cay on the southern half of the GBR, Bushy Island, is 
also forested with Pisonia grandis (Part II) . The situation on these cays has sometimes led to 
a belief that Pisonia grandis is a common or dominant species on cays of the GBR ( Hopley 1982) 
however Pisonia forest has rarely been described elsewhere on the GBR (MacGillivray 1852, 
Domm 1977) and with one or two exceptions the few reports of this species on northern islands 
describe small amounts of low or stunted trees. 

The present appraisal of the distribution and status of Pisonia grandis along the GBR is presented 
in response to commercial pressure to clear forest for tourism developments and airstrips on these 
small islands. Results of an extensive survey of GBR islands for Pisonia grandis are described with 
particular reference to its association with seabird colonies. 

ISLAND SURVEYS 

Four hundred and seventy GBR islands were examined for Pisonia grandis and avifauna from 1983 
to 1990 (Fig.l-2). Investigations varied from comprehensive surveys of several days duration to 
observations from a vessel without landing. Further observations were made during aerial 
overflights of the GBR. Small amounts of Pisonia grandis were undoubtedly overlooked but it is 
considered that all significant stands south of 15°S were examined. Islands north of 15°S were 
visited less extensively and while information for these islands is incomplete it is considered 
reliable for forests of Pisonia grandis. Several botanists and naturalists with wide geographical 

Numbers of Islands 



50 100 150 200 
i 1 1 1 1 



9 

11 
13 



52, 15 



m 

WMtWSiW^^'W®® Fig.l-2. Latitudinal distribution of 

I islands in the Great Barrier Reef 



I province showing the numbers of 

I I islands visited from 1983 to 1990. 



-g ■ ] Western Torres Strait 

■I 17 EL 



Islands Surveyed 1983-90 



19 
21 



experience along the GBR advised that no other locations for Pisonia were known to them (per- 
sonal communications from S. Domm, B. King, C. Limpus, R. Buckley, H. Heatwole, D. Stoddart, 
G. Batianoff, E. Hegerl and A. Taplin). 

Heights of trees were estimated using an inclinometer. Circumferences of trees were measured at 
the narrow region between basal root expansion and multiple trunk divergence. In large trees this 
region is often about a metre above the ground and was descriptively referred to as the "waist" by 
Cribb (1969). The areas covered by Pisonia grandis on each island were estimated from field 
measurements or determined from aerial photographs or published island maps. Areas were 
estimated for canopy cover of Pisonia forest including the canopies of interspersed trees of other 
species. Some measurements are approximate because of the brief time available during island 
visits or because of difficulties associated with distinguishing Pisonia grandis from other species 
on aerial photographs. The trees of greatest height and girth were searched for but not necessarily 
located on every island. For those islands not visited some published height estimates have been 
accepted without confirmation. The study has progressed over seven years potentially allowing 
significant changes in dimensions to occur since the early measurements were taken. 

Vegetation species lists were compiled for several islands during the Pisonia surveys. Roughly 
half of the plant species were identified by sight and specimens of the remainder were collected for 
subsequent identification or confirmation of identity at the Queensland Herbarium. Some taxa 
were not satisfactorily resolved. Abutilon specimens are assigned to A. asiaticum var. australasicum 
as this is the only species identified from Australia by Fosberg (1988). Boerhavia species were 
identified according to the Flora of Australia (Bureau of Flora and Fauna 1984) however Fosberg 
(1988) considers that neither of the two GBR species identified by this key occur in Australia. 
Records have therefore been assigned to Boerhavia repens L. with the assumption that segregation 
is likely following further detailed examination. Records of Lepturus repens may include repre- 
sentatives of the recently described L. stoddartii (Fosberg 1988). 

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF PISONIA 

Of the 950 or so islands of the GBR region the present field investigation and literature survey 
could locate only forty-four islands where Pisonia grandis occurs. Table 1 summarises the dis- 
tribution and abundance of Pisonia and includes estimates for populations of the two main avian 
dispersal agents identified in following sections. The following island descriptions are numbered 
and refer to corresponding note numbers in the final column of Table 1-1. 

1) Masig Islet is the larger of the two Yorke Islands and is referred to as Yorke Island on some 
maps. It is the largest coral cay on the GBR (Fig. 1-1) and the Australian continental shelf and is 
inhabited by approximately 200 people. A five-hour search of the forest and woodland in 
November 1988 located only two Pisonia grandis trees in the centre of the cay beside the airstrip. 
Further isolated specimens might have been overlooked. The nature of the pre-existing vegetation 
cleared to make way for the airstrip and its present bordering Casuarina forest is unknown but the 
size of the existing Pisonia trees suggests they could pre-date the airstrip and be remnant from a 
larger stand. 

2) MacGillivray (1852) described Arden Island as "low and sandy, covered with tall bushes and a 
few clumps of trees (Pisonia grandis)". Surveys of this uninhabited cay in 1987-88 yielded 53 
species of plants(Tables l-2,l-3)but Pisonia grandis was not present. The vegetation is dominated 
by large deciduous Gyrocarpus americanus trees which have a close resemblance to Pisonia 



Table 1-1. Maximum heights (m), circumferences (m) and abundance of Pisonia grandis on Great Barrier Reef 
cays and rocky islands. Colonies of Black Noddy Anous minutus and Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus are also 
shown (+ breeding colony <500 birds; ++ breeding colony 500-10,000 birds; +++ breeding colony 10,000- 
200,000 birds; ++ or + denotes large or small roosting population or known past breeding colony). 











(0 

3 

3 

C 


w 

3 

a> 

(0 






Max. 


Max. 


"E 


c 

(0 


Island 


Cay 


Ht. 


Circ. 


< 


CO 


Masig I. 


+ 


12.0 


5.3 


. 


- 


Arden I. 


+ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Dove I. 


+ 


4.0 


1.9 


- 


+ 


Sinclair I. 


+ 






- 


- 


Milman I. 


+ 






- 


- 


Aplin I. 


+ 






- 


- 


Douglas I. 


+ 


16.0 


7.0 


+ 


- 


West Cairncross I 


. + 


19.0 


10.0 


+ 


+ 


Wallace I. 


+ 


8.0 




++ 


+ 


West Hannibal I. 


+ 


9.0 


2.5 


- 


+ 


East Hannibal I. 


+ 


8.0 


3.2 


+ 


- 


North Bird I. 


+ 


13.0 




++ 


- 


Farmer Cay 


+ 


4.0 




++ 


+ 


Quoin I. 


- 


5.0 




++ 


+ 


Seabird I. 


- 


1.2 


0.2 


++ 


+ 


East Rocky I. 


- 


1.8 


0.4 


+ 


+ 


Rocky I. 


- 


18.0 


10.5 


++ 


++ 


West Hope I. 


+ 


10.0 


3.5 


- 


+ 


Low Isles 


+ 






- 


+ 


Little Fitzroy I. 


- 


10.0 


4.2 


- 


+ 


North Brooke I. 


- 


8.5 


2.3 


- 


++ 


Eva I. 


- 


10.0 


6.0 


- 


+ 


Holbourne I. 


- 


5.5 


1.0 


- 


- 


Holbourne Rk. 


- 


1.5 


0.3 


- 


+ 


Rattray I. 


- 


1.5 


0.7 


- 


- 


Eshelby I. 


- 


7.0 


2.7 


- 


++ 


Tern I. 


- 


4.5 


1.2 


- 


+ 


Bushy I. 


+ 


13.0 


6.0 


++ 


- 


Redbill I. 


- 


3.0 


0.6 


- 


+ 


Percy Isles 


- 






- 


? 


Conical Rk. 


- 


0.5 


0.3 


- 


- 


North Reef I. 


+ 


4.0 


0.4 


+ 


- 


Tryon I. 


+ 


13.0 


6.4 


+ 


+ 


North West I. 


+ 


17.0 


9.0 


+++ 


- 


Wilson I. 


+ 


9.0 


3.3 


+ 


+ 


Wreck I. 


+ 


9.0 


2.6 


+ 


+ 


Heron I. 


+ 


13.0 


7.0 


+++ 


- 


Erskine I. 


+ 


2.5 


1.0 


+ 


+ 


Masthead I. 


+ 


15.0 


6.0 


+++ 


+ 


One Tree I. 


+ 


7.0 


2.2 


++ 


++ 


East Hoskyn I. 


+ 


7.0 


1.6 


+ 


+ 


West Hoskyn I. 


+ 


14.0 


3.8 


++ 


+ 


East Fairfax I. 


+ 


12.0 


11.0 


+ 


+ 


West Fairfax I. 


+ 


12.0 


9.0 


+ 


+ 


Lady Musgrave I. 


+ 


13.0 


7.5 


++ 


+ 


Lady Elliot I. 


+ 


10.0 


3.5 


+ 


+ 



Status of Pisonia 



Two adjacent trees beside airstrip clearing (1 ) 
Reported in 1 848, not present in 1 988 (2) 
One isolated tree near beach in grassland (3) 
<0.1 ha (R. Buckley, A. Taplin, pers. comms.) 
Some amongst rainforest (A. Taplin, pers. comm.) 
Small amount on shingle bank (Buckley, pers. comm.) 
About 2.5 ha of Pisonia forest dominates cay (4) 
About 20 large trees amongst rainforest (5) 
0.02 ha thicket on grassy cay (King et al. 1 989) 
2 trees amongst Pemphis on eastern tail of cay rock 
5 trees on sandy shingle bank within dense Pemphis 
Few in 1 ha Erythrina forest (King & Limpus 1 985) 
Small woodland with Pisonia (King and Limpus 1990) 
0.2 ha stunted thicket on rock (King & Buckley 1985) 
1 guano covered shrub on central rise on rocky soil 

1 shrub at summit amongst other shrubs and trees 
About 1 .5 ha forest on coral sand and on hillside (6) 
<0.1 ha, two stands among other trees and thickets 
Pisonia collected in 1973, not seen in 1988 (7) 

15 trees below vine forest along north face on rock 

2 trees on sand at north end in mixed forest (8) 
Several trees and shrubs on rock in mixed forest 
0.5 ha narrow strand forest, trees on coral sand 
One stunted shrub growing on rock (Walker 1989b) 
Windshorn clump of 7 main trunks on western sand 
About 0.5 ha of stands and scattered trees (9) 

7 low trees in small Ficus obliqua thicket on hilltop 
2 ha of mature Pisonia forest dominates cay (10) 
<20 plants on rock in Ficus obliqua thicket (11) 
Possibly specimens on rocks off Pine Islet (12) 
Stunted shrub in rock crevice is sole woody plant 
2 young trees among Toumefortia, Scaevola (13a) 
6.5 ha of Pisonia forest over most of cay (13c,d) 
94 ha of Pisonia forest over most of cay (13b,e) 
0.7 ha Pisonia forest among Pandanus (13b,f) 
0.5 ha of Pisonia forest in centre of cay (13c,g) 
6.5 ha forest and through developed areas (13b,h) 
0.1 ha stunted thicket in mixed shrubs (13c,i) 
27 ha of Pisonia forest over most of cay (13b,j) 
0.5 ha in 6 windshorn thickets on shingle (13b,k) 
0.6 ha windshorn Pisonia forest on shingle (13b,l) 
2 ha of Pisonia forest on lee side of cay (13b,l) 
1.5 ha of remnant Pisonia forest on shingle (13b,m) 
1.3 ha of Pisonia forest on shingle and sand (13b,m) 
7 ha of Pisonia forest over much of cay (13b,n) 
Remnant stand of 1 1 large trees, shrubs (13c,o) 



(see text for notes 1-13) 



grandis when branches are bare of foliage and seeds during the dry season. It seems likely that 
MacGillivray misidentified Gyrocarpus americanus as he visited during the dry season. The 
irregular trunk bases are expanded with massive above-ground roots, there is coppice shooting 
from fallen branches and trunks, the wood is soft and brittle and the bark is light-coloured and 
smooth: characteristics remarkably similar to those of Pisonia grandis. The presence of Pisonia 
140 years ago cannot be completely discounted because the island is occasionally or periodically 
burned by the nearby islanders and the tallest trees (presently Gyrocarpus) have been felled for 
years by government officers when they reached the height of the navigation light tower. 

3) Dove Island is an uninhabited sand cay dominated by Imperata cylindrica grassland as a con- 
sequence of annual burning by the inhabitants of nearby islands. Stands of low trees occur and a 
solitary Pisonia grandis specimen is present beside the beach. This is the only wooded Torres 
Strait cay where Bridled Tern nesting has been confirmed to date. 

4) The highly developed Pisonia forest on Douglas Island is discussed on page 14. There were no 
seabirds nesting during the survey in October 1988 but the observation of eight dead Black Noddies 
and the spread of white excreta indicated the presence of a nocturnal roosting population. 

5) MacGillivray (1852) described Cairncross Island as "... covered in the centre with tall trees ... 
These large trees Pisonia grandis form very conspicuous objects from their great dimensions, their 
smooth, light bark, and leafless, dead appearance. Some are from eighty to one hundred feet in 
height, with a circumference at the base of twenty feet." These height estimates conflict with the 
more likely contemporary value of 58 feet (17.4 m) given for the island trees by Stokes (1846). In 
October 1848 T. H. Huxley (J. Huxley 1935) also recorded Cairncross Island as ".. well wooded, 
the most conspicuous objects being the white naked Pisonia trees". In 1988 there were roughly 
twenty large Pisonia grandis trees on the western (large) Cairncross Island and none on the eastern 
island. These trees were a minor component of a well developed forest dominated in height (20 m) 
by Garugafloribunda, Ficus virens and Gyrocarpus americanus. In October the cay was very dry 
and the leafless branches of these three deciduous species and Pisonia protruded above the leafy 
canopies ofManilkara kauki and other lower species of trees. The Pisonia trees are old and appear 
to be surviving with little or no vegetative spread or growth of seedlings. There were indications of 
some nocturnal Black Noddy roosting. 

6) Rocky Islet has the second highly developed Pisonia forest on the northern GBR. Phosphate 
rock is widespread but the forest differs from that at Douglas Island because burrowing shearwaters 
prevent accumulation of a thick humus layer. The forest is protected behind the lee side of a high 
island ridge and forms a pure stand on the lowland calcareous sand but mixes with other species 
near to and upon the rocky hillside. There is extensive Pisonia growth on non-calcareous substrate 
but this does not reach the stature or girth of trees on the coraline substrate. Thousands of Black 
Noddies roost in the forest at night. 

7) The Queensland Herbarium in Brisbane has a record of Pisonia grandis collected at Low Isles by 
S. Everist in 1973. It was not observed in other vegetation surveys of the sand cay in 1973 (D. 
Stoddart, pers. comm.) or in 1983 or 1988. If the 1973 record is correct the species has apparently 
disappeared or is present only on shingle banks in the mangrove complex (Woody Island). 

8) Some confusion occurs in the Rockingham Bay area (approx. 18°S) where Pisonia inermis is 
reported by Bentham (1 870). Cribb (1969) considered this to be Pisonia grandis and discussed the 
likelihood that the specimen was collected from an island in the bay rather than from the mainland. 



Table 1-2. Terrestrial vascular flora of northern cays where Pisonia grandis is recorded, Part 1 : 
Species also naturally occurring or naturalized on southern cays. Species presence on the 16 
wooded southern cays is shown for comparison. (Partial list for Masig Island.) 



Northern Cays 



£ If 

9 e o> a 'c 'c « 

> E 3 = C C w 

5<QOO$XX$ 



5> £ 
n ® 

to E 



Southern Cays 





CO 

p o ^ o 5 ^ a> E ! « c o o ;« ;« 






J ^ .TO .TO 



ffiZhZ 



§5 



X LU 



I x ul u. 



33 



Abutilon asiaticum 
Achyranthes aspera 
Amaranthus viridis 
Bidens pilosa 
Boerhavia repens 
Caesalpinia bonduc 
Canavalia rosea 
Cassytha filiformis 
Casuarina equisetifolia 
Catharanthus roseus 
Celtis paniculata 
Cenchrus echinatus 
Cocos nucifera 
Cordia subcordata 
Crinum pedunculatum 
Cyperus rotundus 
Dactyloctenium aegyptium 
Diplocyclos palmatus 
Eleusine indica 
Emilia sonchifolia 
Euphorbia atoto 
Euphorbia cyathophora 
Euphorbia hirta 
Euphorbia tannensis 
Ficus obliqua 
Reus opposita 
Ipomea macrarttha 
Ipomea pes-caprae 
Lantana camara 
Lepturus repens 
Pandanus tectorius 
Pipturus argenteus 
Pisonia grandis 
Portulaca oleracea 
Rhynchelytrum repens 
Salsola kali 
Scaevola sericsa 
Sesuvium portulacastrum 
Sophora tomentosa 
Spinifex sericeus 
Sporobolus virginicus 
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 
Suriana maritima 
Thuarea involuta 
Tournefortia argentea 
Tribulus cistoides 
Tridax procumbens 
Triumfetta repens 
Vlgna marina 
Wollastonia biflora 



+ + + + 



+ + + + 



+ + 



+ + 
+ + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 

+ 
+ + 
+ + 

+ 
+ + 
+ + 

+ 
+ 



+ + + + + + 

+ + + + + + 
+ + 

+ + + + 

+ + + + + + 

+ + 

+ + + + + 
+ 

+ + + + + + 

+ 

+ + 



+ + 

+ 



+ + + + 



+ + 
+ + 
+ + 

+ + 
+ + 
+ 
+ + 
+ + 

+ 
+ + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + 
+ + 



+ + + + + + 



+ + + 

+ + + 

+ + 

+ + + 

+ + 

+ 

+ + 

+ + + + 

+ + + + 

+ + + 



+ 
+ + + 



+ + 
+ + 



+ 
+ + 



+ + + + 

+ 

+ + + + + 

+ + + + 

+ + + + + 



+ + + + 
+ + + 
+ 

+ + + + 
+ + 



Table 1-3. Terrestrial vascular flora of northern cays where Pisonia grandis is recorded, Part 2: 
Species not naturally occurring or naturalized on southern cays. (Partial list for Masig Island) 





'8 

2 


c 
® 

< 


Dove 

Cairncross (w) 
Douglas 
Wallace 
Hannibal (w) 
Hannibal (e) 


& 
o 

X 

8 

+ 




Masig 
Arden 
Dove 
Cairncross (w) 


Douglas 
Wallace 
Hannibal (w) 
Hannibal (e) 
West Hope 


Abrus precatorius 




+ 


+ 


+ + 


+ 




Ipomea nil 


+ 










Bauhinia binata 










+ 






Ipomea sp. 


+ 




+ 




+ + 


Boerhavia sp. 




+ 












Josephinia imperatricus 


+ + + 


+ 








Bulbostylis barbata 




+ 












Leucaena leucocephala 


+ 










Calotropis procera 






+ 










Macaranga tanarius 


+ 










Cananga odorata 








+ 








Malaisia scandens 




+ 








Cansjera leptostachya 








+ 








Manilkara kauki 


+ + + 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Canthium vaccinifolium 








+ 








Micromelum minutum 




+ 


+ 




+ 


Capparis arborea 




+ 












Mimusops elengi 




+ 






+ 


Capparis lucida 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ + 


+ 




? 


Morinda citrifolia 


+ + 




? 




+ 


Capparis quiniflora 








+ 








Mukia maderaspatana 


+ 










Capparis sarmentosa 








+ 








Olax pendula 




+ 






+ 


Capparis separia 














+ 


Operculina riedeliana 








+ 




Capparis spinosa 




+ 


+ 










Opilia amentacea 




+ 








Capparis sp. 


+ 






+ 








Pachygone ovata 




+ 






+ 


Carissa laxifolia 




? 




+ 


+ 






Pandorea pandorana 




+ 








Cayratia acris 




+ 












Panicum trichoides 






+ 






Cayratia cardiophylla 




? 




+ 






+ 


Passiflora foetida 


+ 








+ 


Cayratia saponaria 








+ 


+ 






Pern phis acidula 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ + + 


Cayratia trifolia 




+ 




+ 


+ 






Phyllanthus amarus 




+ 








Cayratia sp. 


+ 










+ 




Phyllanthus novaehollandiae 


+ 








? 


Cleome viscosa 


+ 




+ 


+ + 


+ + 


+ 




Phyllanthus reticulatus 




+ 






+ 


Clerodendrum inerme 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ + 


+ 




+ 


Phyllanthus tenellus 










+ 


Cochlospermum gillivraei 


+ 














Phyllanthus sp. 








+ 




Colubrina asiatica 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


Pleomele angustifolia 


+ 


+ 








Commelina lanceolata 




+ 


+ 










Platycerium bifurcatum 










+ 


Commelina undulata 








+ 






+ 


Pongamia pinnata 










+ 


Commelina sp. 


+ 






+ + 








Portulaca australis 


+ + 








+ + 


Cynanchum carnosum 














+ 


Premna serratifolia 


+ + + 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ + 


Cyperus pedunculatus 


+ 


+ 




+ 








Proiphys amboinensis 


+ + 


+ 








Cyperus scaber 


+ 














Ptychosperma elegans 




+ 








Cyperus stoloniferus 




+ 












Salacia chinensis 


+ 










Cyperus sp. 


+ 




+ 










Sida spinosa 


+ 








? 


Derris trifoliata 














+ 


Schefflera actinophylla 










+ 


Digitaria ctenantha 














+ 


Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea 


+ 










Diospyros maritima 


+ 


+ 




+ + 


+ 




+ 


Solanum seaforthianum 










+ 


Dodonae viscosa 


+ 






+ 








Solanum torvum 










+ 


Drynaria rigidula 














+ 


Solanum viridifolium 


+ 








+ + 


Drypetes australasica 








+ 


+ 






Solanum sp. 










+ 


Endospermum meduiosum 














+ 


Spermacoce sp. 


+ 










Erythrina sp. 








? ? 


+ 


+ 




Suaeda australis 










+ + 


Eupomarja? 














+ 


Tacca leontopetaloides 


+ + + 


+ 








Eugenia reinwardtiana 








+ 








Terminalia catappa 


+ 








+ 


Exocarpus latifolius 








+ 


+ 




+ 


Terminalia melanocarpa 




+ 








Ficus drupacea 








+ 


+ 






Terminalia muelleri 


+ 








+ 


Ficus virens 


+ 


+ 




+ 








Terminalia sp. 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


Reus sp. 


+ 






+ + 


+ ? 






Thespesia populnea 


+ 




+ 


+ 


? + 


Flagellaria indica 


+ 






+ + 




+ 


+ 


Thespesia populneoides 










? 


Ganophyllum falcatum 








+ 






+ 


Tinospora smilacina 


+ 








+ 


Garuga floribunda 








+ 


+ 






Turrea brownii 


+ 








+ 


Glycosmis pentaphylla 








+ + 


+ 




+ 


Vitex negundo 


? 








+ 


Guettardia speciosa 


+ 






+ 


+ 




+ 


Vitex trifolia 


+ 










Gyrocarpus americanus 




+ 




+ + 


+ 






Vitex ovata 


+ ? 






+ 




Hibiscus liliaceous 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 






Xenostegia tridentata 




+ 




+ 


+ + 


imperata cylindrica 


+ 




+ 






















Ipomea aquatica 




+ 

























8 

Banfield (1908), a long-time resident of Dunk Island, described in detail the "murderous" nature of 
Pisonia brunoniana the "bird-lime tree", "Upas-tree" or "Ahm-moo" of the natives which "counts 
its victims by the thousand each season." He stated that "On some of the islands where the tree is 
plentiful numbers of pigeons meet a dreary fate every season." A subsequent long-time resident of 
nearby Bedarra Island noted that "Banfield's Upas tree... Pisonia umbellifera is not found in the 
islands themselves, only on the mainland" (N. Wood in Porter 1983). The Bureau of Flora and 
Fauna (1984) records Pisonia umbellifera from near Mission Beach and at Clump Point, both 
mainland localities in Rockingham Bay. The present survey of islands in Rockingham Bay located 
only two Pisonia grandis trees on sand at the northern end of North Brook Island (site of a major 
Torresian Imperial-Pigeon colony) but found Pisonia aculeata vines on Sisters Island further north. 
The source of Banfield's observations remains a mystery. 

9) Eshelby Island is a 50 m high, 1 1.5 ha granite rock with the most extensive growth of Pisonia 
grandis on rocky soil on the GBR. Pisonia clumps are scattered amongst other trees and shrubs 
throughout the island. Eshelby Island supports the largest Bridled Tern colony in eastern Australia 
(Walker and Hegerl 1986). 

10) The Pisonia forest and vegetation of Bushy Island (4.5 ha) is identical to that of the Capricorn 
and Bunker cays 330 km to the south (Part II) . Phosphatic cay rock and a nocturnal Black 
Noddy roosting population of many thousands are present (Walker 1987). There are no known 
roosting or nesting colonies of this species for a distance of 840 km to the north. Bridled Terns and 
other seabirds probably nested at the cay prior to interference from human activities. 

11) Redbill Island is a steep 1 ha rock with upper slopes covered by a dense low thicket of Ficus 
obliqua containing several interspersed Pisonia grandis (Walker 1989a, (Part II) .No other 
woody plants are present. Wallace and Lovell (1977) list Ficus opposita as the only woody plant on 
the isle in 1973. Although it is possible for Pisonia grandis to have arrived and grown to 3 m in the 
subsequent fourteen years the species may have been initially overlooked. The widely scattered 
distribution of Pisonia specimens pressed upon by Ficus thicket suggests a long period of resi- 
dence. The Pisonia are the same height as the Ficus thicket and appear to be partially dependent 
upon it for protection from salt-laden wind. 

12) Bentham (1870) reported collection of Pisonia grandis from the Northumberland Islands by 
Robert Brown. The only islands in this group that were visited by Brown are three of the Percy Isles 
namely Middle Percy Island, South Percy Island and Pine Islet (Flinders 1814). The first two of 
these islands are large and did not have Pisonia grandis recorded in recent vegetation surveys (S. 
Domm, pers. comm.; G. Batianoff, pers. comm.). The third, Pine Islet, is a small rock which has not 
been surveyed since Brown's visit. Pisonia grandis specimens may be present but the species was 
unknown to the resident lighthouse keepers. 

13) For the most recent descriptions of the vegetation and seabirds of the Capricorn Group, the 
Bunker Group and Lady Elliot Island consult the following: (a) Walker and Domm 1986, Walker 
and Ogilvie 1988*, Walker 1989c; (b) Hulsman 1984; (c) Heatwole 1984, Chaloupka and Domm 
1985, Heatwole and Walker 1989; (d) Cribb 1979*, Hulsman etal. 1991a; (e) Cribb 1969a*, Hulsman 
and Walker 1991a; (f) Cribb 1965*, Walker and Hulsman 1991a; (g) Hulsman et al. 1991b; (h) 
Gillham 1963, Smith and Heatwole 1985, Kikkawa and Boles 1976*; (i) Walker and Hulsman 
1989*; (j) Hulsman etal. 1984*. Dale etal. 1984; (k) Heatwole etal. 1981*; 0) Cribb 1972*, Walker 
and Hulsman 1991b; (m) Cribb 1986*, Walker etal. 1991; (n) Elsol 1986*, pages 31-38*, Hulsman 
and Walker 1991b; (o) Walker 1986, Walker 1989d* [* denotes inclusion of a vegetation map]. 



The Capricorn-Bunker cays support most of Australia's Pisonia forest and are the principal breed- 
ing sites for the two most abundant seabirds on the GBR, the Wedge-tailed Shearwater and the 
Black Noddy. North West Island in particular supports 60% of the GBR Pisonia and over 50% of 
the biomass of breeding seabirds on the GBR. 

In addition to the records of Table 1 there are possible stands of Pisonia grandis on Restoration Rock 
and Sunday Island (Fig. 1-1). At both islands Pisonia grandis was tentatively observed from a 
vessel, white guano appeared to be present on the leaves and Black Noddies were flying over the 
water nearby (King 1983 and pers. comm.). 

Pisonia grandis occupies less than 160 ha on GBR islands. Further distribution sites undoubtedly 
remain to be found particularly in northern regions but they are unlikely to consist of more than 
isolated specimens or small stands. Pisonia grandis is not known to grow on the mainland and the 
only other Australian records are for two or three small islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria including 
the type locality, Pisonia Island. Geographically therefore Australia has a total of less than 170 ha 
of Pisonia grandis. The value is increased by inclusion of territories in the Coral Sea (north-east 
Herald Cay, south-west Coringa Cay, south-east Magdelaine Cay) and Indian Ocean (Christmas 
Island, Cocos Islands) that support stands of Pisonia grandis (St. John 1951, Airy Shaw 1952, 
Hindwood etal. 1963, Stemmerik 1964). 

An estimated 30-40 ha of Pisonia grandis was cleared for phosphate rock mining on Lady Elliot 
Island and East Fairfax Island in the 1890s and on Holbourne Island in the 1920s (Ellis 1936, Cribb 
1986, Walker 1989b,d). There has been relatively little recovery of Pisonia at these islands. 
Phosphate mining on Lady Musgrave Island and North West Island was less extensive (Ellis 1936) 
and partial or complete reforestation has occurred. An additional 4 ha of Pisonia grandis has been 
cleared for buildings and roads at Heron Island. There is no historical information on the 
abundance of Pisonia forest on the GBR cays to the east of Torres Strait. These northernmost cays 
appear to provide a suitable growth site although the vegetation has been altered for centuries by 
seasonal burning and cultivation. 

Most Pisonia grandis along the GBR occurs on coral cays or on cay-like areas of coral substrate 
fringing continental islands(Table l-l).Highly developed forest is restricted to coraline substrate. 
Growth on non-coraline substrate was recorded at Quoin Island, Seabird Island, Rocky Islet, East 
Rocky Islet, Little Fitzroy Island, Eva Island, Holbourne Rock, Eshelby Island, Tern Island, 
Redbill Island and Conical Rock. These specimens were mostly healthy but the greatest height 
reached was no more than 10 m. 

AVIAN DISPERSAL OF PISONIA GRANDIS 

The anthocarps of Pisonia grandis have a sticky resinous exudate that binds them to bird feathers 
or other surfaces (Banfield 1908, Cribb 1969). Birds may contact fruits in trees or on the ground 
below. Frequently the whole infructescence will attach to a bird restricting its ability to fly or feed. 
Panicles accumulate on the ground in thick mats following storms. On the Capricorn-Bunker 
islands thousands of entangled seabirds die in years when Pisonia fruiting is heavy. The main 
species affected are the Black Noddy Anous minutus and the Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus 
pacificus (Hulsman and Walker 1991a). In one example beneath a tree on Lady Musgrave Island 
forty-five dead or dying Black Noddies were trapped in an area of 75 square metres (April 1984). 
Inhabitants of some Indo-Pacific islands are reported to use the sticky infructescence of Pisonia 
grandis to catch birds (Ridley 1930, Stemmerik 1964). The fruits can trap insects (Banfield 1908) 



10 

and may be so adhesive that even tree snakes are immobilized (Ridley 1930). The fruits are not 
eaten by birds but the flowers are sometimes eaten by the Silvereye Zosterops lateralis (Heatwole 
et al. 1981) and at Little Fitzroy Island the flowers were visited by the nectar-feeding Yellow- 
bellied Sunbird Nectorinia jugularis. 

In the present study sixteen species of birds were observed with attached Pisonia grandis fruits (Table 
1-4). An Australian Reed Warbler Acrocephalus australis was previously reported with fruits at- 
tached (Kikkawa 1970) but such vagrant species are too rare to be of significance to dispersal. 
Another GBR species the Rufous Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus is reported to carry Pisonia 
fruits elsewhere (Ridley 1930) and domestic poultry and feral chickens may disperse fruits about an 
island (Cooper 1948) although not between islands.Two species from Tablel-4 , the Black Noddy 
and Bridled Tern, have the potential to be important dispersal agents of Pisonia between islands. 
Other species either have small populations on the islands, are sedentary, do not normally enter 
Pisonia forest or are sufficiently agile to avoid most contact with fruits. Seabirds and Torresian 
Imperial-Pigeons are the only species with large populations mobile between GBR islands. 

The migratory Torresian Imperial-Pigeons are not considered to be important dispersal agents 
because they do not feed in Pisonia grandis trees and rarely nest in Pisonia grandis. These birds 
are reported to suffer many casualties from Pisonia fruits (Banfield 1908, Roughley 1936) but only 
one was seen with attached fruits during the present study. Torresian Imperial-Pigeons do not visit 
southern GBR islands but some nests are built in Pisonia at Douglas Island and possibly at Farmer 
Cay so these pigeons could play a minor role in local seed dispersal in the north. 

Most waders and seabirds avoid entering forests. The main exceptions are Black Noddies which 
nest in trees and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters which nest in burrows. Shearwaters are able to nest in 



Table 1-4. Characteristics of Great Barrier Reef birds 


seen with attached Pisonia fruits. 








Observed 


Population 


Mobility 


Entry to 






carrying 


' size on the 


between 


forest 






Pisonia 


GBR 


islands 


habitat 


Anous minutus 


Black Noddy 


+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


Puffinus pacific us 


Wedge-tailed Shearwater 


+++ 


+++ 


fill 


+++ 


Sterna anaethetus 


Bridled Tern 


•H- 


++ 


lli! 


+++ 


Ducula spilorrhoa 


Torresian Imperial Pigeon 


+ 


+++ 


+++ 


+++ 


Sula leucogaster 


Brown Booby 


+ 


++ 


+++ 


+ 


Tringa brevipes 


Grey-tailed Tattler 


+ 


++ 


+++ 


+ 


Arenaria interpres 


Ruddy Turnstone 


+ 


++ 


+++ 


+ 


Pluvialis dominica 


Lesser Golden Plover 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


+ 


Lotus novaehollandiae 


Silver Gull 


+ 


+ 


-f++ 


+ 


Egretta sacra 


Eastern Reef Egret 


+ 


+ 


4-f 


+++ 


Geopelia humeralis 


Bar-shouldered Dove 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


Zosterops lateralis 


Silvereye 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


Rallus philippensis 


Buff-banded Rail 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


Megapodius reinwardt 


Orange-footed Scrubfowl 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


Halcyon sancta 


Sacred Kingfisher 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+++ 


Coracina novaehollandiae Black-faced Cuckoo-Shrike 


+ 


+ 


++ 


++ 



11 

large numbers under Pisonia grandis forest because there is little undergrowth to block their entry. 
Black Noddies and shearwaters frequently carry Pisonia fruits. Shearwaters are unlikely to be 
important dispersal agents as they are not known to visit GBR islands other than their breeding site 
each year. Brown Boobies nest under Pisonia forest on the Fairfax Islands and East Hoskyn Island 
but are not known to enter forest or woodland elsewhere along the GBR making them unlikely seed 
dispersal agents other than between these three islands. Fruits were commonly found attached to 
Brown Booby chicks that were raised beneath Pisonia trees. 

Bridled Terns and Silver Gulls nest under vegetation on many islands. The largest Silver Gull 
population on the GBR occurs at the southern end on the Capricom-Bunker Islands (Walker 
1988a). Gulls have been observed with various types of seeds attached to their feathers and may be 
significant carriers of plant species amongst the fifteen coral cays in this area. Many gulls commute 
between these islands on a daily basis. There is a good correlation between the mean number of 
gulls at each cay and the number of plant species that are dispersed by birds (Heatwole and Walker 
1989). Despite this local correlation Silver Gulls are unlikely to be important distributors of 
Pisonia along the GBR. They have small populations at islands, are relatively skilful in avoiding 
Pisonia fruits and show less propensity for long distance travel along the GBR than the seabirds 
which disperse seasonally. 

Black Noddies and Bridled Terns are clearly the primary dispersal agents for Pisonia grandis on GBR 
islands(Tables l-l,l-4).Before examining this relationship two other potential Pisonia dispersal 
mechanisms should be noted for completeness. First, White-bellied Sea-Eagles Haliaeetus 
leucogaster and Ospreys Pandion haliaetus were found on occasion to carry and place living 
Pisonia branches in nests built on the ground. Rooting or shooting was not observed from the 
branches on these occasions but should be possible under certain conditions. Second, Pisonia trees 
toppled into the sea by shoreline erosion had floated to the other side of two cays where they took 
root and produced shoots. Six such specimens were growing on the beach at Bushy Island in 1989. 
Neither of these dispersal processes is likely to be significant to colonisation of new islands by 
Pisonia because sea-eagles build their nests from vegetation collected on the same island as the nest 
and because Pisonia does not float well and can probably tolerate only brief immersion in sea water. 

ASSOCIATION OF PISONIA WITH SEABIRD COLONIES 

All except two GBR islands with Black Noddy breeding colonies are vegetated with Pisonia 
grandis. Nesting occurs primarily within Pisonia stands and associated trees except at North Bird 
Island, Farmer Cay, Baird Island and Chapman Island where mangroves are used (King and 
Limpus 1985, King and Limpus 1991, King 1991) and at Lady Elliot Island where Tournefortia 
argentea and Casuarina equisetifolia are used (only a few Pisonia grandis trees remain at Lady 
Elliot Island in the middle of a tourist resort). Black Noddies roost on several cays but uncommonly 
on continental islands. Roughly half of the islands with Pisonia grandis presently support Black 
Noddy populations(Table l-l)Most of the remaining Pisonia islands support Bridled Tern colo- 
nies. Bridled Terns are infrequently observed with attached fruits and many islands with Bridled 
Tern colonies do not have Pisonia grandis. 

Black Noddies breed on eight Coral Sea cays to the east of the GBR (Hindwood et al. 1 963). The 
largest colonies nest in Pisonia grandis on the three cays where it grows (forest or stands to 6-8 m). 
The other colonies nest in Tournefortia argentea at cays devoid of other species of trees. There is 
also a report of several nests on ground herbage at Turtle Island, an unwooded Coral Sea cay (Hill 
1984). 



12 

Relatively few islands with Pisonia grandis do not presently support populations of Black Noddies 
or Bridled Terns(Table l-l)Conical Rocks are small spray-exposed seabird roosting rocks where 
the only woody plant is one Pisonia grandis shrub sheltering in a crevice. Rattray Island is the 
closest island to Eshelby Island which has the largest Bridled Tern colony on the east coast. 
Holbourne Island has no nesting seabirds but commercially mined phosphate rock deposits are 
evidence of previous occupation (Walker 1989b). 

Pisonia grandis is absent from approximately 170 seabird breeding islands on the GBR. On many 
nesting cays and small rocky islands the environment is too harsh to support growth of trees. 
Coconuts, for example, have been persistently planted on unwooded cays (eg. Bramble Cay, Raine 
Island, Michaelmas Cay, Swain Group) without success. Pisonia grandis is intolerant of direct 
salty wind and even on well wooded cays does not colonise the strand environment. Pisonia forest 
is wind-pruned or stunted at the windward sides of Capricorn-Bunker Islands in the absence of a 
windbreak of strand trees such as Casuarina, Pandanus or Tournefortia. 

Seabirds are essential to Pisonia grandis for seed dispersal and their guano may confer competitive 
advantages to the plant (see page 14). In return Black Noddies are benefited by provision of tree 
nesting sites and suitable leaves for nest construction. Black Noddy nesting is primarily in Pisonia 
forest but the nests are preferentially placed in Celtis, Ficus and certain other less abundant trees 
within the forest (Hulsman et al. 1984; Dale et al. 1984; Walker, pers. obs.). This may facilitate 
access through the more open canopies of these species or may be a behaviour to reduce the nest 
and clutch loss that results from the characteristic windthrow of Pisonia branches or trees. There is 
no apparent advantage to Bridled Terns from association wi\h Pisonia. Detrimental effects of Pisonia 
grandis on seabirds include high mortality from entanglement in fruits and eventual displacement 
of species that require open ground for nesting. 

Pisonia may assist Wedge-tailed Shearwaters by provision of a ground surface bare of obstructive 
vegetation so long as they colonise the site prior to hardening of the phosphate rock which inhibits 
their tunnelling. In return, burrowing shearwaters protect Pisonia forest from commercial mining 
by reworking the sand and preventing formation of a humus layer and phosphate rock. In the 
absence of shearwater burrowing the formation of phosphate rock on many Capricorn-Bunker 
Islands would have led to their certain mining and defoliation in the 1890s (Ellis 1936). It should 
be noted that phosphate rock is present on several unwooded seabird nesting cays on the GBR. 
Some, including Bramble Cay, Raine Island, Michaelmas Cay and Bell Cay, were mined or were 
leased for phosphate mining. There is no evidence that Pisonia was previously present on these 
cays and this seems unlikely in view of the harsh treeless environment. Boerhavia repens L. tends 
to dominate and form meadows at these major ground-nesting seabird colonies and may be in- 
volved in formation of phosphate rock. This herb is in the same family as Pisonia, is dispersed by 
seabirds and can form a brown humus under favourable conditions (Walker 1988b). 

PISONIA STATUS ON SOUTHERN CAYS 

On Capricorn, Bunker, Lady Elliot and Bushy Islands Pisonia grandis displaces other vegetation to 
form a climax forest. This dominance is achieved by vegetative extension rather than by spread of 
seeds. Frequent windthrow of branches and trunks is facilitated by the shallowness of the root 
system and the brittle nature of the wood. Extensive regions of parenchyma throughout the wood 
give it a weak, spongy structure consisting of two-thirds water (Cribb 1969). Fallen branches and 
trunks take root and produce rows of coppice shoots thereby advancing into surrounding habitat. 
The closed canopy extends to the ground and the advance of the canopy shades out other plants. 



13 

This process of lateral expansion of groves and trees is illustrated in sequential aerial photographs 
at Lady Musgrave Island (Elsol 1986; Part III ). Herbs and shrubs, notably Wollastonia biflora 
and Abutilon asiaticwn establish in clearings and under canopy breaks following windthrow of 
Pisonia. Comparison of sites at Masthead Island showed a negative correlation between mean 
Pisonia height and density of other species of trees (Hulsman et al. 1984, Dale et al. 1984) sug- 
gesting that Celtis paniculata , Ficus opposita and other trees also require disturbance of Pisonia to 
establish. The forest floor is dark, bare sand or humus where the canopy is unbroken. Locusts 
completely stripped the Pisonia foliage on west Fairfax Island in 1986 allowing sunlight to penetrate 
to the forest floor. An impenetrable metre-high thicket of Wollastonia and other species rapidly 
developed but when visited eight months later the canopy had regrown, the forest floor was again 
in shade and the undergrowth thicket was dead. 

Pisonia grandis seedlings are infrequently seen on Capricorn-Bunker islands but sometimes 
germinate in clusters on the forest floor following rain. Pisonia grandis is itself shade intolerant 
(Gillham 1963, Airy Shaw 1952) and these clusters of seedlings disappear after germination. The 
only native species in the Capricorn-Bunker islands with any potential to displace Pisonia might be 
Caesalpinia bonduc which has slowly expanding thickets on west Hoskyn and Lady Musgrave 
Islands. These climbing thickets are very dense and have grown over and covered Pisonia trees. Seeds 
of the strangler fig Ficus obliqua can also germinate on Pisonia grandis but this appears to be an 
uncommon occurrence. 

PISONIA STATUS ON NORTHERN CAYS 

Large Pisonia grandis forests occur only on coral cays of the southern GBR. These cays are larger 
and more advanced than cays elsewhere but are equalled or surpassed by the large cays to the east 
of Torres Strait at the northern end of the GBR(Fig.l-l).The vegetation of the Torres Strait cays 
(9°S-11°S) has been modified by the indigenous people with possible destruction of Pisonia 
grandis but there are no reports (and no investigations) of phosphate rock which would indicate 
previous forest (Fosberg 1 957). With the exception of the most remote island, Bramble Cay, large 
seabird colonies are also non-existent on Torres Strait cays presumably as a result of egg harvesting 
and hunting (Walker 1988b). 

The islands from 1 1°S to 22°30'S have been traditionally visited by mainland aborigines seeking 
nesting turtles, birds and other food but unlike the Torres Strait Islanders they did not settle and 
cultivate food. One hunting technique was to set fire to the end of an island and spear the fleeing 
mammals and reptiles that emerged onto the beach at the other end. This method would be of no 
value on cays as they do not harbour large mammals or reptiles (at least not any more). A non- 
anthropogenic explanation seems necessary to explain the general absence of Pisonia grandis 
forest on the northern wooded cays many of which are colonised by seabirds. 

Unlike southern cays there is no characteristic forest type on northern cays. Plant diversity is 
higher and floristic differences between individual islands are greater. Tables 1-2 &l-3compare the 
terrestrial vascular flora (above high tide) of northern cays where Pisonia grandis occurs or was 
previously reported (vegetation lists are not available for all cays). The vegetation of these islands 
is generally representative of other northern cays. 

West Caimcross Island and Douglas Island are of particular note because they are only 8 km apart 
but have major forest differences. West Caimcross Island supports one of the most diverse and 
highly developed forests of any cay on the GBR. Few coral islands have an equivalent species 



14 

diversity and even fewer have an equivalent diversity of native species. Cairncross Island was well 
vegetated with Pisonia grandis in 1848 (MacGillivray 1852) but the species has apparently not 
been able to expand or displace the other vegetation in subsequent years. Douglas Island on the 
other hand is the only northern cay where mature Pisonia forest was found to occur. This forest is 
remarkably similar in appearance to Pisonia forests on the southern cays. Few other trees occur 
within the forest (notably Ficus) which has little undergrowth and thick peat-like humus overlaying 
phosphate rock. The main differences from southern forests are the presence of lianas on Pisonia 
trees and the presence of different species of trees and shrubs fringing the forest and cay. Douglas 
Island and the continental Rocky Islet are important because they demonstrate that there are no 
climatological barriers to formation of Pisonia forest on northern islands and its scarcity is there- 
fore controlled primarily by biological factors. 

Plant species on southern cays are incapable of competitively displacing Pisonia grandis but this is 
not necessarily so on northern cays. At least six times more species of trees are present on cays in 
the north (Table 1-3) with the result thatPisonia experiences widercompetitionAt Cairncross Island 
Pisonia is struggling against other species while nearby at Douglas Island it maintains an unchal- 
lenged dominance. 

GROWTH OF PISONIA GRANDIS 

The pattern of distribution and growth of Pisonia grandis suggests that there is no simple expla- 
nation for the floristic dominance on southern cays and the scarcity on northern cays. Several 
factors, each of small effect alone, more likely combine to lower the ability of Pisonia to compete 
with other vegetation and reduce the probability of forest dominance. Contributing factors may 
include low dispersal frequency, effects of guano, precipitation patterns, diversity of plant com- 
petitors, insect grazing, genetic variation and mycorrhizal associations. 

Dispersal Frequency 

Dispersal of Pisonia grandis seeds to locations other than to seabird nesting or roosting sites is 
probably an uncommon event. Black Noddies and Bridled Terns are never seen at the mainland 
unless blown in by tropical cyclones (Campbell 1918, Griffin 1972, Walker pers. obs.) and there is 
little evidence of nomadic roosting by these species on islands. Bridled Terns migrate overseas 
following breeding with apparently little visitation to other GBR islands. Black Noddies also 
migrate, some overseas, some to established roosting colonies elsewhere on the GBR and a number 
remain at the breeding sites in certain cases. If the distribution of Pisonia grandis was due solely 
to seabird dispersal the species should become established in non-seabird areas over a period of 
time as a result of uncharacteristic dispersal events (eg. cyclone scatter of seabirds). This does not 
seem to occur (Table 1 ) indicating that factors additional to dispersal are involved. 

Guano and Growth Factors 

It has been suggested that Pisonia grandis may require bird guano for growth and that when the 
supply of guano is interrupted by avian abandonment of sites the trees eventually disappear (Airy 
Shaw 1952). This is unlikely as there are examples of growth in the absence of guano on the GBR 
(Table 1-1) and elsewhere(St. John 1951, Airy Shawl952,Stemmerikl964, Spicer and Newbery 
1979). There is no absolute requirement for guano if the soil contains sufficient nutrients but its 
presence may nevertheless confer a competitive advantage. This could result from either a positive 
effect on Pisonia grandis or a negative effect on other species or both. High levels of guano are 



15 

poisonous to many species and "guano burning" of shrubs and herbs is often visible beneath noddy 
nests. Tree seedlings might be particularly susceptible and many unable to establish in abundant 
guano. The shallow roots of Pisonia grandis have a unique mycorrhizal association (page 17) 
which might function in protection from, or utilisation of, high guano levels in the surface 
substrate. 

It has been suggested that Pisonia seeds might require the presence of animal matter to germinate 
and that the species is indirectly carnivorous by trapping insects, birds and animals in its fruits to 
fertilise the soil (Banfield 1908). Seeds have no special growth requirements and will germinate 
without animal matter or guano (M. Chaloupka, pers. comm.) but the possibility of some small 
nutrient benefit to growth from addition of carrion at certain islands cannot be dismissed. 

Precipitation 

Lower rainfall on southern cays (Fig. 1-1) may favour Pisonia grandis which has an exceptionally 
shallow root system adapted to utilise near-surface moisture and avoid contact with the water tables 
of cays. The cay water table is usually saline from seawater intrusion except when flushed by rain. 
Trees with deep root systems may be weakened by contact with saline water on cays with low 
rainfall. Forks in large Pisonia trees sometimes collect and retain rainwater for months following 
rain. Pisonia grandis requires moderate rainfall for growth and expansion but is adapted to 
withstand prolonged dry conditions and sheds its leaves in such years. It is reported to have been 
abundant prior to phosphate mining on Nauru where the mean annual rainfall is only 203 mm 
(Manner et al. 1985). There is also a report of Pisonia trees at an old village site on Vaugo Island 
near Port Moresby (Papua) where the annual rainfall is only 70 mm (Bell 1969). Pisonia may be 
better able to cope with wide seasonal or inter-annual variations of rainfall than many other trees. 
On northern cays the higher rainfall also improves growth conditions for competitors intolerant of 
salt or guano by washing these substances from the foliage and soil. 

Diversity of Plant Competitors 

Growth of Pisonia will be influenced by the nature of other species competing for space, light and 
nutrients. Keith (in Airy Shaw 1952) states that Pisonia grandis is intolerant of both competition 
and shade. The greater floristic diversity on northern GBR cays can be primarily attributed to their 
proximity to mainland vegetation compared with the southern cays, to their histories of anthropogenic 
interference and burning (unknown for southern cays prior to European arrival) and to their large 
populations of Torresian Imperial-Pigeons. Higher rainfall may also contribute to diversity. The 
most striking of these factors is the effect of Torresian Imperial-Pigeons. 

Torresian Imperial-Pigeons migrate to Australia in spring and depart in late summer. They nest in 
island colonies of up to 200,000 birds particularly in mangrove trees and depart each day to feed on 
fruit on the mainland. Upon their return vast numbers of viable seeds are excreted on the islands. 
Torresian Imperial-Pigeons are found on virtually all wooded northern islands in summer. The 
main plant families consumed include Lauraceae, Moraceae, Arecaceae, Anonaceae, Burseraceae, 
Oleaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Sapindaceae, Combretaceae, Rutaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae 
and Myristicaceae (Crome 1975a,b, Frith etal. 1976). Other foods include Manilkara kauki and Celtis 
species. Torresian Imperial-Pigeons do not visit the southern cays and apart from stragglers the 
southernmost colony is at Irving Island (21°27'S). In addition to endozoochory the daily commut- 
ing of hundreds of thousands of Torresian Imperial-Pigeons increases the probability of dispersal 
of diaspores that attach externally to bird feathers. Most plants with epizoochores are encountered 



16 

close to the ground rather than in the tree canopy but Torresian Imperial-Pigeons also feed in low 
shrubs such as Solarium torvum and Vitex species. 

Another aspect of competitive interaction is the timing of forest development. If a mature, dark 
Pisonia grandis forest can develop before the arrival of seeds of strongly competitive species then 
the later arrivals may be unable to establish. Soil modifications associated with Pisonia forest might 
also enhance its relative competitiveness. The pH of coral sand is about 8.3 decreasing to 7.0 as 
normal humus is incorporated but Pisonia humus ranges from pH 6.0 to 4.0 (Fosberg 1957, 1974). 
Such an effect might operate at Douglas Island where Pisonia grandis has generated a thick humic 
layer but is less likely at most Capricorn-Bunker islands where burrowing Wedge-tailed Shearwaters 
rework the sand and prevent formation of a humus layer. 

Insect Grazing 

Pisonia grandis forest occurs on isolated islets relatively impoverished with insect or animal 
grazers that might otherwise prevent its formation on larger land masses. Occasional invasions by 
locusts or other insects blown from the mainland cause severe defoliation of Pisonia (see previous 
Fairfax Island example, also Musgrave 1925) but high insect populations do not persist on small 
islands (Heatwole et al. 1981). The proximity of northern cays to the mainland and the occurrence 
of north-west monsoonal winds presumably results in more frequent insect invasions than on 
southern cays and island flora derived from the adjacent mainland should be more resistant to insect 
damage than Pisonia grandis which has relatively less exposure to pests. 

Genetic Variation 

Pisonia grandis has an initial advantage over most trees dispersing to small islands because one 
plant can spread asexually by vegetative means in the absence of other individuals or pollinators. 
Growth on some GBR islands is undoubtedly clonal. Vegetative reproduction is also advantageous 
in relatively homogeneous predictable habitats such as occur at seabird cays (ie. calcium carbonate 
substrate, guano, salt air). Carlquist (1974) noted that Pisonia grandis ranges over wide stretches 
of the Pacific without even subspecific differentiation among remote islands thus testifying to the 
effectiveness of bird dispersal in reintroducing genes that swamp local incipient speciation. If this 
is correct the absence of genetic replenishment amongst Pisonia grandis growing at sites no longer 
inhabited by seabirds might also result in loss of vigour and eventual displacement over a long time 
period. 

While it is probable that Pisonia grandis is genetically homogeneous throughout its range the 
possibility of the existence of distinct strains or varieties cannot be dismissed. The small sterile 
cultivated variety Pisonia alba (Airy Shaw 1952, Stemmerik 1964, Fosberg 1974) is well known 
and conflicting reports on the effects of guano as a growth factor might have arisen from 
observations of strains with differing requirements. The Pisonia forests on high Indo-Pacific is- 
lands (Pisonia grandis is reported at altitudes of 1200 m, Stemmerik 1964) may be genetically 
distinct. It is notable that Pisonia grandis trees on the GBR are only half of the height, 30 m, that 
they have been measured elsewhere although they attain the same maximum diameter of 3-4 m 
(Stemmerik 1964, Fosberg 1974). Tall and short varieties may be involved as no nutritional 
deficiency is apparent on large GBR sand cays where the central trees are protected from salt wind. 
Growth to 30 m would confer no advantage to Capricorn-Bunker trees but may be necessary 
elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific to avoid shading by tall species. 



17 
Mycorrhizal Association 

Mycorrhizae, the symbioses between fungi and plant roots, are nearly universal in terrestrial 
vascular plants (Malloch et al. 1980). Two basic types of mycorrhizae occur (characteristics sum- 
marized by Malloch et al. 1980, Connell and Lowman 1989). Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae 
(VAM) are formed by a small number of physiologically unspecialised and ubiquitous fungi with 
over 80% of land plants. VAM penetrate the root tissue forming intracellular vesicles and 
arbuscles. Ectomycorrhizae (EM) do not normally penetrate root cells but form a sheath around the 
epidermis isolating the root from the soil. EM are less widespread than VAM but the thousands of 
EM fungal strains are more highly plant specific. Unlike VAM the EM have an extensive 
mycelium in the soil that appears capable of decomposing organic matter and absorbing organic 
nitrogen. 

A notable feature of insular floras is the high component of non-mycorrhizal families (Pirozynski 
1983). Plants that form EM are particularly rare on Pacific Islands possibly as a result of infrequent 
co-dispersal of phycobiont and mycobiont (Malloch et al. 1980, Pirozynski 1983, Schmidt and 
Scow 1986). VAM associations are widespread at Heron Island (Peterson et al. 1985) and pre- 
sumably elsewhere on GBR cays which are all relatively close to the mainland. VAM fungi are 
probably essential for the establishment of vegetation on beach dunes and may survive seawater 
immersion and attach to vegetative propagules of host plants (Trappe and Schenk 1982, Koske and 
Gemma 1990). Pisonia grandis forms a unique type of EM with morphological characteristics 
unlike that found in other plants (Ashford and Allaway 1982 and 1985, Ashford et al. 1988). This 
unique association adds a second dimension to mechanisms influencing the distribution of Pisonia 
because factors affecting the distribution, survival and genology of the fungus must also be 
considered. This is particularly important if, as with other EM, the fungus has few phycobionts 
other than Pisonia grandis. Failure to form the EM association or infection with a fungal strain less 
suited to the environment presumably weakens the competitive ability of Pisonia. At Cousin Island 
and Bird Island (Seychelle Islands, Indian Ocean) the Pisonia growing on coral sand were strongly 
infected with EM but Pisonia from granitic soil at 50 m altitude were poorly infected or were not 
infected at all (Ashford and Allaway 1985). 

Forests dominated by a single species of tree are thought to develop from a highly efficient 
association with a species-specific EM mycobiont (Malloch etal. 1980, Connell and Lowman 1989). 
Such dominance is more likely on poor soils where the nutrient scavenging ability of EM mycelia 
is most advantageous. Once an EM plant species achieves dominance it may be difficult for other 
species to establish due to scarcity of spores of VAM fungi or suitable specific EM mycobionts 
(Connell and Lowman 1989, Alexander 1989). These spores should be scarce in the absence of 
suitable phycobionts and might also be toxically inhibited by the dominant EM in the soil. EM 
associations are uncommon in the tropics. Applying the hypothesis to Pisonia grandis the devel- 
opment of forest would require co-dispersal of suitable mycobiont spores with the Pisonia seeds. 
Suitable spores are unlikely to occur at islands where Pisonia is absent. At Heron Island Pisonia 
grandis is the only species with EM (Peterson et al. 1985). EM spores are often wind-dispersed 
although dispersal by seabirds is a further possibility in this particular case. If the fungus is 
relatively specific to Pisonia grandis then successful forest formation may require seabird transport 
of both the seeds and the fungal spores thus greatly reducing the probability of establishment away 
from seabird colonies. The only weakness with the mycorrhizal dominance hypothesis is that 
substrates at seabird colonies are usually considered to be rich in nutrients (although the addition of 
bird guano may not increase the levels of all micronutrients required for plant growth on a 
carbonate substrate). Impoverished substrate is not, however, important if Pisonia achieves 



18 

dominance mainly by competition for light (vegetative expansion) rather than by competition for 
soil nutrients. The mycorrhizal hypothesis gives a feasible explanation of why Pisonia forest 
dominates at Douglas Island while nearby at Cairncross Island Pisonia is a minor component of the 
forest. If an EM-Pisonia forest establishes prior to arrival of seeds of competitors it may prevail but 
if Pisonia initially faces strong competition from tall trees the EM dominance may not become 
established. 

An interesting example supporting the mycorrhizal hypothesis is a Brazilian white-sand forest 
dominated by EM trees. In this forest there were fewer saprophytic fungi and more litter 
accumulation than in nearby forest on fertile soils where EM were rare (Singer and Araujo 1979). 
This accords with other work indicating that EM reduce the rate at which saprophytic organisms 
decompose organic litter in low-nutrient soils (Gadgil and Gadgil 1971, Harmer and Alexander 
1985). Despite the addition of seabird guano such a mechanism might contribute to the formation 
of the thick humus layer under Pisonia and hence to generation of phosphate rock. 

CONCLUSION 

Pisonia grandis is highly adapted to growth at seabird colonies and has developed exceptional 
morphological and physiological characteristics in association with seabirds and mycorrhizal 
fungi. It is particularly well adapted to growth on coraline substrate on the Great Barrier Reef 
although elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific it is dominant on volcanic and other non-calcareous 
substrates. The geographical distribution in association with tropical seabird colonies is unlike that 
of any other plant species. 

Pisonia grandis is sometimes described as the most common tree on cays of the Great Barrier Reef. 
This misconception derives from a generalisation of the situation on the Capricorn-Bunker cays 
where Pisonia displaces other vegetation to form a climax forest. Pisonia grandis is uncommon 
elsewhere on Great Barrier Reef islands which have a more diverse flora. At least 18% of 
Australian Pisonia grandis forest has been cleared for mining or island development. The figure 
could be higher if some Torres Strait islands were forested with Pisonia grandis before burning and 
gardening became routine. This splendid forest type has a sad history of destruction throughout its 
range on Indo-Pacific islands and its conservation on the Great Barrier Reef depends on location of 
future tourist developments on environmentally robust continental islands rather than on coral 
cays. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank George Batianoff and the Botany Branch, Department of Primary Industries, for assistance with 
confirmation and identification of plant species. Thanks are also due to the Department of Transport and the 
crew of the Cape Moreton for passage and assistance at northern islands. 



19 
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23 

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PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 
PART II. THE VASCULAR FLORAS OF BUSHY AND REDBILL ISLANDS 

BY 
T.A. WALKER, M.Y. CHALOUPKA, AND B. R. KING. 

ABSTRACT 

Vegetation species lists are compared over a sixteen year period at a coral cay and continental 
island off the east coast of Queensland. A total of thirty-seven species were recorded. These twin 
islands are of considerable geomorphological and biogeographical importance. Bushy Island 
supports one of Australia's few forests of Pisonia grandis and is floristically identical with the 
Capricorn-Bunker Islands at the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. 

INTRODUCTION 

Coral islands are rare on fringing reefs and with the exception of Redbill Reef (20°58'S; 1 50*05 'S) 
are restricted to the northern third of the Great Barrier Reef. Such reefs are sometimes considered 
to be platform reefs incorporating an outcrop of continental rock (Hopley 1982). Redbill Reef (Fig. 
2-1) is also unique in that it supports the only woodedcoral cay, Bushy Island, on the southern Great 
Barrier Reef (from 17° to 23°S). Between Bushy Island and Green Island 630 km to the north there 
are only one or two unstable sandbanks that emerge sufficiently in some years to support herbs. 
Between Bushy Island and North Reef Island 3 10 km to the south there are only nine emergent cays 
supporting a few species of herbs and grasses. The isolation of Bushy Island is remarkable in view 
of its size and mature forest. Redbill Island is also notable in being the furthest offshore continental 
island to the east of the Australian coast. 

The vegetation of Bushy Island is of considerable interest because it is dominated by Pisonia 
grandis forest (Steers 1938, Wallace and Lovell 1977, Hopley 1982, Walker 1987). Pisonia 
grandis is not known to occur on the Australian mainland and Pisonia forest is almost unknown in 
Australia outside of the Capricorn-Bunker Islands at the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef 
(Part I). 

SPECIES RECORDS 

Plants were identified or collected for identification as follows: 26 December 1972 to 4 January 
1973, both islands, Wallace and Lovell (1977); 24-25 January 1984, both islands, B. King, A. 
Taplin and T.Walker; September 1986, Bushy Island, M.Chaloupka; 10 November 1986, Redbill 
Island, T. Walker; 12 December 1987 (drought conditions), both islands, T. Walker; 30-31 August 
1989 (wet conditions), both islands, T. Walker. The results of the floristic surveys are listed in 
Table 2-1. An additional beach vine, Canavalia, was reported in a figure caption to Bushy Island 
(Hopley 1982, p. 332) but requires confirmation. 

Department of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 5391, Townsville 4810, Australia. 



25 




Fig. 2-1. Redbill Reef, Bushy Island and Redbill Island (from 1987 aerial photography by T. Walker). 
Scales are not precise. 



26 

Table 2-1. Floral species lists in different years from Bushy Island and Redbill Island excluding two 
cultivated species (1973 data from Wallace and Lovell 1977). The number of Capricorn and Bunker 
Islands (out of a total of 15 including Lady Elliot Island) where each species has been recorded is 
shown for comparison (Heatwole 1984, Chaloupka and Domm 1985, Cribb 1986, Walker and 
Ogilvie 1987, Walker unpublished). 







Bushy Island 






Redbill Island 




Capricorn 






















& Bunker 


Species 




















Islands 




1973 


1984 


1986 


1987 


1989 


1973 


I984 1986 


1987 


1989 




Abutilon asiaticum 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


14 


Cassytha filiformis 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










8 


Casuarina equisetifolia 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










15 


Cordia subcordata 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










5 


Ipomea pes caprae 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




- 






11 


Pandanus tectorius 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










13 


Pisonia grandis 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ + 


+ 


+ 


15 


Salsola kali 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










7 


Scaevola sericea 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










12 


Thuarea involuta 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 






14 


Tournefortia argentea 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










15 


Tridax procumbens 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










1 


Triumfetta repens 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 










2 


Myoporum acuminatum 


+ 












+ 


+ 


+ 


1 


Sesuvium portulacastrum 


+ 








* 


+ 








3 


Sophora tomentosa 


+ 


















6 


Sporobolus virginicus 


+ 


















10 


Vitex trifolia 


+ 


















1 


Boerhavia repens 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


15 


Euphorbia tannensis 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 




+ 


13 


Ipomea macrantha 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 










11 


Lepturus repens 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


15 


Portulaca oleracea 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




+ + 


+ 


+ 


10 


Cakile edentula 




+ 


+ 




+ 










13 


Tribulus cistoides 




+ 


+ 




+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


10 


Rhynchelytrum repens 






+ 


+ 


+ 










1 


Plumbago zeylanica 








+ 


+ 




+1 + 


+ 


+ 


8 


Commelina sp. 








+ 















Achyranthes aspera 










+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


15 


Passiflora foetida 










+ 




+ 




+ 





Solanum americanum 










+ 










13 


Sonchus oleraceus 










+ 










10 


Wollastonia biflora 










+ 










11 


Calophyllum inophyllum 










+ 










1 


indeterminate weed 










+ 












Ficus obliqua 












+2 


+ + 


+ 


+ 


3 


Digitaria brown ii 














+1 


+1 


+ 





Total species (37) 


18 


20 


21 


20 


29 


3 


5 13 


11 


13 




Native species (30) 


16 


17 


17 


18 


22 


3 


5 12 


11 


12 




Sea-dispersed species (19) 


14 


13 


13 


11 


16 


2 


1 3 


3 


3 





1 . Identification uncertain. 

2. Reported as Ficus opposita by Wallace and Lovell (1977). 



27 
ISLAND FLORAS 

Bushy Island has an area of 4.5 ha (above high tide) and rises 2-3 m above high tide and 6-7 m 
above the reef flat(Fig.2-l).The reef has an area of about 900 ha. The first records of vegetation 
were reported by Steers (1938) who produced a compass traverse map in 1936. Steers noted that 
the cay "resembles the sand islands of the Bunkers and Capricorns very closely" and has "fairly 
close vegetation, including Pisonia, Tournefortia, and Pandanus. Creeping plants - eg., Ipomoae - 
were also present, as well as Abutilon." The species diversity has increased since the first 
systematic floristic collection was made in 1972-73 and although five species have disappeared a 
total of fifteen new species have been recorded (Table 2-1). 

In August 1989 there was an infestation of locusts at Bushy Island but the vegetation was lush and 
not yet seriously affected by the pest. Most plant species were abundant. The main exceptions 
were Cordia subcordata (four specimens on the eastern edge), Tribulus cistoides (eight small 
specimens on the western strand), Rhynchelytrum repens (restricted to a small clearing at the 
northern edge of the cay), Sonchus oleraceus (a few specimens beside the hut), Solarium americanum 
(three specimens in two separate clearings), Passiflorafoetida (one small specimen on the north- 
western strand), Wollastonia biflora (one small vine in front of the south-western Casuarina 
grove), Calophyllum inophyllum (one 50 cm sapling in the Casuarina grove) and an indeterminate 
weed (possibly Raphanus sp., a few immature specimens beside the hut). In addition Achyranthes 
aspera, Boerhavia repens, Portulaca oleracea, Salsola kali, Triumfetta repens and Ipomea pes- 
caprae were not abundant, the latter three being restricted to the western strand. In 1987 the island 
was very dry and foliage was greatly reduced. Seeds of Cakile, Triumfetta and Tribulus were 
presumably present in 1987 although plants were not observed. 

The periphery of Bushy Island is continually changing in response to alterations in the direction and 
strength of prevailing seas. Erosion on one side of the cay is normally accompanied by sand 
accretion on the other side. In 1936 the underlying beach rock along the western shore was 
uncovered by erosional processes (map of Steers 1938) while in 1973 this rock was reburied and 
beach rock on the eastern side of the cay was exposed (map of Wallace and Lovell 1977). In the 
following year beach rock was uncovered on both the eastern and western sides of the southern part 
of the cay (Hopley 1981). In 1987 over twice as much beach rock was visible along the eastern 
beach as inl973 (Fig. 2-1) and a 1-2 metre high sandcliff separated high tide from forest trees which 
have been toppling onto the beach during the 1980s. This erosion was most extensive in 1989 with 
many fallen Pisonia, Tournefortia and Pandanus. Conversely on the western side of the cay sand 
has accumulated since 1974 to form a wide strand zone. Plant colonisation of this zone has been 
rapid despite trampling and uprooting by nesting green turtles in summer. In January 1984 
hundreds of 40-250 cm high seedlings of Casuarina equisetifolia were present in a narrow supra- 
tidal strip along the southern part of the western strand. Within twenty-two months this strip had 
grown to a dense 7 m high wall of trees and in 1 989 it was fronted by a lower barrier of Tournefortia 
and Scaevola. 

The centre of Bushy Island is more stable than the margin but has also experienced disturbance in 
recent decades. Large clearings with fallen Pisonia logs have been present since at least 1973 but 
were not noted in 1936. The clearings appear too discrete to have resulted from indiscriminate 
cyclone damage but this cannot be ruled out. The forest is devoid of undergrowth or other species 
except in clearings. Phosphate rock is present with a few pockets of peat-like Pisonia humus. A 
prominent feature within the forest is the presence of incubation mounds and diggings of the 
Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Megapodius reinwardt. The sand mounds are up to three metres high 



28 

and the forest floor is a mosaic of pits and tangled Pisonia roots uncovered by megapode digging. 
The continual scratching and digging may inhibit establishment of other plant species in the forest. 

Redbill Island lies to the south of Bushy Island with an area of about 1 ha and an elevation of 23 m. 
The upper slopes are covered with a dense 0.4 ha stunted thicket of Ficus obliqua incorporating 
roughly twenty low Pisonia grandis specimens particularly at the edges (Fig. 2-1). The thicket is 
mainly 1-3 m high. The rock and pockets of humus beneath the thicket are bare of undergrowth 
except for Plumbago zeylanica. The lower slopes of the island are mainly bare granite with pockets 
or specimens of grasses or herbs. The eastern gully is relatively protected and supports the highest 
diversity of species including two, Myoporum acuminatum and Passiflora foetida, not present 
elsewhere on the rock. In 1989 Tribulus cistoides and Passiflora foetida were represented by one 
small specimen and two vines respectively while Euphorbia tannensis and Boerhavia repens were 
also rare. There has been an apparent increase from three to thirteen plant species at Redbill Island 
and only one of the thirteen species present in 1986 was recorded in 1973(Table 2-l)This change 
is too great to be an error from incomplete survey results in 1973. The exposed lower rock slopes 
may undergo episodic defoliation and recolonisation following storms or drought. 

PLANT DISPERSAL AND COLONISATION 

More than half of the plant species at Bushy Island are dispersed by the sea. The same is true at 
Redbill Island despite the absence of a beach suitable for colonisation by strand species. Seeds of 
the species not capable of arrival by sea can all be dispersed by birds. Three or four species have 
alternative dispersal mechanisms by wind but in view of the distance from mainland (90 km), the 
rarity of offshore winds and the properties of the seeds of these species this mode of colonisation 
seems less likely. The potential for introduction of plants by human activities is discussed in the 
following section. 

Few species of birds are resident at the islands however the dominant plant species, Pisonia grandis 
at Bushy Island and Ficus obliqua at Redbill Island, are both dispersed by birds. The first seeds of 
Pisonia grandis were undoubtedly transported to the islands attached to the feathers of seabirds. 
Black Noddies Anous minutus and Bridled Terns Sterna anaethetus are the principal dispersal agents 
of Pisonia along the Great Barrier Reef ( Part I ). Black Noddies have a nocturnal roosting 
population of many thousands on Bushy Island and Bridled Terns have a summer nesting colony of 
approximately 200 on Redbill Island (Walker 1987, 1989). The Pisonia forest appears to propa- 
gate vegetatively but in 1989 a group of seventeen Pisonia seedlings to 30 cm high were present 
behind the south-western Casuarina grove. 

It is notable that the two islands are only 1.3 km apart but Ficus obliqua has not colonized Bushy 
Island. The absence of fig-eating birds or indeed of any resident land birds from Redbill Island 
apparently precludes dispersal of Ficus obliqua which grows to 12 m high on Capricorn-Bunker 
cays and can germinate upon and "strangle" Pisonia trees. Such growth on a Pisonia tree was 
observed near Bushy Island at Tern Island. 

HUMAN INFLUENCES ON FLORA 

Redbill Island is an inhospitable rock rarely climbed by visitors whereas Bushy Island has long 
been popular with tourists and campers. A tour vessel operating from 1984 to 1986 brought over 
3,000 people ashore per annum. In the mid 1960s a shelter hut was constructed for tourist day- 
visitors and this was intermittently occupied by a caretaker until 1988. The forest clearings on 



29 

Bushy Island may have been cut by beche-de-mer collectors who used the island as a base for 
boiling their catch in past years. Another possibility is that the clearings are a result of limited 
phosphate mining. The latter is suspected by local fishermen but there are no records of a mining 
lease and no apparent indications of digging in the clearings. 

Excluding several coconut (Cocos nucifera) trees and pawpaw (Carica papaya) planted beside the 
hut there are six or seven non-native species recorded at Bushy Island (17- 20% of all species). 
Cakile edentula and Triwnfetta repens are supra-tidal herbs that colonise from floating seeds. The 
grass Rhynchelytrum repens and the weed Sonchus oleraceus follow human inhabitation of tropical 
islands and are accidental introductions by visitors to Bushy Island. Tridax procumbens is dis- 
persed widely on islands by wind, people or birds. All species at Redbill Island are native to 
Australia except Passiflorafoetida which is dispersed by fruit-eating birds. 

COMPARISON WITH OTHER ISLANDS 

The only species recorded from Bushy Island that have not been reported on Capricorn-Bunker 
cays are the vine Passiflorafoetida and the scrambling herb Commelina. Passiflorafoetida and 
species of Commelina are widespread on cays and rocky islands elsewhere throughout the Great 
Barrier Reef region(as are all the species inTable 2-lwith theexception oiCakile edentulamd possibly 
Plumbago zeylanica, Sonchus oleraceus and Rhynchelytrum repens). The Calophyllum inophyllum 
seedling is probably temporary as the species is an unlikely coloniser at Bushy Island. Calophyllum 
inophyllum seeds wash ashore on Capricorn-Bunker cays but do not successfully germinate or do 
not survive beyond seedling stage (Cribb 1975). The species composition of Bushy Island is 
virtually identical to that of the Capricorn-Bunker cays (Table 1) and the species diversity is the 
same as that of the two Capricorn-Bunker cays of the same size (Table 2). The vegetation structure 
is also identical consisting of a dominant Pisonia grandis forest (up to 1 3 m high) fringed with pan- 
tropical strand species. 

The floras of Bushy Island and the Capricorn-Bunker Islands differ substantially from those at 
other Great Barrier Reef islands ( Part I ). A wide variety of trees, shrubs, vines and herbs not 
present on the southern cays occurs elsewhere on cays and continental islands. The only other cay 
with a mature Pisonia forest is Douglas Island (east of Cape York Peninsula) which has major 
differences in the composition of the supporting vegetation. 



Table 2-2. Comparison of floristic diversity of Bushy Island with that of the Capricorn-Bunker 
Islands of equivalent size. Cultivated species and survey data prior to 1968 are excluded. One 
Tree Island and Fairfax Island data are from Heatwole (1984) and Cribb (1986). 




Bushy 


West Fairfax 


One Tree 


Island area (ha) 


4.5 


5 


4 


Range of species numbers in surveys 


18-28 


21-32 


(21) 


Total number of species recorded 


34 


34 


30 


Range of native species in surveys 


16-22 


17-21 


(19) 


Total native species recorded 


28 


22 


22 


Sea-dispersed species in surveys 


11-15 


12-15 


(15) 



30 

The closest islands to Redbill Reef are Tern Island 6 km to the north-west and Penrith Island 17 km 
to the south-west. The flora of Tern Island was only partly recorded but at least half of the species 
inTable 2-1 occur there. Tern Island is a steep rock like Redbill Island but is roughly three times 
larger with three small detached vegetated rocks. At its northern summit there is a small Ficus obliqua 
thicket containing a few Pisonia grandis but the isle is mainly vegetated with grasses, herbs, and 
low shrubs with higher shrub thickets along the top of the ridge. Several species occur that are not 
present at Bushy or Redbill Islands. One of these is Sesuvium portulacastrum which became ex- 
tinct at Bushy and Redbill Islands but which is present on all four of the Tern Islets (it is the only 
plant species present on the smallest southern rock). 

Penrith Island is 248 ha in area with at least 162 vascular plant species in up to seven identifiable 
communities including grassland, Eucalyptus woodland and mangroves (Batianoff 1987). All spe- 
cies in Table 2- 1 were reported at Penrith Island except Triumfetta repens, Rhynchelytrum repens, 
Solarium americanum, Cakile edentula, Portulaca oleracea, Pisonia grandis and Plumbago 
zeylanica. The exceptionally sticky fruits of the latter two species are dispersed throughout Bushy, 
Redbill and Tern Islands by seabird populations which are absent from Penrith Island. 

REFERENCES 

Batianoff, G. N. (1987). Botanical inventory of Penrith Island: Cumberland Islands, Mackay (Qld). Botany 
Branch, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. 

Chaloupka , M. Y. and Domm, S. B. (1985). Comprehensive regional survey of the terrestrial flora on coral 
cays in the Capricornia Section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. Proc. R. Soc. Qd. 96: 75-80. 

Cribb, A. B. (1975). Terrestrial vegetation of Masthead Island. Qd. Nat. 21: 74-78. 

Cribb , A. B. (1986). The terrestrial vegetation of Fairfax Islands, Great Barrier Reef. Qd.Nat. 26: 119-126. 

Heatwole , H. (1984). Terrestrial vegetation of the coral cays, Capricornia Section, Great Barrier Reef 
Marine Park. In: The Capricornia Section of the Great Barrier Reef: Past, Present and Future. (W. T. 
Ward and P. Saenger, eds.) Roy. Soc. Qd. and AusL Coral Reef Soc., Brisbane, pp 87-139. 

Hopley, D. (1981). Sediment movement around a coral cay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Pacific Geol. 15: 
17-36. 

Hopley, D. (1982). The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef. Wiley-Interscience, New York. 

Steers, J. A.(1938). Detailed notes on the islands surveyed and examined by the geographical expedition to 
the Great Barrier Reef in 1936. Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Committee Vol 4, Part 3, No 7: 5 1 - 
96. 

Wallace, C. C. and Lovell, E. R. (1977). Topography and coral distribution of Bushy and Redbill Islands and 
surrounding reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Atoll Res. Bull. No. 194. 

Walker, T. A. (1987). Birds of Bushy Island (with a summary of the nesting status of bird species on southern 
Great Barrier Reef cays). Sunbird 17: 52-58. 

Walker, T. A. (1989). Seabird Island No. 198: Redbill Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. Corella 13: 
110-111. 

Walker, T. A. and Ogilvie, P. (1988). The vegetation of North Reef Island. Qd. NaL 28: 3741. 



PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART III. CHANGES IN THE VASCULAR FLORA OF LADY MUSGRAVE ISLAND 

BY 
T.A. WALKER 

ABSTRACT 

The flora of Lady Musgrave Island has progressed from a belt of small strand trees surrounding a 
central scrub less than a metre high in 1843 to a mature Pisonia grandis forest in the 1980s. This 
succession was interrupted by phosphate mining and severely retarded over seventy years by 
grazing goat herds. Seven plant species lists recorded between 1927 and 1989 illustrate the changes 
occurring from natural and anthropogenic processes. 45% of the flora are naturalised alien species. 
There has been an eight-fold increase in human visitation in recent years but this has not resulted in 
a significant increase in colonisation by weeds. 

INTRODUCTION 

Lady Musgrave Island is the second most southerly island (23°54'S, 152°23'E) on the second most 
southerly reef of the Great Barrier Reef. It is the first island in the Bunker Group and consists of 13 
ha (above high tide) of coral shingle, sand and phosphate rock. Lady Musgrave Island is the best 
example of a Great Barrier Reef island where advancing Pisonia grandis forest is displacing other 
vegetation ( Figure l-l ). Substantial areas of vegetation and soil were cleared for phosphate 
mining in the 1890s and the vegetation was stripped bare by goats released by the miners in 1898 
(Ellis 1936). 

Over twenty thousand seabirds, primarily Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus and Black 
Noddy Anous minutus, nest on the cay during summer. Less abundant species of ground-nesting 
terns have been partially displaced by tourists visiting the cay. The island experienced a progres- 
sive eight-fold increase in human visitation between 1984 and 1989 elevating it to the position of 
sixth most heavily visited cay on the Great Barrier Reef. The potential impact of tourists on the 
vegetation is primarily that of introduction of weeds and other alien species. Summer and winter 
floristic surveys were carried out on 12 January (dry conditions) and 3 June 1989 (following 
extensive rain) in order to evaluate vegetation changes that have occurred since previous surveys. 

FLORISTIC HISTORY 

The earliest description of the island and its flora is that of Jukes (1847) who landed on 7 January 
1843: "The beach was composed of coarse fragments of worn corals and shells, bleached by the 
weather. At the back of it a ridge of the same materials, four or five feet high, and as many yards 

Department of Environment and Heritage, PO Box 5391, Townsville 4810, Australia. 



32 




Fig. 3- 1 . Lady Musgrave Island in 1967 and in 1987 showing the increase in cover by Pisonia grandis 
over twenty years. A few isolated trees were not identifiable from the aerial photography. 

across, completely encircled the island, which was not a quarter of a mile in diameter. Inside this 
regular ridge were some scattered heaps of the same stuff, the whole encircling a small sandy plain. 
The encircling ridge was occupied by a belt of small trees, while on the plain grew only a short 
scrubby vegetation, a foot or two in height. The materials of the encircling ridge were quite low and 
thinly covered with vegetable soil among the trees; but the sand of the central plain, which was dark 
brown, was sufficiently compact to be taken up in lumps, and a little underneath the surface it 
formed a kind of soft stone, with imbedded fragments of coral. Some vegetable soil also was found, 
a few inches in thickness in some places, the result of the decomposition of vegetable matter and 
birds' dung." Jukes also noted that the trees were "loaded" with the nests of Black Noddies and that 
shearwaters were abundant. 

More recently, floristic surveys have been carried out on seven occasions commencing in 1927 
(Tbls. 3-1 3-2; Fig. 3-2), The first survey in November 1927 reported only eleven species growing 
(MacGillivray and Rodway 1931). At that time up to 300 goats (23 per ha) had removed all small 
trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses with the exception of a few sessile plants growing too close to the 
ground to be grazed (Nebe 1928, Napier 1928, MacGillivray 1928, MacGillivray and Rodway 
1931). The four species of trees were browsed clear to a height of 120 cm and the goats had started 
to eat bark from Pisonia grandis. Only two "miserable specimens" of Tournefortia argentea were 



Notes to Table 3-1: 1 - not on the incomplete 1966 list but possibly present; 2- seeds oiCaesalpiniabonduc but no plants; 
3 • inferred to be still present by Cribb but not seen by Belmont & Lentfer with the exception of an unidentified Asteraceae 
(possibly Conyza bonariensis); 4 - species not identified with certainty; 5 - seen by Belmont & Lentfer but not by Cribb; 
6 - species uncertain, variously referred to B. albifrons,B. diffusa and B. tetrandra; 7 - seen by Cribb but not by Belmont 
& Lentfer; 8 - not seen by Belmont & Lentfer but noted as Parucum sp. by Cribb; 9 - not recorded by Chaloupka and 
Domm but almost certainly present. 



33 



Table 3-1. Vascular plant species recorded at Lady Musgrave Island in different years. 



1927 66 69 75 82 84 89 



Status in 1989 



NATIVE SPECIES 
Casuarina equisetifolia 
Ficus opposita 
Pandanus tectorius 
Pisonia grandis 
Portulaca oleracea 
Caesalpinia bonduc 
Tournefortiaia argentea 
Hydrocotyle acutiloba 
Abutilon asiaticum 
Achyranthes aspera 
Canavalia rosea 
Ipomea pes-caprae 
Lepturus repens 
Sesuvium portulacastrum 
Solanum americanum 
Sporobolus virginicus 
Tetragonia tetragonioides 
Thuarea involuta 
Tribulus cistoides 
Boerhavia repens 6 
Malvastrum coromandelianum 
Ophioglossum vulgatum 
Ruppia maritima 
Oxalis perennans 
Ipomea macrantha 
Euphorbia tannensis 
Spinifex sericeus 
Ipomea sp. 

NATURALISED ALIEN SPECIES 
Oxalis corniculata 
Coronopus integrifolius 
Coronopus didymus 
Cyperus rotundus 
Amaranthus viridis 
Bidens pilosa 
Cakile edentula 
Cenchrus echinatus 
Sonchus oleraceus 
Conyza bonariensis 
Cynodon dactylon 
Eleusine indica 
Euphorbia prostrata 
Argemone ochroleuca 
Digitaria ciliaris 
Eragrostis minor 
Panicum maximum 
Trachymene cussonii 
Ipomea indica 
Conyza sumatrensis 
Lepidium bonariense 
Lepidium virginicurn 
Raphanus raphanistrum 

CULTIVATED SPECIES 
Lycopersicon esculentum 
Cucurbita pepo 
Carica papaya 
Allium cepa 
Solanum tuberosum 
Cocos nucifera 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

.2 

+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+3 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+7 

? 3 
93 



+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+ 

+3 

+3 

+3 

+3 

+ 



+ 

+3 

93 

+7 

+7 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
94 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
94 



+ 
+4 



+ + common, south-western margin 

+ + common, throughout cay centre 

+ + common, north and east strand 

+ + dominant forest over cay 

+ + widespread, not abundant 

+ + large thickets, south-eastern side 

+ + common, north and east strand 

+ + common in forest clearings 

+ + widespread, not abundant 

+ + common, south half periphery 

+ + common, south-eastern herb fields 

+ + co-dominant ground cover 

+ + pond meadow, rare elsewhere 

+ + widespread, not abundant 

+ + uncommon, south-eastern clearings 

+ + rare, south-eastern strand only 

+ + co-dominant ground cover 

+ + widespread, not abundant 

+ + uncommon 

+ + dense patch in south-east clearing 



+ + uncommon, mainly ground cover 

+ + widespread, not abundant 

+ + rare 

+ one patch on herbs, camp area 



+ + rare 

4. -xA rare* 



+ 
+ 
+9 



+ widespread, not abundant 

+ patchy abundance, southern half 

+ common, north and eastern strand 

+ common but patchy 

+ uncommon, patchy, south half of cay 

+ few, south-eastern clearings 

+ uncommon, patchy 

+ uncommon, patchy 

+ rare 



+ one patch, northern strand 

+ few, northern strand 

+ large patch near light tower 

+ few 

+ rare, in clearings 

+ rare 

+ small vines, camping area 

+ six vines, camping area 



seedling 



34 



Table 3-2. Non-cultivated plant species 


at Lady Musgrave 


Island in 


different years 








1927 


1969 


1975 


1982 


1984 


1989 


All Years 


Total species number 


11 


31 


35 


40 


39 


41 


51 


Native species number 


7 


20 


22 


23 


23 


24 


28 


Alien species number 


4 


11 


13 


17 


16 


17 


23 


Alien species % 


36 


35 


37 


42 


41 


42 


45 


Sea-dispersed species 


3 


14 


15 


17 


17 


17 


17 


Sea-dispersed species % 


27 


45 


43 


43 


44 


41 


33 



alive and MacGillivray and Rodway (1931) observed that the "animals seem now to be dependent 
upon the dead leaves that fall from the trees and the seaweed on the beach". There was competition 
between goats and nest-building Black Noddies for every leaf that fell to the ground (MacGillivray 
and Rodway 193 1 , Nebe 1932). Nebe (1928) described the Pisonia trees as stunted whereas Napier 
(1928) referred to 40 foot (12 m) high trees. MacGillivray and Rodway (1931) reported that most 
of the centre of the cay was occupied by Ficus opposita from 15 to 20 feet (4.5-6 m) high and 
abundance of this species was previously inferred in the 1890s by Ellis (1936) who noted flocks of 
doves feeding on the "wild figs". 

Four years after the 1927 survey the goats had been greatly reduced by hunting and "much 
undergrowth, mostly Abutilon and coarse grasses" was present (Nebe 1932). Five years later the 
cay was "thickly wooded and the tangled undergrowth made direct levelling or cross-traverses 
impossible" (Steers 1938). A small holiday resort was built and operated at the southern side of the 
cay during the 1930's and the last remnants and debris were removed in 1984. The extent of island 
habitat modification and garden importation associated with the resort is unknown but no cultivated 
vegetables or ornamentals survived at the time of the next floristic surveys with the possible but 
unlikely exceptions of Lycopersicon, Carica or Cucurbita. 

Over the following forty years the goat herd fluctuated in size from hunting (surviving at least one 
eradication attempt in 1948) until they were eliminated in 1971 with the exception a single animal 
that escaped until 1974 (P. Ogilvie, pers. comm.). H. S. Curtis sketched a vegetation map in 
October 1965 and made an incomplete species collection in November 1966 (Queensland Forestry 
Department files). Floristic surveys undertaken in July 1967 and in April 1969 were combined into 
a vegetation list by A. B. Cribb (letter to the Forestry Department). The lists of Curtis and Cribb 
are shown under "1966" and "1969" respectively in Table 3- land demonstrate a large increase in 
native and alien plant species since the grazing-impoverished list of 1927. 

In August-September 1975 twenty-eight plant species were recorded by Belmont and Lentfer 
(Heatwole 1984). Cribb also visited in July 1975 and listed seven new species in addition to 
species reported in 1969 (letter to the Forestry Department). Cribb noted that goat damage to 
Casuarina and Pandanus was repairing and that "removal of goats has led to a marked increase in 
ground cover of plants. Bare shingle ridges of conglomerate exposed by phosphate mining had 
been fairly conspicuous features of the cay during the 1969 visit but are now mostly obscured by 
ground cover plants." Three new species established at the cay in the early 1970s. Four more new 
species were present in January 1982 when Elsol (1986) mapped the vegetation and analysed 
distribution patterns. 













40 






X 


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x x 


0) 










0) 










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3 








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35 



Fig. 3-2. Increase in species diversity 
at Lady Musgrave Island from 1927 
to 1989. Strong linear correlations 
between species diversity and time 
(r = 0.996 total, 0.993 native, 0.975 
alien) are misleading. Between 
surveys in 1927 and 1965 the plant 
density fluctuated with changing 
hunting intensity on the goats and 
diversity would also have fluctu- 
ated widely. 



1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 

The 1982 floristic survey marks a turning point for the island vegetation. The last effects of 
destructive or selective grazing by goats had finally disappeared and subsequent floristic surveys in 
1984 (Chaloupka and Domm 1986) and 1989(Tables 3-1, 3-2)indicate that species diversity has 
stabilised. Neglecting the introduced food plants, four species disappeared between 1982 and 
1989 and five new species appeared. The changes may be less if, as seems likely, there was 
confusion with identification or collection of the two species each of Coronopus, Conyza or Lepidium 
reported. Ipomea indica was almost certainly overlooked or dormant in the 1984 survey as it 
dominated the same site in 1982 and in 1989. 

The vegetation is presently experiencing strong competition for space. Establishment of new 
species has become difficult and some established species are being displaced by expansion of 
others. Dense ground cover of Thuarea, Lepturus and other species inhibit establishment of 
Casuarina seedlings and the population is decreasing slowly as the old trees die (but seedlings have 
been planted in recent years by park staff). Pisonia stands have expanded vegetatively shading out 
all other species to cover an area in 1989 more than twice that covered in 1967(Fig.3-l). 
Displacement of previously dominant Ficus opposita has been accompanied by extinction of the 
frugiverous Bar-shouldered Dove Geopelia humeralis population since 1927. Pisonia forest 
permits no undergrowth and in the absence of destructive cyclones or other events will form the 
climax vegetation. Pisonia was presumably present at the time of phosphate mining although the 
description of Jukes (1 847) indicates that Pisonia cover was not significant in 1 842. Impenetrable 
thickets of Caesalpinia bonduc are presently expanding and displacing other species (Elsol 1982). 
In 1989 several Pisonia and Pandanus trees were severely overgrown by this woody vine which 
could pose a challenge to the dominance of Pisonia. Ipomea indica also blanketed a large area of 
ground vegetation and trees near the navigation light in June 1989. This vine spread rapidly from 
a small area in January as a result of unusually high rainfall throughout the first half of the year. 

PLANT DISPERSAL AND COLONISATION 

The method of a species' arrival at a cay can be partially inferred from diaspore adaptations for 
anemochory, hydrochory, epizoochory or endozoochory and from previous knowledge of dispersal 
events. Arrival mechanisms are unclear when species have more than one natural dispersal mode 
or when there has been introduction of garden soil, building materials or other materials likely to 
contain diaspores. Building materials were imported to Lady Musgrave Island for a shelter hut in 



36 

about 1930, for resort buildings in the late 1930s, for an automatic navigation light tower in 1974 
and for camper toilets in 1987. Food plants including tomato, pumpkin, pawpaw, onion and 
coconut have been taken to Lady Musgrave Island by visitors from time to time. These were 
intentionally planted or have propagated from discarded seeds and are not considered in the 
following examination of plant colonisation. 

About 15% of species recorded at Lady Musgrave Island have diaspores that are dispersed by wind 
but with one exception this is primarily a short-distance mechanism. Offshore winds are weak, 
infrequent and not often likely to transport seeds of grasses, weeds or Casuarina across 60 km of 
sea from the mainland. One exception is Ophioglosswn vulgatum (presumably the same species 
reported as O. lusitanicum on adjacent Fairfax Island by Cribb 1986) which has the tiny fern spores 
capable of extended aerial buoyancy. The grasses and weeds with wind dispersal capability have 
alternative dispersal modes by birds or people which are the more probable routes of arrival at Lady 
Musgrave Island. Casuarina equisetifolia is assumed to have colonised by sea dispersal. Plants 
with diaspores dispersed by the sea make up 33% of the total species list and 54% of the native 
species(Table 3-2). There are two sea-dispersed alien species, Trachymene cussonii and Cakile 
edentula. 

About 65% of all species appear to have dispersed to Lady Musgrave Island via birds or people. 
The corresponding proportions of native and alien zoochorous species are 43% and 91% respectively. 
It is often difficult to differentiate between dispersal of small seeds carried internally by birds and 
those carried externally by birds or by people. One can speculate that the bulk of the alien species 
were accidentally carried to the cay by campers and tourists but there is little direct evidence to 
support this. Weeds initially introduced to Australia by human agency have subsequently spread 
by natural means. 

Chaloupka and Domm (1986) have argued that anthropochory is the primary determinant of 
colonisation of southern Great Barrier Reef cays by alien plants. Using data from the Capricorn- 
Bunker Islands they reported that the percentage of alien species on each cay was strongly 
correlated with the amount of human visitation. This correlation was attributed to inadvertent 
dispersal of diaspores attached to the clothing and footwear of the visitors (anthropochory). The 
conclusions of Chaloupka and Domm (1986) have been reviewed by Heatwole and Walker (1989) 
who showed that while anthropochory may be an important process, other factors including 
introduction of gardens and soil, habitat modification by human activities and avian zoochory 
could equally well account for the observed patterns of alien plants on the Capricorn-Bunker 
Islands. 

The eight-fold increase in tourist visitation at Lady Musgrave Island between the 1984 and 1989 
floristic surveys makes it an ideal location to observe the effects of anthropochory. Annual 
numbers of campers at Lady Musgrave Island increased from 212 in 1984 to 992 in 1985 and 1,475 
in 1988 (Department of Environment and Heritage permit records). Prior to 1985 the island was 
closed to campers for six months each year but from 1985 camping was permitted year-round. 
Accessibility of the cay was greatly boosted in July 1985 by commencement of a large tourist 
catamaran service from the mainland. The vessel and its associated seaplane carried more than 
1 1,000 day-visitors in 1988. In addition to this the mean numbers of cruising yachts and motor 
boats present at the reef increased from 2.1 and 2.3 respectively in 1984 to 3.8 and 3.8 respectively 
in 1988 (data from twice- weekly aerial surveillance flights by the Department of Environment and 
Heritage). Simple estimates from the camper, tourist and vessel records (assuming an average of 
two people go ashore from each private vessel which remains at the reef for an average of two days) 



37 



> High 

zz 

< 

8. 

CO 

b 
o 

c 

3 

o- 

<D 

£ Low 




Fig. 3-3. The relationship between arrival and 
survival of a new plant species. 



Low High 

Availability of Suitable Habitat 



indicate that numbers of people visiting the cay increased from about 1,800 in 1984 to about 15,000 
in 1988 (the most heavily visited cay on the Great Barrier Reef is Green Island which received 
about 240,000 tourists in 1988). The number of visitors in the four years from 1985 to 1988 is 
probably greater than the total number of visitors to Lady Musgrave Island during the preceding 
thirty year period. 

Floristic differences between 1984 and 1989 involve only four species and are not consistent with 
a flora primarily influenced by anthropochory. Argemone ochroleuca disappeared (probably a seed- 
bank temporal) while Raphanus raphanistrum, Conyza swnatrensis and a new species of Ipomea 
appeared (the Ipomea resembles /. indica but is glabrous and may be an undescribed taxon). 
Conyza swnatrensis could have been present in 1984 but overlooked amongst the Conyza bonariensis 
{Raphanus raphanistrum was rare and might also have been overlooked previously). The floristic 
changes at Lady Musgrave Island from 1927 to 1989 indicate that habitat disturbance is more 
important to establishment of native or alien plants than anthropochory. This is a long-term 
evaluation because the relative importance of diaspore arrival undoubtedly fluctuates with respect 
to diaspore survival. There may at times be a surplus of immigrant diaspores but no suitable 
available habitat, or an excess of available habitat with an absence of immigrant diaspores. The 
situation most likely to occur is between these extremes with the probability of species establish- 
ment being directly dependent on the product of diaspore arrival frequency and habitat availability 
(Fig.3-3). 

CONCLUSION 

The floristic composition of Lady Musgrave Island is typical of the Capricorn-Bunker islands. The 
only species not recorded from the other islands of the group is the unidentified newly arrived 
Ipomea species. Scaevola sericea and Wollastonia biflora are notably absent from Lady Musgrave 
Island and from adjacent East Fairfax Island which was also defoliated by goat herds until recent 
years (Cribb 1986). These two sea-dispersed species may have difficulty colonising the strand 
which is excavated by nesting turtles during summer. Only 55% of species recorded at the island 
are native to Australia. The large increase in numbers of visitors to the cay between 1984 and 1989 
has not been accompanied by significant change in the botanical species composition. If these 
visitors are transporting numerous diaspores to the cay then there can be little suitable habitat 
available for colonisation and trampling effects must be insignificant in creating such habitat. 



38 

Human interference with the vegetation has been severe particularly with respect to phosphate 
mining and release of goats but these effects should not obscure the fact that the flora of Lady 
Musgrave Island has progressed from scrubby vegetation less than a metre high in 1843 to a 
predominant cover of mature Pisonia grandis forest. Mining and grazing retarded this progression 
but, as with some other Capricorn-Bunker cays, the vegetation was notably less advanced last 
century prior to known European impact. Whether this is indicative of the youth of the cays or of 
a history interrupted by cyclonic destruction is unknown. The abundance of phosphate cay rock 
could be interpreted as evidence of a previous Pisonia forest (Fosberg 1957) but such rock might 
also form in the absence of Pisonia ( Part I ). 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank George Batianoff and the Botany Branch, Department of Primary Industries, for assistance with 
confirmation and identification of species, and Peter Ogilvie for assistance with historical and archival 
information. 

REFERENCES 

Chaloupka, M. Y. and Domm, S. B. (1986). Role of anthropochory in the invasion of coral cays by alien 
flora. Ecology 67: 1536-1547. 

Cribb, A. B. (1986). The terrestrial vegetation of Fairfax Islands, Great Barrier Reef. Qd. Nat. 26: 1 19-126. 

Ellis, A. F. (1936). Adventuring in coral seas. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 

Elsol, J. A. (1986). Vegetation of an eastern Australian coral cay - Lady Musgrave Island, Great Barrier Reef. 
Ptoc. Roy. Soc. Qd. 96: 33-47. 

Fosberg, F. R. (1957). Description and occurrence of atoll phosphate rock in Micronesia. Am. J. Sci. 255: 
584-592. 

Heatwole, H. ( 1 984). Terrestrial vegetation of the coral cays, Capricornia Section, Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park. In: The Capricornia Section of the Great Barrier Reef: Past, present and future. (Ward, W. T. and 
Saenger, P. eds.) Roy. Soc. Qd. and Aust. Coral Reef Soc., Brisbane, pp 87-139. 

Heatwole, H. and Walker, T. A. (1989). Invasion of coral cays by alien plants. Ecology 70: 787-790. 

Jukes, J. B. (1847). Narrative of the surveying voyage of HMS Fly. T. and W. Boone, London. 

MacGillivray, W. D. K. (1928). Bird-life of the Capricorn and Bunker Islands. Emu 28: 230-250. 

MacGillivray, W. D. K. and Rodway, F. A. (1931). Plants on islands of the Bunker and Capricorn Groups. 
Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Committee 7: 58-63. 

Napier, S. E. (1928). On the Great Barrier Reef. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 

Nebe, J. (1928). A naturalist's holiday on the Great Barrier Reef. Qd. Nat 6: 102-108. 

Nebe, J. (1932). A second holiday on the Great Barrier Reef. Qd. Nat. 8: 54-59. 

Steers, J. A. (1938). Detailed notes on the islands surveyed and examined by the geographical expedition to 
the Great Barrier Reef in 1936. Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Committee 4: 51-104. 



39 




Plate 1. Pisonia grandis with large double trunk (Cairncross Island, October 1988). 




Plate 2. Shallow Pisonia root system uncovered by Megapodius reinwardt digging at Bushy 
Island (August 1989). 



40 




Plate 3. Soil profile in Pisonia forest at Heron Island (August 1988). Less than a metre of 
sand with Pisonia humus and roots overlying white coral sand. 




Plate 4. Coppice shooting from a fallen Pisonia branch (Heron Island, August 1988). 



41 




Plate 5. Pisonia forest at Lady Musgrave Island (September 1986 photo from light tower). 




Plate 6. Deciduous Pisonia forest (Douglas Island, October 1988). 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NO. 351 



FLORE ET VEGETATION DE L'lLE DE WALPOLE 

BY 
ALAIN RENEVIER AND JEAN-FRANCOIS CHERRIER 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., USA 

JULY 1991 



FLORE ET VEGETATION DE L'lLE DE WALPOLE 

BY 
ALAIN RENEVIER 1 AND JEAN-FRANCOIS CHERRIER 2 ' 



ABSTRACT : WALPOLE Island (168° 58'E - 23 ° 38'S), southernmost and most 
isolated of the Loyalty group, is described in detail. Plant and animal 
species known to occur are listed, largely as a result of recent field work 
by the authors. Plant associations are mapped. 



I - INTRODUCTION 



L'ile de WALPOLE est une des Dependances du Territoire Frangais 
d'Outre-Mer de la NOUVELLE-CALEDONIE. Elle est situee a 180 km a l'Est du 
Canal de la HAVANNAH ; longitude 168°58' Est, latitude 22°38' Sud. Elle appartient a 
Tare des Loyaute. Elle fut decouverte le 17 novembre 1794 par le Capitaine Anglais 
BUTLER qui lui donna le nom de son navire. 



II - GEOLOGIE ET TOPOGRAPHIE 

L'ile a une origine volcanique. Au cours des glaciations des 400.000 
dernieres annees, l'ile s'est trouvee emergee et immergee a plusieurs reprises et s'est 
recouverte d'une calotte corallienne. Celle-ci subit des effets de 1' erosion et le calcaire 
se detache par blocs, parfois enormes, quand il n'est pas dissout par les eaux de pluies. 

Done, l'ile de WALPOLE se presente comme un plateau corallien 
relativement horizontal, mais terriblement " mal pave " d'enormes blocs de corail 
dechiquete. 



1. Ecole Publique de la Foa. Nouvelle Caledonie 

2. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical (CTFT). BP 41 - Noumea - Nouvelle 
Caledonie 

Manuscript received 15 December 1988; revised 28 November 1990 



t 



"Jean-Francois Cherrier, Ingenieur des Eaux et Forets et Directeur du Centre Technique 
Forestier Tropical en Nouvelle Caledonie, est decede' le 26 juillet 1991 lors d'un accident 
d'avion dans le nord de l'ile de Santo. Apprecie'de loin, e'etait un naturaliste de terrain 
passione'de forets, de plongees et de speleologie." 



Les "trous" entre les blocs etaient remplis de guano et leur exploitation a 
laisse un terrain ou la marche est difficile et parfois dangereuse ; l'ile est orientee Nord- 
Sud, longue d' environ 4 km, et large de 400 a 1.000 m. La largeur est maximale au 
Nord et minimale au Sud (au niveau des anciennes installations d' exploitation du 
guano). Elle est bordee de hautes falaises verticales (70 a 80 m) tombant directement 
dans la mer, sauf : 

- sur la Cote Est ou les falaises tombent sur une petite plaine cotiere ; 

- au Nord-Ouest et au Sud-Ouest se trouvent deux petits platiers recouverts de blocs 
d'eboulis. 

Le seul mouillage sur est a l'Ouest, et le debarquement se fait au Sud-Ouest 
(que par beau temps) ou se situent les restes des installations de l'ancienne exploitation 
de guano. 

L'acces au plateau est possible au Sud-Ouest ou un chemin a ete amenage 
du temps de l'exploitation du guano : chemin en zig-zag complete par des marches en 
briques (tres degradees aujourd'hui, mais encore tres praticables). 

Les falaises sont constellees de milliers de trous (dus a l'erosion pluviale). 
Les oiseaux de mer y nichent (surtout les phaetons). 



III - SOLS 

II n'y a pas de sols reellement bien developpes sur l'ile : 

a - Sur le plateau, une litiere tres epaisse faite de feuilles, (surtout de Pandanus) 
recouvre le calcaire et les poches de guano. 

b- Sur le platier Est, a la base de la falaise, la litiere couvre un debut de rendzine, mais 
sur une bande tres etroite. 

II s'agit done de sols tres jeunes et tres peu developpes pouvant evoluer 
vers des sols bruns calciques. 

IV - RESEAU HYDROGRAPHIOUE 

II n'y a pas de riviere. L'eau des pluies s'infiltre dans le calcaire corallien et 
creuse des cavites. Ces dernieres, quand elles sont accessibles, montrent des traces 
d'activites erosives (concretions diverses), mais rares sont celles qui renferment de 
l'eau douce (en tres petite quantite). 

L'ile est done sans eau apparente. 

II n'y a aucune grotte qui penetre la roche. 



V-CLIMAT 



II n'y aucun releve meteorologique sur l'ile de WALPOLE. Cependant, les 
conditions relevees sur les deux iles les plus proches : MARE au Nord (a 135 km) et 
1'ILE-des-PINS a l'Ouest (a 150 km) devraient nous donner une assez bonne idee des 
temperatures et des precipitations de WALPOLE, ces trois iles etant tres semblables par 
leur substrat, leur relief et leur position geographique. 

Le climat est de type subtropical, tempere par l'influence de l'ocean et des 
alizes du Sud-Est. 



CRITERES 



ILES 



MARE (1971-1986) ILES DES PINS 

(1972-1986) 



Temperatures moyennes 
annuelles 


22,3° C 


Amplitude thermique 
quotidienne 


20,0° C 


Temperature minimum 
absolu 


2,8° C 


Temperature maxima 
absolu 


35,0° C 


Altitude de l'ile 


138 m 


Pluies annuelles 


1.531 mm 


Nombre de jours de pluies 


124 


Humidite relative 


80% 


Evaporation annuelle... 


749 mm 



22,4° C 
12,5° C 
10,0° c 

33,4° C 

262 m 
1.307 mm 

120 

80% 
1.346 mm 



Les temperatures journalieres peuvent done presenter des ecarts de 15 a 
20°C, et des extremes importants : l'ile de MARE est plus froide. 

Les alizes du Sud-Est soufflent en permanence, et rendent la cote Est 
inabordable. Les extremites Nord et Sud sont les sieges de forts courants marins. 



4 
VI - PEUPLEMENT HUMAIN 

L'ile de WALPOLE est inhabitee en temps normal. 

Cependant, des traces de vies passees existent : 

a- Des ossements humains et des outils primitifs, d'anciennes traces de feux, 
decouverts dans les cavernes, indiquent que File a ete habitee. Cependant, les 
conditions rudes de vie : probleme d'approvisionnement en eau, en nourriture, 
relief tres rude, mer souvent houleuse ne devaient permettre qu'un sursis de 
vie a des naufrages, plutot qu'un peuplement volontaire et de longue duree. 



De 1910 a 1936, une exploitation du guano a permis d'extraire et d'exporter sur la 
NOUVELLE ZELANDE quelques 150.000 tonnes. Plusieurs centaines de 
personnes ont vecu et travaille sur l'ile. Leur histoire est bien connue et confirme 
les grandesdifficultes a survivre sur WALPOLE. 



Vn - VEGETATION 



Plusieurs missions scientifiques ont permis de recolter des echantillons 
botaniques : en particulier en novembre 1972 (Gilbert SAM et Henri HMAKONE), en 
decembre 1977 (J.M. VEELLON et P. BENOIT). Mais elles etaient de courtes durees 
(quelques heures) ; c'etait toujours les memes zones qui etaient visitees (la pointe Sud- 
Ouest). 

En novembre 1987, Jean-Fran9ois CHERRIER a pu, en 4 jours, 
prospecter toute l'ile, le platier Est et les falaises rocheuses. 

En aout 1988, Alain RENEVIER Jean-Francois CHERRIER, en 5 jours, 
ont prospecte le platier Nord-Ouest et le plateau Nord. Ceci a permis une meilleure 
connaissance de la forme, mais surtout de la flore et de la faune de l'ile. 



A - Formations vegetales (carte 2) : 

Une coupe Ouest-Est permet de rencontrer a partir de la mer, la succession 
suivante des associations vegetales : 

a - Une zone nue balayee sans cesse par les vagues (photo 1) ; 

b - Une zone de 5 a 10 metres de large ou, a meme la roche nue, pousse Pemphis 
acidula, avec parfois Wedelia uniflora et Bikkia tetrandra, c'est-a-dire une 
vegetation rabougrie et saxicole. Cette zone n'existe qu'au Nord-Ouest, au Sud- 
Ouest et sur la cote Est (photos 1 - 2 -7) ; 





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c - La falaise commence sans transition et porte, ou les plantes peuvent s'accrocher, 
quelques individus (photo 3) de : 

- Pisonia grandis - arbre ; 

- Ficus obliqua - arbre ; (photos 3 et 8) 

- Wedelia uniflora - herbe ; 

- Euphorbia pancheri - herbe ; 

d - Le plateau ou se distinguent plusieurs associations vegetales. 

i) La formation a Pandanus tectorius qui occupe l'essentiel du terrain. 
C'est 1' association principale. 

Avec le Pandanus se developpent : 

- Ochrosia elliptica - arbuste ; 

- Cassia gaudichaudii - arbuste ; 

- Croton insularis - arbuste ; 

- Hemicyclia deplanchei - arbuste ; 

- Ficus spp . - arbuste ; 

- Eugenia sp. - arbuste ; 

- Pisonia grandis - surtout en bordure de falaise 

- Guettarda speciosa - arbuste 

- Microsorium punctatum - fougere 

- Phymatosorus grossus - fougere (photos 12 et 5) 



ii) Les anciennes zones d'occupation humaine et plusieurs zones dans le 
centre du plateau sont occupees par : 

- Leucaena leucocephala - arbuste 

- Passiflora suberosa - liane 

- Solanum nigrum - herbe 

- et di verses herbacees introduces (photo 4). 



iii) Les anciennes zones d'exploitation du guano et le bord Est du plateau 
(tres vente) portent une formation rase, souvent herbacee, ou 
dominent : 

- Wedelia uniflora - grande herbe ; 

- Pipturus argenteus - arbuste ; 

- Euphorbia pancheri - arbrisseau ; 

- Ficus spp. - arbuste ; 

- Abutilon indicum - arbrisseau. (photo 6) 

- Sida spp . - arbrisseau ; 

- Jasminum didymum - liane ; 

- Solanum nigrum - arbrisseau. 



e - La falaise Est est identique a celle de l'Ouest, mais generalement plus foumie. 



f - La zone cotiere est presente de la base de la falaise vers la mer : 

i) Un bande de Pandanus tectorius melanges a des Crinum asiaticum et 
quelques Bikkia tetrandra (photo 10). 

ii) Une bande forestiere de 20 a 30m de large composee de : 

- Pisonia grandis - arbre ; 

- Excoecaria agallocha - arbre ; 

- Cocos nucifera - a un seul endroit. 

La hauteur varie de 8 a 10m (photos 7 et 9). 



iii) Une bande arbustive de 10-20 m de large faite de 

- Pemphis acidula - arbuste ; 

- Excoecaria agallocha - arbre ; 

- Ficus obliqua - arbuste ; 

- Bikkia tetrandra - arbuste (photos 7 et 1 1) 



iv) Une zone d'environ 10m de large occupee presque uniquement par 
Pemphis acidula et quelques Euphorbia . 

Puis la roche nue avant la mer (photo 7 et 9). 



B - Commentaires : 

- La "foret d e Pandanus " du plateau est remarquable par son existence et sa taille. 

- L'tle est relativement riche avec 98 especes pour des conditions ecologiques rudes. II 
est vrai que les especes introduites represented 30 % environ des especes . 

II n'y a pas d'exemplaires d'especes littorales classiques comme : 

- Le Tamanou (Calophyllum inophyllum - Guttifere) ; 

- Le Bois de Rose (Thespesia populnea - Malvacee) ; 

- Le Bois Bleu (Hernandia ovigera - Hernandiacee) ; 

- Le Martaoui (Acacia simple - Legumineuse) ; 

- Le Bonnet d'Eveque (Barringtonia asiatica - Barringtoniacee) ; 

- Le Bois de Fer (Casuarina equisetifolia - Casuarinacee) 

lesquels recherchent surtout les zones sableuses. 
Cependant, il n'y a pas non plus de : 

- Kohu (Intsia bijuga - Legumineuse) ; 

- Buni (Malilkara dissecta var. pancheri - Sapotacee) ; 



10 



- Pin colonnaire (Araucaria columnaris - Araucariacee), sauf un individu, 
sans doute plante, de 5-6m de haut a mi-pente, en bordure de chemin 
d'acces au plateau alors que ceux-ci se developpent sur les falaises 
calcaires de l'ILE-des-PINS et des lies LOYAUTE (mais les conditions 
ecologiques de l'lle de WALPOLE sont peut-etre trop dures pour ces 
especes) ; 

- Aucune espece de la famille des orchidees ; 

- Beaucoup de Pisonia grandis . Wedelia uniflora , Bikkia tetrandra ; 

- La bande de Crinum asiaticum (entre les Pandanus et les Pisonia ) a la 
base de la falaise Est est remarquable ; 

- Aucun Leucaeana insularum n'a ete vu ; 

- Quelques plantes dont la presence est interessante comme : 

- Cassia gaudichaudii : 

- Einadia polygonoides ; 

- Evolvulus alsioi'des var. philippinensis ; 

- Delarbrea paradoxa : 

- Eugenia cf. noumeensis ; 

- Ficus lifouensis ; 

- Kochia hirsuta : 

- Mucuna gigantea : 

- Neisosperma oppositifolia : 

- Psychotria nummularioides . 



Pour la premiere fois, les zones Nord et Est ont pu etre prospectees, ce qui 
permet d'avoir aujourd'hui, une bonne connaissance de la botanique de l'ile. 



ZOOLOGIE : 

Cette ile, malgre sa taille, accueille de tres nombreux animaux. Les oiseaux 
marins dominent nettement. La periode de reproduction se poursuit toute l'annee, avec 
un maximum en fin d'annee : 

- Sterne blanche : Gygis alba Candida - laride ; 

- Chevalier a pieds courts : Tringa brevipes - scolopacide ; 

- Noddis a cape blanche : Anous tenuirostris minutus - laride ; 

- Paille-en-queue : Phaeton rubricauda - Phaetonitide ; 

- Phaeton a queue blanche : Phaeton lepturus dorthae - Phaetonitide ; 

- Fou a pattes rouges : Sula sula rubripes - sulide ; 

- Fou a ventre blanc : Sula leucogaster plotus - sulide ; 

- Fregate : Fregata ariel ariel - fregatide ; 

- Pluvier dore : Pluvialis dominica fulva - charadriide. 

Ces animaux sont represented par des milliers d'individus sur l'ile. 



11 

Les fous et les fregates nichent surtout sur les Pisonia grandis et les 
Pemphis acidula. Les noddis preferent les Pandanus et les phaetons, les trous dans les 
falaises calcaires. La vegetation souffre nettement de la presence des oiseaux et des 
nombreux nids qu'elle doit supporter. 

Ont ete vus, en quelques individus, des alcyons, des riphidures et, en 
haute mer, des puffins et un albatros (communication personnelle de M. PHILIPPOT 
Marcel). 



L'ile porte pour tout : 2 reptiles, 1 petit lezard gris non identifie et 1 



scinque. 



De la presence humaine du temps de l'exploitation du guano, il ne reste 
plus aucun des mammiferes laches sur l'ile (qui servaient de nourriture fraiche 
disponible selon les besoins) mais, par contre, de tres nombreux rats et cafards. 

Enfin, la psylle ( Heteropsylla cubana ), originaire d'Amerique Centrale, qui 
a envahit tout le Pacifique, d'Est en Ouest, en 1985 et 1986, detruisait efficacement les 
Leucaena leucocephala du plateau. 

Aucun serpent terrestre et marin, ni aucun rapace n'a ete note. 

Les fonds sous-marins sont tres riches en individus (coraux, poissons, 
algues...) mais assez pauvres en especes. Les parois rocheuses tombent dans la mer, 
descendent en pente douce j usque vers 50m et ensuite disparaissent rapidement dans les 
grandes profondeurs. 

Les poissons peches et/ou vus dans la zone WALPOLE sont les suivants : 

- Thons a nageoires jaunes : Thunnus albacares - Scombride ; 

- Coryphene : Coryphaena hippurus - Coryphaenide ; 

- Thons dents de chiens : Gymnosarda unicolor - Scombride ; 

- Tazards du lagon : Scomberomorus commerson - Scombride ; 

- Saumon du Pacifique : seriole : Elagatis bipinnulata - Carangide ; 

- Mekoua : Aprion virescens - Etelide ; 

- Wahoo ou tazard du large : Acanthocybium solanderi - Scombride ; 

- Bonite du lagon : Euthynnus affinis - Scombride. 

Ces poissons se conservent mal : 

- Caranges - Seriola dumerili et Caranx melampygus - Carangides ; 

- Bonite a ventre raye : Katsuwonus pelamis - Scombride ; 

- Barracudas : Sphyraena barracuda - Sphyraenide ; 

- Des voiliers sont souvent vus : Istiophorus platypterus - Istiophoride ; 

- ainsi que des marlins bleus : Makaira mazara - Istiophoride ; 

- et des marlins rayes : Tetrapterus audax - Istiophoride. 

Les requins qui frequentent ces regions sont facilement visibles : 

- Requins tigres : Galeocerdo cuvier - Carcharhinide ; 

- Requins marteau : Sphyrna makarran - Sphyrnide ; 

- Requins a pointes noires : Carcharhinus melanopterus - Carcharhinide ; 



12 



Requins a pointes blanches : Carcharhinus longimanus - Carcharhinide ; 
Requins gris : Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos - Carcharhinide ; 
Requins mako : Isurus oxyrynchus - Lamnidae ou Isuridee ; 
Requins renard : Alopias vulpinus - Alopiidae 



Parmi les 51 especes d'ARTHROPODES recoltes nous notons 



- Isopodes (cloportes) : 



CRUSTACES 

1 sp non identifiee 



- Chilopodes (scolopendres) 



MYRIAPODES 

1 sp non identifiee 



Acariens Ixodidae (tiques) 
Araignees 



ARACHNIDES 



1 sp non identifiee 
8 sp non identifiees 



INSECTES 



Blattoidea Blattidae (cafards) 



Isopteres - termites 



(trouvee dans les troncs morts de Leucaena) 



1 sp Periplaneta c f. australasica 
1 sp non identifiee (larve) 

1 sp non identifiee 



Coleopteres 



Anthribidae 

Cerambicidae 

Tenebrionidae 

Cucujidae 

Coccinellidae 



Nitidulidae 
- Hemipteres Miridae (punaises) 



1 sp non identifiee 

1 sp non identifiee 

1 sp non identifiee 

1 sp non identifiee 

4 sp (Olla vinigrum 

Coccinella repanda 
Coelophora mulsanti 
Henosepilachna sparsa 
26 punctata) 

1 sp 

2 sp non identifiees 



- Hymenopteres 



Apoidea Halictidee 1 sp non identifiee 

(abeilles) 

Sphecoidea 1 sp non identifiee 



13 



- Dipteres 



Homopteres 
Lepidopteres 



Formicoidea 

formicidae 

(fourmis) 

Nematoceres 
Sciaridae 

Nematoceres 
Culicidae 

Brachyceres 

(Orthorraphes) 

Asilidae 



1 sp non identifiee 

1 sp non identifiee 
1 sp non identifiee 



2 sp non identifiees 

Dolichopididae 1 sp non identifiee 

Brachyceres 
(Cyclorraphes) 

Muscidae 1 sp non identifiee 

Haplostomate 1 sp non identifiee 

Heteropsylla cubana 

(Rhopaloceres 
Papillons de jour) 3 sp 

Pieridea 1 sp Appias paulina ega 

(Boisduval) 
(se developpe sur Drypetes deplancheD 

Lycaenidae 1 sp Catochrvsops panormus 

caledonica (Felder) 

Nymphalidae 1 sp Hvpolimnas bolina 
(Linne) 
(se developpe sur Pipturus argenteus ) 

Lepidopteres (Heteroceres) 
(papillons de nuit) 13 sp 

Noctuidae 1 sp Achaea Janata 

3 sp - 

Pyralidae 1 sp Agriolypta excelsalis 

1 sp Hymenia recurvalis 
3 sp - 

Geometridae 2 sp 



2 sp famille et genre non identifies 



14 

Puis deux especes de Gasteropodes ont ete recoltees : 

- l'une sous des pierres ; 

- l'autre sur des vegetaux. 

PLANTES RECOLTEES A L'lLE DE WALPOLE 

Les specimens cites sont, sauf indication contraire, recoltes par 
M. CHERRIER Jean-Francois et numerates dans la serie de M. MACKEE H. 

lis sont deposes a PARIS (MUSEUM NATIONAL D'HISTOIRE 
NATURELLE - PARIS) ; des doubles se trouvent en general a NOUMEA (Centre 
ORSTOM de NOUMEA) et parfois dans d'autres herbiers. Les memes especes sont 
souvent representees a PARIS et a NOUMEA par d'autres recoltes de cette ile. 

Les especes citees sans specimen furent determinees sur place par 
M. CHERRIER J.F.. L'asterisque indique une espece introduite a l'ile. 



PTERIDOPHYTA 
ASPLENIACEAE 

Asplenium australasicum (J.Sm.) Hook - (44082) 



DAVALLIACEAE 

Arthropteris neocaledonica Copel. (44037) 
Nephrolepis hirsutula (Forst.) Presl (Veillon 3363) 



POLYPODIACEAE 

Microsorium punctatum (L.) Copel. (Benoit in MK 34406) 
Phvmatosorus grossus (Langsd. et Fisch.) Brownlie (Benoit in MK 34403) 

PSILOTACEAE 

Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25855) 



GYMNOSPERMAE 
ARAUCARIACEAE 

* Araucaria columnaris (Forst.) Hook. 

MONOCOTYLEDONES 
AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Crinum asiaticum L. 

* Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss (Benoit in MK 34404) 



15 

CYPERACEAE 

Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. (44034) 
Fimbristvlis cymosa R. Br. (44047) 

GRAMINEAE 

Bothriochloa sp . (44049) 

* Cvnodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (43799) 
Digitaria sp. (43802 - 44045) 
Eragrostis sp. (43805 - 44056) 
Lepturus cf. repens R. Br. (43804) 

* Panicum maximum Jacq. (44036) 
Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (43817) 

Stenotaphrum micranthum (Desv.) Hubb. ex Hubb. et Vaughan (43803) 

PALMAE 

* Cocos nucifera L. 

PANDANACEAE 

Pandanus tectorius Sol. ex Balf. (Benoit in MK 34398) 



DICOTYLEDONES 
AEOACEAE 

Sesuvium portulacastrum L. (43826) 

Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pallas) O. Ktze (43815) 



AMARANTHACEAE 
Achrvanthes aspera L. ( Hmakone et Sam in MK 25850) 

APOCYNACEAE 

* Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (44046) 

Cerbera manghas L. (43830) 

Neisosperma oppositifolia (Lam.) Fosb. et Sachet (44795) 

Ochrosia elliptica Labill. (43797) 

ARALIACEAE 

Delarbrea paradoxa Vieill. (44086) 

ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Tylophora insulincola S. Moore (44041) 



16 

BIGNONIACEAE 
* Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex HBK (44059) 

BORAGINACEAE 
Cordia subcordata Lam. (44048) 



CAPPARACEAE 



Capparis sp. (43818) 
* Cleome gynandra L. (44043) 



CHENOPODIACEAE 



Einadia polygonoides (Murr) P.G. Wilson (43788-44071) 
Kochia hirsuta Nolte (43783) 



coMPOsrrAE 

♦ Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25849) 
* Erigeron sp. (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25875) 
* Parthenium hysterophorus L. (44070) 
* Sonchus oleraceus L. (44083) 
* Tridax procumbens L. (44063) 
Wedelia uniflora (Forst.) W. Oliv. (43821) 



CONVOLVULACEAE 

* Evolvus alsinoides (L.) L. var. philippinensis Oostr. (44064) 
* Ipomoea hederifolia L. (44074) 
Operculina ventricosa (Bertero) Peter (44069) 



CRUCIFERAE 



* Brassica chinensis L . (44044) 
Lepidium sp. (43791-44078) 



CUCURBITACEAE 
* Momordica charanria L. (44040) 



17 
EUPHORBIACEAE 



Croton insulare Baill. (43794) 

Drvpetes deplanchei (Brongn. et Gris) Merr. (43784) 

Euphorbia pancheri Baill. (44055) 

Excoecaria agallocha L. (43796) 

* Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. (44084) 



GOODENIACEAE 

Scaevola sericea Forst. (43823) 

LABIATAE 
Plectranthus parviflorus Hencke (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25878) 

LEGUMINOSAE 

Caesalpinia bonduc L. (43809) 

Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. (44053) 

Cassia gaudichaudii Hook, et Arn. (43837) 

* Cassia sophera L. (44035) 

* Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd. (44080) 

* Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25853) 

Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC. (44058) 

Vigna marina ( Burm.) Men*. (?) (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25886) 

LYTHRACEAE 
Pemphis acidula Forst. (Benoit in MK 34405) 

MALVACEAE 

Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (44072) 
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (43835) 
Sida nummularia Bak. f. (44079) 
* Sidarhombifoha L. (Veillon 3373) 
* Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garke (44076) 



MORACEAE 



Ficus lifouensis Corner (43985) 
Ficus obliqua Forst. (43800) 
Ficus scabra Forst. (43806) 



18 

MYRTACEAE 
Eugenia cf. noumeensis Guillaum. (43812) 



NYCTAGINACEAE 



Boerhavia repens L. (43840) 
Pisonia grandis R. Br. (43836) 



OLEACEAE 

Jasminum didymum Forst. (44057) 



OXALIDACEAE 
Oxalis corniculata L. (44052) 

PAPAVERACEAE 

* Argemone mexicana L . (44042) 

PASSIFLORACEAE 
* Passiflora suberosa L. (Benoit in MK 34397) 

PIPERACEAE 
Peperomia endlicheri Miq. (44051) 

PLUMBAGINACEAE 
Plumbago zeylanica L. (44062) 

PORTULACACEAE 

Portulaca cf. lutea Sol, ex Forst. (43790) 
Portulaca sp. (43839) 

RUBIACEAE 

Bikkia tetrandra (L.f.) A. Richard (43827) 

Guettarda speciosa L. (43833) 

Morinda citrifolia L. (43798) 

Psychotria nummularioides Guillaum. (43793) 



19 

RUTACEAE 

Zieridium sp. (Veillon 3383) 

SAPINDACEAE 

Arytera chartacea Radlk. (44085) 
Podonephelium homei (Seem.) Radlk. (44081) 



SOLONACEAE 



Nicotiana fragrans Hook. (43828) 
* Nicotiana tabacum L. (44039) 
* Solanum nigrum L. (44060) 



STERCULIACEA 
Melochia odorata L. (43829) 

UMBELLIFERAE 

Apium prostratum (Thouars) Labill. (43825) 

URTICACEAE 
Pipturus argenteus (Forst.) Wedd. (44061) 

VERBENACEAE 

* Stachvtarpheta indica (L.) Vahl (Hmakone et Sam in MK 25843) 

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 
Tribulus cistoides L. (43792) 



20 



CONCLUSION 



Cette petite ile, hors des routes maritimes, difficile d'acces, est originate et 
presente plusieurs poles d'interets. Sa vegetation renferme beaucoup d'especes par 
rapport a sa taille (dont plusieurs assez rares). 

Les animaux sont aussi tres nombreux, mais il n'y a que tres peu d'especes 
dans les groupes superieurs ; par contre, les insectes sont tres representes. 

Les occupations humaines semblent remonter assez loin dans le temps, 
mais n'ont apparemment jamais dure. Les conditions de survie y sont rudes. 

Par ses caracteristiques, l'ile de WALPOLE est un exemple peu frequent 
alors que la NOUVELLE-CALEDONIE, par ses Dependances, possedes des dizaines 
d'iles. Dans le Pacifique, nous pouvons citer les iles de MAKATEA (POLYNESIE 
FRANC AISE) et d'ATIU (Archipel des Iles COOK). Leur comparaison serait riche 
d'enseignement. 

Leur aspect et leurs caracteristiques marines en font des iles difficiles 
d'acces et les interventions humaines sont rares. Ceci leur assurera une protection de 
fait efficace. 



REMERCffiMENTS 

Les auteurs remercient pour leur aide : 

- en botanique : Monsieur H.S. Mac Kee - Co-Directeur de la Publication de la Flore 
de la NOUVELLE CALEDONIE 

-enzoologie: Monsieur CHAZEAU Jean Charge de recherche O.R.S.T.O.M. 
NOUMEA 



21 



BIBLIOGRAPHIE 



ANONYME - (1929) -WALPOLE Island - CHINA Journal - SHANGHAI 
t. 11, p. 86-90 



BENOIT, P. - (1978) -Rapport de mission aux iles du Sud 
Service des Eaux et Forets- NOUMEA (inedit) 



FOURMANOIR, P. et LABOUTE, P. - (1970) -Poissons de NOUVELLE 

CALEDONIE et des NOUVELLES HEBRIDES - Editions du Pacifique 
NOUMEA 376p. 



GODARD, Ph. - (1976) - WALPOLE et le guano in : Le Memorial Caledonien 
Tome IV - NOUMEA DIFFUSION - NOUMEA 



GUILLAUMIN, A.- (1973) -Contribution CXXX a la flore de la NOUVELLE 

CALEDONIE. Plantes des iles WALPOLE et MATTHEW. Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. PARIS. 3e serie Bot. 12 : 181-183 



MIGOALSKI, C.E.et FITCHETER, S.G. - (1979) -Les poissons du monde - 1979 
376p. 



O'REILLY, P. - (1955) -Bibliographic de la NOUVELLE-CALEDONIE - 

Societe des Oceanistes , PARIS - Cite une carte "Dependances de la 
NOUVELLE-CALEDONIE" dont He WALPOLE 1 : 40.000 



PISIER, G. - (1979) - Les "petites dependances" de la NOUVELLE-CALEDONIE 
Bull. Soc. Etudes Hist, de la Nouv.-Caled. n° 41 - p. 9-32 



VEILLON, J.M. - (1978) - Section botanique in_BENOIT (1978) 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 

NO. 352 



PLANTS OF THE JAMAICAN CAYS 

BY 

DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., USA 

JULY 1991 



PLANTS OF THE JAMAICAN CAYS 

BY 

DAVID R. STODDART 1 AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 2 



Abstract 

This paper records 105 species in 44 families from the reef islands south of Jamaica (4 
islands in the Morant Cays, 4 islands on the Pedro Bank, and 7 islands off Port Royal). 



Introduction 

This listing of the plants of the Jamaican Cays is based primarily on collections made 
on the Pedro Cays by Fosberg and M.-H Sachet in 1962, by Stoddart and S.M. Head in the same 
location in 1985, by Stoddart and Head on the Port Royal Cays in the same year, and by 
Stoddart, Head, and M.J. Hendry on the Morant Cays, also in 1985. It includes previous records, 
notably by V.J. Chapman on the Morant and Port Royal cays in 1939 (though we have not seen 
his specimens) and by C. Bernard Lewis through the 1940's, whose material is in the herbarium 
of The Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. All the material in The Institute of Jamaica, by 
various collectors (Table 1), is included in this list. 

We record here 105 species in 44 families from 15 islands. 



1 Department of Geography, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720. 

^Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560. 
Manuscript received 9 July 1990; revised 30 October 1990 



AGAVACEAE 

Agave rigida Mill. 

Agave sisalana Perr. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969) (as Agave sisalana 
Perr.). 

Dracaena sp. 

Pedro Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head, sight (pot plant). 



AIZOACEAE 

Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) J. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42789, Stoddart & Head 9090, Zans 
(1958); Middle Cay: Fosberg 42803, Stoddart & Head 9102, Zans (1958); 
Southwest Cay: Fosberg 42800, Stoddart & Head 9079b, Zans (1958). 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9121, Chapman (1944) 
Northeast Cay north islet: Stoddart & Head 9136; Middle Cay 
Stoddart & Head 9142, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953) 
Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9153, Chapman (1944); Southeast 
Cay seaward islet: Stoddart & Head 9147; Southwest Cay: Stoddart & 
Head 9166. 

Port Royal Cays — 'Cays off Port Royal', no localities, Fl. Jam. II, p. 166; 
Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9007, 9011, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953); Southeast Cay separate rampart island: Chapman (1944); 
Southeast Cay small islet I: Stoddart & Head, sight; Southeast Cay 
small islet II: Stoddart & Head, sight; Maiden Cay: Chapman (1944), 
Asprey and Robbins (1953); Rocky Cay: Stoddart & Head 9029; South 
Cay: Stoddart & Head 9017, Chapman (1944); South Cay small islet: 
Stoddart & Head 9024; Lime Cay: Wedderburn 305 (IJ), Stoddart & 
Head 9052, 9064b, Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry (1954), Adams in 
1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: 



AMARANTHACEAE 

Alternanthera halimifolia (Lam.) Standi. 

Alternanthera ficoidea var. flavogrisea (Urb.) F. & R. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9048, Adams in 1963. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Iresine diffusa H. & B. ex Willd. 

Portland Bight Cays— Booby Cay: Proctor 33051 (IJ). 

Philoxerus vermicularis (L.) Beauv. 

Caraxeron vermicularis (L.) Raf. 

Pedro Bank — Southwest Cay: Lewis, s.n., 14 June 1947 (IJ). 



Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ), Chapman (1944); 
Middle Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); Southeast 
Cay: Chapman (1944) . 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); 
South Cay: Chapman (1944); Lime Cay: Adams 12348 (UWI), Asprey 
and Robbins (1953), Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; 
Drunkenman's Cay: Von der Porten, s.n., 26 May 1949 (IJ), Palmer, s.n., 
July 1954 (IJ), Wedderburn 299, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953); Drunkenman's Cay small islet: Stoddart & Head 9110. 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11486, 29 January 1956 (IJ), Cornman, 
s.n., 17 December 1966 (IJ); Big Pelican Cay: Adams 12266, 19 February 
1963 (UWI), Adams (1969). 



ANACARDIACEAE 

Metopium brownei (Jacq.) Urb. 
Rhus metopium L. 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Maxon & Killip, in Fl. Jam. V, p. 9, Proctor 
11485, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



APOCYNACEAE 

Echites umbellata Jacq. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1963, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Nerium oleander L. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Vallesia antillana Woodson 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



ARECACEAE 

Coccothrinax jamaicensis R. W. Read 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Cocos nucifera L. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Zans (1958), Stoddart & Head, sight; Middle 
Cay: Stoddart & Head, sight; Southwest Cay: Zans (1958). 



Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Chapman (1944), Stoddart & Head, sight; 
Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head, sight; Southeast Cay: Chapman (1944). 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Cynanchum sp. 

Metastelma sp. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11672, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 



ASTERACEAE 

Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist 
Erigeron pusillus Nutt. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11658, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 

Melanthera aspera (Jacq.) L. C. Rich ex Spreng. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11502, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 

Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



BATIDACEAE 

Batis maritima L. 

Port Royal Cays— Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9012, Chapman (1944), 
Asprey and Robbins (1953); Lime Cay: Fl. Jam. Ill, p. 35 (old specimen, 
no data, UWI), Wedderburn 302, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 
9063, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, 
Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun 
Cay: Stoddart & Head 9074, Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: Von 
der Porten, s.n., 25 May 1949 (IJ). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11517, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



BORAGINACEAE 

Cordia sebestena L. 

Pedro Bank — Southwest Cay: Lewis, s.n., June 1947 (IJ), Von der Porten, s.n., 21 
June 1949 (IJ), Fosberg 42796, Stoddart & Head 9082, 9085, Zans (1958). 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9050, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 
1979. 



Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11501, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Heliotropium curassavicum L. 

Pedro Bank — Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9097; Southwest Cay: Lewis, s.n., 
June 1950 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., 20 July 1955 (IJ), Fosberg 42794, 42799, 
Stoddart & Head 9087. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., 18 June 
1948 (IJ), Chapman (1944). 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953); Lime Cay: 
Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); Drunkenman's Cay: 
Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Tournefortia gnaphalodes (L.) Kunth 

Mallotonia gnaphalodes (L.) Britton 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., June 1947 (IJ), Fosberg 42791, Stoddart 
& Head 9093, Zans (1958); Middle Cay: Lewis, s.n., June 1947 (IJ), 
Fosberg 42806, Stoddart & Head 9101, Zans (1958); Southwest Cay: 
Lewis, s.n., June 1947 (IJ), Fosberg 42798, Stoddart & Head 9081, Zans 
(1958). 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cays', without localities, Mendez 9200, April 1961 
(UWI); Northeast Cay; Chapman (1944), Stoddart & Head 9129; 
Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9144, Chapman (1944), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953); Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9157; Southeast Cay 
seaward islet: Chapman (1944); Southwest Cay: Stoddart & Head 
9164. 

Port Royal Cays — Drunkenman's Cay: Chapman (1944). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11492, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



BURSERACEAE 

Bursera lunanii (Spreng.) Adams & Dandy (ined.) 
Bursera simplicifolia DC. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11660, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 

Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11662, 4 March 1956 (IJ), Proctor 
11482, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican Cay: Adams 12268, 19 February 
1963 (UWI), Adams 12360, 22 March 1963 (UWI), Adams 12363, 22 
March 1963 (UWI), Adams (1969). 



CACTACEAE 

Cereus sp. (s.l.) 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head, sight (photograph), juvenile. 

Nopalia sp. (?) 

Pedro Bank — Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head, sight (photograph), cultivated. 

Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl.) Haw. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Opuntia tuna (L.) Mill. 

Morant Bank — Southeast Cay: Chapman (1944), Stoddart & Head, sight. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953), 
Bengry in 1954. 

Stenocereus hystrix (Haw.) Buxb. 

Lemaireocereus hystrix (Haw.) Britton & Rose 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Adams (1969) in 1963, Kelly in 1977. 



CAPPARIDACEAE 

Capparis ferruginea L. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: W. T. March, 1857-1858, in Fl. Jam. ffl, p. 233, 
Stoddart & Head 9044, 9060, 9069, Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry in 
1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11664, 4 March 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican 
Cay: Adams (1969). 

Capparis cynophallophora L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Capparis flexuosa (L.) L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and 
Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11663, 4 March 1956 (IJ) (not seen). 



CASUARINACEAE 

Casuarina equisetifolia L. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9115; Middle Cay: Stoddart 
& Head, sight (introduced seedling). 



Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9066, Kelly in 1977, 
Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



CELASTRACEAE 

Crossopetalum rhacoma Crantz 

Rhacoma crossopetalum L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11509, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



CHENOPODIACEAE 

Atriplex pentandra (Jacq.) Standi. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



COMBRETACEAE 

Conocarpus erecta L. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9120. 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9133; Southeast Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9151 (var. sericeus Griseb.) (introduced). 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953); Southeast Cay 
separate rampart island: Chapman (1944); South Cay small islet: 
Stoddart & Head 9025; Lime Cay: Fl. Jam. V, p. 310 (collection dated 
1899, UWI), Stoddart &c Head 9034, Chapman (1944), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, 
Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: Stoddart & Head 9070, 
9072, Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: Fl. Jam. V, p. 310 (collection 
dated 1899, UWI), Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11484, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big, 
Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953), Stoddart & Head 
9002, 9004, 9008, 9009; Southeast Cay separate rampart island: 
Chapman (1944); South Cay: Stoddart & Head 9018, 9021, Chapman 
(1944); Lime Cay: Fl. Jam. V, p. 311 (1899 collection, UWI), Stoddart & 
Head 9038, 9041, 9059, 9061, Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, 
Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun 
Cay: Stoddart & Head 9071, 9073, Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: 
Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11490, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



CONVOLVULACEAE 

Ipomoea macrantha Roem. & Schult. 

Ipomoea tuba (Schlecht.) G. Don 
Calonyction tuba (Schlecht.) G. Don 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cays', without locality, Mendes, April 1961 (UWI); 
Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 19 June 1949 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9132; 
Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9140; Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 
9162; Southeast Cay seaward islet: Stoddart & Head 9148; Southwest 
Cay: Stoddart & Head 9167. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Loveless, s.n., December 1952 (UWI) Percival, s.n., 
28 January 1965 (UWI), Adams 12250, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Asprey 
and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11488, 29 January 1956 (IJ), Cornman 
655, 17 December 1966 (IJ); Big Pelican Cay: Adams 12263, 19 February 
1963 (UWI), Adams (1969). 

Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. ssp. brasiliensis (L.) v. Ooststr. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9088. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Chapman (1944); Middle Cay: Stoddart & 
Head 9145, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Port Royal Cays— Maiden Cay: Stoddart & Head 9015, Chapman (1944), 
Asprey and Robbins (1953); Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9057, Bengry in 
1954, Adams in 1963, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays: Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11504, 29 January 1956 (IJ), Proctor 
11168, 4 March 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Jacquemontia havanensis (Jacq.) Urban 

Jacquemontia jamaicensis (Jacq.) Hall f. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11512, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



CRUCIFERAE 

Cakile lanceolata (Willd.) 0. E. Sch. 

Pedro Bank — Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42786. 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cays', without locality, Mendes, s.n., April 1961 
(UWI); Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 18 June 1948 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 
9125, Chapman (1944); Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9141, Chapman 
(1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 
9156; Southwest Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ) . 



Port Royal Cays— 'House Key, near Port Royal, Sloane Herb. Ill, 111' (1687- 
1689), in Fl. Jam. Ill, p . 245 (identity of this island not established); 
Maiden Cay: Chapman (1944); Lime Cay: Wedderburn 307 (IJ), Adams 
12254, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11656, 4 March 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican 
Cay: Adams (1969); Booby Cay: Proctor 33059, 3 December 1972 (IJ). 



CUCURBITACEAE 

Citrullus lanatus var. caffrorum (Alefeld) Fosb. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9114 (cultivated). 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9058. 

Cucurbita sp. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9113 (sterile) (cultivated). 

Doveria emetocathartica Grosourdy 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1963 (seedlings). 



CYPERACEAE 

Cyperus ligularis L. 

Mariscus rufus Kunth 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Chapman (1944) (probably Cyperus planifolius 
L. C. Rich). 

Cyperus planifolius L. C. Rich 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42788 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9091, Zans 
(1958); Middle Cay: Fosberg 42802 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9099, Zans 
(1958); Southwest Cay: Fosberg 42797 (IJ), Stoddart 9084), Zans (1958). 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cay', Lodge, s.n., 25 May 1965 (UWI); Northeast Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9127, probably also as C. ligularis L. in Chapman 
(1944). 

Portland Bight Cays— Big Pelican Cay: Adams 12272, 12273, 19 February 1963 
(UWI), 13043, 13044, 29 October 1967 (UWI), Adams (1969). 



EUPHORBIACEAE 

Ateramnus lucidus (Sw.) Rothm. 
Gymnanthes lucida Sw. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams (1969) (rare). 



10 



Bernardia dichotoma (Willd.) Muell. Arg. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11666, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 

Euphorbia blodgettii Engelm.ex Hitchc. 

Chamaesyce blodgettii (Engelm.ex Hitchc.) Small 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Adams 12750, 28 November 1965 (UWI), Kelly, 
s.n., January,1977 (UWI), Stoddart & Head 9053, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11494, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 

Euphorbia mesembrianthemifolia Jacq. 
Euphorbia buxifolia Lam. 
Chamaesyce buxifolia (Lam.) Small 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9128; Southeast Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9159. 

Port Royal Cays — Maiden Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); 
Lime Cay: Barry, s.n., 31 March 1946 (IJ), Palmer, s.n., October 1952 
(UWI), Patrick 86, 17 January 1954 (IJ), Wedderburn 298, 15 March 1968 
(IJ), Stoddart & Head 9056, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and 
Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: Sloane Herb. Ill, 118, in Fl. Jam. rV, p. 336; 
Drunkenman's Cay: Chapman (1944). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11514, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Lasiocroton macrophyllus (Sw.) Griseb. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11661, 4 M.arch 1956 (IJ). 



FABACEAE 

Acacia tortuosa (L.) Willd. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Palmer, s.n., October 1952 (UWI), Wedderburn 
308, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9040, 9045, 9062, Chapman 
(1944) (as Acacia sp.), Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, 
Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979 . 

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. 
Caesalpinia crista L. 
Guilandina bonduc L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Asprey, s.n., 1951 (UWI), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977. 

Port and Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11671, 4 March 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican 
Cay: Adams (1969). 



11 



Canavalia maritima (Aubl.) Urb. 

Canavalia obtusifolia (Lam.) DC. 
Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9095 (seedling). 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9134. 

Port Royal Cays — Maiden Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953) (two plants); Lime 
Cay: Fl. Jam. IV, p. 60 (collection dated 1899, UWI), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963 (seedling), Kelly in 1977. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11489, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams 1969). 

Cassia emarginata L. 

Port Royal Cay— Lime Cay: Asprey, s.n., July 1952 (UWI), Wedderburn 309, 15 
March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9036, Asprey and Robbins (1953), 
Bengry in 1954, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Crotalaria incana L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1963 (rare). 

Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.) Raf. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Indigofera tinctoria L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953), Adams in 1963, Kelly 
in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11515, 29 January 1956 (IJ) 

Piscidia piscipula (L.) Sarg. 

Port Royal Cays — Maiden Cay: Fl. Jam. IV, p. 84 (1899 specimen, UWI); Lime 
Cay: Adams 12249, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Adams (1969), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954. 

Pithecellobium unguis-cati (L.) Benth. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9046, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Adams (1969), Kelly in 1977, 
Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Tephrosia cinerea (L.) Pers. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9055, Adams in 1963, 
Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth. 
Vigna repens Ktze. 

Locality unknown-'Green Island': Fl. Jam. IV, p. 67 (as Vigna repens Ktze.). 

Leguminosae sp. indet. 

Port Royal Cays — Gun Cay: Chapman (1944). 



12 



GOODENIACEAE 

Scaevola plumieri (L.) Vahl 



Port Royal Cay— Lime Cay: Barry, s.n., 31 March 1946 (IJ), Patrick 87, 17 
January 1954 (IJ), Adams 12256, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Wedderburn 
310, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9051, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 



HYDROCHARITACEAE 

Halophila decipiens Ostenf. 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Woodley, s.n., 7 December 1969, depth 30 m 
(IJ) (det. G. R. Proctor). 

Thalassia testudinum Konig 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9118. 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9005; South Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9016; Lime Cay: Von der Porten, s.n., 27 May 1950 (IJ), 
Stoddart & Head 9031; Drunkenman's Cay: Stoddart & Head 9105. 



LAURACEAE 

Cassytha filiformis L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11500, 29 January 1956 (IJ), Rankin 
(1955). 



MALPIGHIACEAE 

Stigmaphyllon emarginatum (Cav.) A. Juss. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1963 (rare) (IJ), Adams (1969). 



MALVACEAE 

Gossypiutn hirsutum L. var. marie-galante (Watt.) J.B. Hutch. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol. ex Correa 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9010, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953) (one plant); Rocky Cay: Stoddart & Head 9026; South Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9022, Chapman (1944); South Cay small islet: 
Stoddart & Head 9023; Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9033, 9068, 
Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953), Adams in 1963, Adams 
(1969), Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: Stoddart & Head 
9076, Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: (Gibbs, Grant, Massop and 
Thomas, s.n., 1 October 1953 (IJ), Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953). 



13 



Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11505, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams 13047, 29 October 1967 (UWI). 



NYCTAGINACEAE 

Boerhavia coccinea Mill. 

Boerhavia hirsuta Willd. 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ) (det. F. R. Fosberg), 
Chapman (1944); Middle Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953); Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9152. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953), Adams in 1963, Kelly 
in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11483, 29 January 1956 (IJ) (as 
Boerhavia hirsuta Willd.); Big Pelican Cay: Adams 12274, 19 February 
1963 (UWI), Adams (1969). 

Boerhavia paniculata L. C. Rich 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9122; Middle Cay: Stoddart 
& Head 9138; Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9152. 

Boerhavia scandens L. 

Commicarpus scandens (L.) Standley 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9065. 

Guapira obtusata (Jacq.) Little 

Torruhia obtusata (Jacq.) Britton 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



PASSIFLORACEAE 

Passiflora suberosa L. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Fawcett, s.n., 1899 (UWI), Robbins, s.n., July 1952 
(UWI), Adams 12258, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11667, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 



PHYTOLACCACEAE 

Rivina humilis L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Big Pelican Cay: Carter, s.n., 12 November 1963 (UWI), 
Adams 13037, 29 October 1967 (UWI), Adams (1969). 



14 



Trichostigma octandrum (L.) H. Walt. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



POACEAE 

Cenchrus brownii Roem. & Schult. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Cenchrus echinatus L. 

Cenchrus tribuloides L. 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cays', without locality, Lewis, s.n., 14 June 1947 (IJ); 
Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9131, Chapman (1944). 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9064a. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Chloris mollis (Nees) Swallen 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams in 1979 (rare). 

Eragrostis domingensis (Pers.) Steud. 

Pedro Bank— Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9096. 

Eustachys petraea (Sw.) Desv. 
Chloris petraea Sw. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11503, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 

Panicum maximum Jacq. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Paspalum distichum L. 

Paspalum vaginatum Sw. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42789, Stoddart & Head 9092; Southwest 
Cay: Lewis, s.n., 14 June 1947 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., June 1950 (IJ), Fosberg 
42798, Stoddart & Head 9083, Zans (1958). 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., 19 June 
1949 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9130; Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9143, 
Chapman (1944); Southeast Cay seaward islet: Stoddart & Head 9149; 
Southwest Cay: Lewis, s.n., 19 June 1949 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., June 1950 (IJ), 
Stoddart & Head 9168. 

Port Royal Cays — Maiden Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953) (one plant). 

Portland Bight Cays— Big Pelican Cay: Adams 13038, 29 October 1967 (UWI), 
Adams (1969). 



15 



Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth 

Pedro Bank— Middle Cay: Stoddart & Head 9098. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ), Lewis, s.n., 18 June 
1948 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9117, Chapman (1944); Middle Cay: 
Stoddart & head 9139, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); 
Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9154, Chapman (1944); Southeast 
Cay seaward islet: Stoddart & Head 9150. 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953); Maiden Cay: 
Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); Lime Cay: Asprey, s.n., 
November 1951 (UWI), Stoddart & Head 9032, 9035, 9039, Asprey and 
Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, 
Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: Stoddart & Head 9078, 
Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953); Drunkenman's Cay small islet: Stoddart & Head 9109. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



PORTULACACEAE 

Portulaca oleracea L. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42790, Stoddart & Head 9089, Zans 
(1958); Middle Cay: Fosberg 42804, Stoddart & Head 9103, Zans (1958); 
Southwest Cay: Fosberg 42801, Stoddart & Head 9080, Zans (1958). 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Lewis, s.n., 28 June 1947 (IJ) (not seen), Stoddart 
& Head 9135, Chapman (1944); Middle Cay: Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Stoddart & Head 9137; Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9160, 
Chapman (1944); Southeast Cay seaward islet: Stoddart & Head 9146; 
Southwest Cay: Stoddart & Head 9165. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Wedderburn 304, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & 
Head 9037, 9054, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Portulaca pilosa L. 

Port Royal Cays — 'Cays outside Port Royal, Macfadyen' (J. Macfadyen, 1825- 
1850), without localities, Fl. Jam. Ill, p. 170. 

Portulaca rubricaulis Kunth 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11670, 4 March 1956 (IJ). 



16 



POLYGONACEAE 

Coccoloba uvifera L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9043, Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 
1979. 



RHAMNACEAE 

Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Adams 12248, 7 February 1963 (UWI) (very rare), 
Kelly in 1977. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11506, 29 June 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican 
Cay: Adams (1969). 



RHIZOPHORACEAE 

Rhizophora mangle L. 

Morant Bank — Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9112 (juveniles, introduced). 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9001, 9014, Asprey and 
Robbins (1953); Southeast Cay separate rampart: island: Chapman 
(1944); Rocky Cay: Stoddart & Head 9028; South Cay: Stoddart & 
Head 9020, Chapman (1944); Lime Cay: specimen, no data (ca 1899) 
(UWI), Wedderburn 300, 15 March 1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9049, 
Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 
1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: 
Chapman (1944); Drunkenman's Cay: Stoddart & Head 9106, Chapman 
(1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11511, 29 January 1956 (IJ), Steers 
(1940); Big Pelican Cay: Steers (1940) (seedlings), Adams (1969) 
(seedlings); Salt Cay: Steers (1940). 



RUBIACEAE 

Erithalis fruticosa L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11513, 29 January 1953 (IJ). 

Ixora ferrea Benth. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Stoddart & Head 9067 (?). 

Morinda citrifolia L. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11487, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



17 



Morinda royoc L. 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Adams 12253, 7 February 1963 (UWI), Asprey and 
Robbins (1953), Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 



SOLANACEAE 

Solarium bahamense L. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



STERCULIACEAE 

Waltheria indica L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11499, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 



SURIANACEAE 

Suriana maritima L. 

Pedro Bank— Northeast Cay: Fosberg 42792, Stoddart & Head 9094, Zans 
(1958); Middle Cay: Lewis, s.n., 14 June 1947 (IJ), Fosberg 42805, 
Stoddart & Head 9100, Zans (1958); Southwest Cay: Fosberg 42793, 
Stoddart & Head 9086, Zans (1958). 

Morant Bank — 'Morant Cays', without localities, Mendes, s.n., April 1961 
(UWI); Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9126; Southeast Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9158. 

Port Royal Cays — 'Cays off Port Royal', no localities or collector, 1899 (UWI); 
'House Key, near Port Royal', Fl. Jam. rV, p. 197 (identity of this island 
not established). 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11516, 29 January 1956 (IJ) (not seen); 
Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



TURNERACEAE 

Turnera ulmifolia L. 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9116, Chapman (1944); 
Middle Cay: Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953); Southeast 
Cay: Stoddart & Head 9163. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11498, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 



18 



VERBENACEAE 

Avicennia germinans (L.) L. 

Avicennia nitida Jacq. 

Port Royal Cays— Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9003, 9013, Asprey and 
Robbins (1953); Southeast Cay separate rampart island: Chapman 
(1944); Rocky Cay: Stoddart & Head 9027, 9030; South Cay: Stoddart 
& Head 9019, Chapman (1944); Lime Cay: Wedderburn 301, 15 March 
1968 (IJ), Stoddart & Head 9042, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins 
(1953), Bengry in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and 
Fairbairn in 1979; Gun Cay: Stoddart & Head 9079a, Chapman (1944); 
Drunkenman's Cay: Palmer, s.n., July 1954 (UWI), Stoddart & Head 
9108, Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11493, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Steers (1940), Adams (1969); Salt Cay Steers (1940). 

Citharexylum fruticosum L. 

Portland Bight Cays — Big Pelican Cay: Adams (1969). 

Lantana involucrata L. 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11510, 29 January 1956 (IJ). 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl 

Port Royal Cays— Lime Cay: Adams 12255, 7 February 1963 (UWI). 

Portland Bight Cays— Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11807, 29 January 1956 (IJ); Big 
Pelican Cay: Adams 12265, 19 February 1963 (UWI), Adams (1969). 



ZOSTERACEAE 

Halodule beaudettei (den Hartog) den Hartog 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Barry, s.n., 12 June 1945 (IJ). 

Halodule wrightii Aschers., s.l. 

Port Royal Cays— Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9006. 

Syringodium filiforme Kiitz. 

Cymodocea manatorum Aschers. 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9119. 

Port Royal Cays — Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9006; Drunkenman's Cay: 
Stoddart & Head 9104. 



19 



ZYGOPHYLLACEAE 

Kallstroemia maxima (L.) Torr. & A. Gray 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9123. 

Port Royal Cays — Lime Cay: Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 1979. 

Tribulus cistoides L. 

Morant Bank— Northeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9124, Chapman (1944); 
Southeast Cay: Stoddart & Head 9161, Chapman (1944). 

Port Royal Cays — Maiden Cay: Chapman (1944); Lime Cay: Wedderburn 306, 
15 March 1968 (IJ), Chapman (1944), Asprey and Robbins (1953), Bengry 
in 1954, Adams in 1963, Kelly in 1977, Brimacombe and Fairbairn in 
1979; Gun Cay: Chapman (1944). 

Portland Bight Cays — Pigeon Cay: Proctor 11655, 4 March 1956 (IJ); Big Pelican 
Cay: Adams (1969). 



20 



Table 1. Collectors and observers of plants on the Jamaica cays 



1687-1689 
1825-1850 
1857-1858 
1899 

1939 



1940 


April, June 


1945 


12 June 


1946 


31 March 


1947 


14 June 

28 June 

29 June 


1948 


18 June 


1949 


26 May 


1949 


19 June 


1949 


21 June 


1949 


26 June 


1950 


27 May 


1950 


June 


1951 


November 


1952 


July 


1952 


December 


1953 


1 October 



1954 17 January 



Hans Sloane 
J. Macfadyen 
W. T. March 
W. Fawcett 

V. J. Chapman 
J. A. Steers 

C. B. Lewis 

A. M. Barry 

A. M. Barry 

C B. Lewis 

C. B. Lewis 

A. von der Porten 

C. B. Lewis 

A. von der Porten 

A. von der Porten 

A. von der Porten 

C B. Lewis 

G. F. Asprey 

G. F. Asprey 
R. G. Robbins 

A. R. Loveless 

R. Gibbs, E. Grant 

A. Massop, A. Thomas 

R. P. Bengry 
L. A. Patrick 



'House Key', Gun Cay 

Port Royal Cays 

Lime Cay 

Lime Cay, Maiden Cay, 
'Green Cay' 

Port Royal Cays, Morant Cay 

Pedro Cays, Morant Cays 

Lime Cay 

Lime Cay 

Pedro Cays 
Morant Cays 
Pedro Cays 

Morant Cays 

Drunkenman's Cay 

Morant Cays 

Pedro Cays 

Drunkenman's Cay 

Lime Cay 

Pedro Cays, Morant Cays 

Lime Cay 

Lime Cay 

Lime Cay 
Drunkenman's Cay 

Lime Cay 



21 



1954 


July 
October 


J. H. Palmer 


Drunkenman's Cay 
Lime Cay 


1955 


20 July 


C B. Lewis 


Pedro Cays 


1955 


18-23 July 


V. A. Zans 


Pedro Cays 


1955 


October 


J. Rankin 


Pigeon Cay 


1956 


February 


B. V. Bailey 


Pedro Cays 


1956 


November 


V. A. Zans 
B. V. Bailey 


Pedro Cays 


1956 


29 January 
4 March 


G. R. Proctor 


Pigeon Cay 


1957 


January 


B. V. Bailey 


Pedro Cay 


1961 


April 


D. Mendes 


Morant Cays 


1962 


18-22 July 


F. R. Fosberg 
M.-H. Sachet 
T. F. Goreau 


Pedro Cays 


1963 


7 February 


C. D. Adams 


Lime Cay 


1963 


19 February 
22 March 


C. D. Adams 


Big Pelican Cay 


1963 


12 November 


W. Carter 


Big Pelican Cay 


1965 


25 May 


E. Lodge 


Morant Cays 


1965 


28 November 


C. D. Adams 


Lime Cay 


1966 


17 December 


I. Cornman 


Pigeon Cay 


1967 


29 October 


C. D. Adams 


Big Pelican Cay 


1968 


15 March 


M. M. Wedderburn 


Lime Cay, Drunkenman's Cay 


1969 


7 December 


J. D. Woodley 


Southeast Cay (Port Royal Cays) 


1972 


3 December 


G. R. Proctor 


Booby Cay 


1977 


January 


D. L. Kelly 


Lime Cay 


1979 


28 July 


M. Brimacombe 
P. Fairbairn 


Lime Cay 


1985 


15-26 October 


D. R. Stoddart 

S. M. Head 

M. C. Hendry (part) 


Pedro Cays, Morant Cays, 
Port Royal Cays 



22 



Ackno wle dgements 

The 1985 collections were made possibly by the active support of the University of the 
West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. Dr. Stephen M. Head organised visits to the Morant Cays 
with the University's research vessel Caranx, and to the Pedro Cays through the support of the 
Jamaica Defence Force. This list was finalised during Stoddart's tenure of a Regents 
Fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution in 1985, which also supported his visit to Jamaica. 
We are grateful to Mr. C. Bernard Lewis for information on his many visits to the cays. Dr. D. 
L. Kelly, Trinity College, Dublin, gave us information on a visit to Lime Cay in 1977. 



References 

Adams, CD. 1969. A botanical description of Big Pelican Cay, a little known island off the 
south coast of Jamaica. Atoll Research Bulletin, 130, 1-10. 

Asprey, G. F. and Robbins, R. G. 1953. The vegetation of Jamaica. Ecological Monographs, 23, 
359-412. 

Chapman, V. J. 1939. Cambridge Expedition to Jamaica. Part 1. A study of the botanical 
processes concerned in the development of the Jamaica shoreline. Journal of the Linnean 
Society, Botany, 52, 407-447. 

Fawcett, W. 1910-36. Flora of Jamaica, containing descriptions of the flowering plants known 
from the island. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), 7 volumes 
[cited here as Fl. Jam.] 

Zans, V. A. 1958. The Pedro Cays and the Pedro Bank. Report on the Survey of the Cays 1955- 
57. Bulletin of the Geological Survey Department [Kingston, Jamaica], 3, 1-47. 



23 



INDEX 



Acacia tortuosa 10 

Agave rigida 2 

Alternanthera ficoidea 2 

Alternanthera halimifolia 2 

Ateramnus lucidus 9 

Atriplex pentandra 7 

Avicennia germinans 18 

Avicennia nitida 18 

Batis maritima 4 

Bernardia dichotoma 10 

Boerhavia coccinea 13 

Boerhavia hirsuta 13 

Boerhavia paniculata 13 

Boerhavia scandens 13 

Bursera lunanii 5 

Bursera simaruba 5 

Bursera simplicifolia 5 

Caesalpinia bonduc 10 

Caesalpinia crista 10 

Cakile lanceolata 8 

Calonyction tuba 8 

Canavalia maritima 11 

Canavalia obtusifolia 11 

Canavalia rosea 11 

Capparis cynophallophora 6 

Capparis ferruginea 6 

Capparis flexuosa 6 

Caraxeron vermicularis , 2 

Cassia emarginata 11 

Cassytha filiformis 12 

Casuarina equisetifolia 6 

Cenchrus brownii 14 

Cenchrus echinatus 14 

Cenchrus tribuloides 14 

Cereus sp 6 

Chamaesyce blodgettii 10 

Chamaesyce buxifolia 10 

Chloris mollis 14 

Chloris petraea 14 

Citharexylum fruticosum 18 

Citrullus lanatus 9 

Coccoloba uvifera 16 

Coccothrinax jamaicensis 3 

Cocos nucifera 3 

Colubrina asiatica 16 

Commicarpus scandens 13 

Conocarpus erecta 7 

Conyza canadensis 4 

Cordia sebestena 4 

Crossopetalum rhacoma 7 



Crotalaria incana 11 

Cucurbita sp 9 

Cymodocea manatorum 18 

Cynanchum sp 4 

Cyperus ligularis 9 

Cyperus planifolius 9 

Delonix regia 11 

Doveria emetocathartica 9 

Dracaena sp 2 

Echites umbellata 3 

Eragrostis domingensis 14 

Erigeron pusillus 4 

Erithalis fruticosa 16 

Euphorbia blodgettii 10 

Euphorbia buxifolia 10 

Euphorbia mesembrianthemifolia ...10 

Eustachys petraea 14 

Gossypium hirsutum 12 

Guapira obtusata 13 

Guilandina bonduc 10 

Gymnanthes lucida 9 

Halodule beaudettei 18 

Halodule wrightii 18 

Halophila decipiens 12 

Heliotropium curassavicum 5 

Indigofera tinctoria 11 

Ipomoea macrantha 8 

Ipomoea pes-caprae 8 

Ipomoea tuba 8 

Iresine diffusa 2 

Ixora ferrea 16 

Jacquemontia havanensis 8 

Jacquemontia jamaicensis 8 

Kallstroemia maxima 19 

Laguncularia racemosa 7 

Lantana involucrata 18 

Lasiocroton macrophyllus 10 

Lemaireocereus hystrix 6 

Mallotonia gnaphalodes 5 

Mariscus rufus 9 

Melanthera aspera 4 

Metopium brownei 3 

Morinda citrifolia 16 

Morinda royoc 17 

Nerium oleander 3 

Nopalia sp 6 

Opuntia dillenii 6 

Opuntia tuna 6 

Panicum maximum 14 

Paspalum distichum 14 



24 



Paspalum vaginatum 14 

Passiflora suberosa 13 

Philoxerus vermicularis 2 

Piscidia piscipula 11 

Pithecellobium unguis-cati 11 

Portulaca oleracea 15 

Portulaca pilosa 15 

Portulaca rubricaulis 15 

Rhacoma crossopetalum 7 

Rhizophora mangle 16 

Rhus metopium 3 

Rivina humilis 13 

Scaevola plumieri 12 

Sesuvium portulacastrum 2 

Solarium bahamense 17 

Sporobolus virginicus 15 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis 18 

Stenocereus hystrix 6 

Stigmaphyllon emarginatum 12 

Suriana maritima 17 

Syringodium filiforme 18 

Tephrosia cinerea 11 

Thalassia testudinum 12 

Thespesia populnea 12 

Torruhia obtusata 13 

Tournefortia gnaphalodes 5 

Tribulus cistoides 19 

Trichostigma octandrum 14 

Turnera ulmifolia 17 

Vallesia antillana 3 

Vigna luteola 11 

Vigna repens 11 

Waltheria indica 17 

VJedelia trilobata 4 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 

NO. 353 



LIVING AND LATE HOLOCENE FOSSIL VERTEBRATES, 
AND THE VEGETATION OF THE COCKPIT COUNTRY, JAMAICA 

BY 

GREGORY K. PREGILL, RONALD I. CROMBIE, DAVID W. STEADMAN, 

LINDA K. GORDON, FRANK W. DAVIS, AND WILLIAM B. HILGARTNER 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., U.SA. 

JULY 1991 



LIVING AND LATE HOLOCENE FOSSIL VERTEBRATES, 
AND THE VEGETATION OF THE COCKPIT COUNTRY, JAMAICA 

BY 

GREGORY K. PREGILL 1 , RONALD I. CROMBIE 2 , 

DAVID W. STEADMAN 3 , LINDA K. GORDON 4 , 

FRANK W. DAVIS 5 , AND WILLIAM B. HILGARTNER 6 



The Cockpit Country of west central Jamaica encompasses more than 
500 km 2 of luxuriant forest that blankets a spectacular terrain of 
conical hills, valleys, caves, and escarpments (Fig. 1). These karst 
features are developed in the White Limestone Formation of mid-Eocene to 
mid-Miocene age (Arden, 1975). The extent of the Cockpits is approxi- 
mately 20 miles east-west and 10 miles north-south, and is more or less 
centered in Trelawny Parish. Portions extend briefly into St. James 
Parish (west) and into St. Elizabeth and Manchester parishes to the 
south. As yet, no roads transect the central Cockpits and, for the most 
part, even the periphery is sparsely settled. Consequently, the forest 
is remarkably pristine for the West Indies and stands in sobering con- 
trast to Jamaica's largely crowded, cultivated and eroded landscape. 
Although endemic species of invertebrates and amphibians are known from 
the Cockpits, the region remains poorly explored biologically. 

In June 1983, we entered the southern Cockpits near the village of 
Quickstep, Trelawny Parish, with two goals in mind: to excavate cave 
sediments for vertebrate fossils and to describe the region's predomi- 
nant species of plants and vertebrates. Our fossil locality was a large 



Department of Herpetology, San Diego Natural History Museum, 
P.O. Box 1390, San Diego, CA 92112 



2 



Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, National Museum 

of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 



3 New York State Museum, The State Education Department, Albany, NY 12230 

Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560 

Department of Geography, University of California, 
Santa Barbara, CA 93106 

Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, 
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 
Manuscript received 30 April 1990; revised 28 November 1990 



cave that had been located by Crombie in 1971 during his herpetological 
reconnaissance of the Cockpits (Crombie, 1977, 1986). Unlike many large 
caves in Jamaica that lost their paleontological potential to phosphate 
or bauxite mining during and since WWII, the cave found by Crombie was 
undisturbed. Known as Marta Tick Cave, it is isolated deep in the 
forest amid steep, inhospitable terrain approximately 8 km WNW of Quick- 
step. The cave is reached by an obscure 2 km trail that begins on the 
Cockpit Road 6 km north of Quickstep. Because daily trips to and from 
the village were not feasible, we established camp in the cave itself. 

For three weeks we excavated sediment within the cave, while for 
the entire four weeks of our stay we also pursued our second goal, to 
make observations and collections of the plants and animals of the 
surrounding forest. Such a survey would allow interpretation of the 
fossil fauna as well as document the current status of the local biota. 
Specimens of fossil and living vertebrates were deposited in the 
collections of the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, and the San Diego Natural History Museum. Plant specimens 
were deposited in the herbaria of the University of the West Indies, 
Kingston, Jamaica, and the Department of Biological Sciences, University 
of California, Santa Barbara. 

Considering that very few areas of undisturbed forest remain in 
Jamaica, or elsewhere in the Caribbean, our inventory of this relatively 
undisturbed portion of the Cockpits should be a reliable baseline for 
future comparisons. As seems to be the case for Amazonia (Roberts, 
1988), the natural areas that are not saved in Jamaica within the next 
decade may be so damaged by the turn of the century that many species 
will be lost. With this in mind, we hope that the results of our survey 
of the very rich biota of the Cockpits will contribute to its preserva- 
tion in a natural state. 



Montego Bay 




Jamaica 



10km 



Figure 1. Jamaica, showing the general extent of the Cockpit Country 



THE CAVE 

The entrance of Marta Tick Cave is a large, semicircular opening, 
11.3 m wide, on the southern face of a steep slope. The opening empties 
into a roughly circular main chamber about 15.5 m in diameter. At its 
highest, the ceiling reaches 7 m, and is scarred with shallow cavities 
that serve as roosting sites for Cave Swallows, Hirundo fulva. To the 
left (WSW) of the main chamber is a broad ledge approximately 1 m above 
the cave floor, 13 m wide, 8 m deep, and partially divided by a large 
flowstone pillar. To the right (NNE) is a massive, floor-to-ceiling 
flowstone wall that terminates near the entrance in a large pile of rock 
and rubble. The rear wall of the main chamber forms from the gradually 
sloping ceiling; to the west and north two main passages lead into the 
deep recesses of the cave. After our visit in 1983, the cave was mapped 
in detail by a party from the National Speleological Society, and most 
of the 800 m of passage are now known (Baker et al . , 1986). 

CAVE EXCAVATION 

After an extensive search for surface remains, six test pits were 
dug in selected areas of the main chamber where dry sediment had accumu- 
lated. Test pits measured 1' x 3' and were excavated to varying depths 
depending on the quality and thickness of the sediment. Sediment was 
passed simultaneously through 1/4" and 1/16" mesh screens. The deepest 
test pits were near the middle of the chamber floor. They were poorly 
stratified with an upper layer 10-12" thick of powdery reddish brown 
sediment, below which was 18-24" of dense, yellowish brown loam that 
rested on bedrock or breccia. Most of the test pits did not yield great 
numbers of fossils. The most productive fossil-producing areas of the 
cave were several pockets at the back of the broad ledge that extends 
northwest from the main chamber against the north wall. One of these 
pockets was packed with bone in a crystalline sandy matrix, 15-20 cm 
thick, about 7' wide, and cemented with countless aggregates of osteo- 
derms — the bony scales of diploglossine lizards. This site produced 
over 200 lbs of screened, concentrated matrix. The second most produc- 
tive site was another pocket at the back of the same ledge, about 6 m 
west of the first pocket. Radiocarbon ages on charcoal were obtained 
from both of these deposits. 

SAMPLING PLANTS AND VERTEBRATES 

Our 1983 excursion into the Cockpits coincided with the advent of 
summer rains, which produced conditions ideal for vertebrate activity, 
especially amphibians. At this time of year, however, the rugged lime- 
stone terrain is muddy and difficult to traverse, and the forest abounds 
in mosquitoes and biting insects. 

We collected plant specimens along transects that radiated from the 
cave entrance, and at five other sites within the forest at distances of 
70 to 300 m from the cave. At six sites within 150 m of the cave, we 
erected one or two 12 m mist nets to capture birds and bats. The nets 
were monitored hourly during daylight hours, and from four to five times 
after dark. Bats were also netted at the cave entrance during twilight. 



Amphibians and reptiles were collected during the day and at night, 
usually by turning rocks and logs, examining bromeliads, and systemati- 
cally searching perch sites and leaf litter adjacent to the trails and 
transects. 

RESULTS 

1. Vertebrate Fossils 

In the laboratory, thousands of bones and fragments were recovered 
from the concentrated matrix. Radiocarbon ages on wood charcoal were 
obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Isotope Geochemis- 
try, as follows: pocket 1) 770 ± 70 years BP (A-4087) , pocket 2) 20 ± 70 
years BP (modern; A-4088). Although most of the fossil bones are well 
mineralized, the composition of species represented by them further 
suggests that the bones were deposited within late Holocene times and 
accord with the radiocarbon ages. For example, there are no species of 
heptaxodontid rodents, which are known from late Pleistocene sites else- 
where in Jamaica (MacPhee, 1984), nor are there flightless ibises, which 
have been associated with the extinct primate Xenothrix at Long Mile 
Cave, Trelawny Parish (Olson and Steadman, 1977). Practically all of 
the fossils represent species that can be found in or about the southern 
Cockpits today, and no further comment on them is made here (Table 1). 
There are, however, a few interesting exceptions. 

Nearly 90% of the paleofauna consists of squamate reptiles, the 
majority of which are lizards. Noteworthy is a giant galliwasp repre- 
sented by cranial and postcranial elements which possibly is referable 
to Celestus occiduus. This lizard presumably has become extinct within 
this century. When he wrote The Herpetology of Jamaica with W. Gardner 
Lynn in 1940, Chapman Grant insisted that they still existed, a view 
opposed by other authors (Barbour, 1910; Cousens, 1956; Schwartz, 1970, 
1971). Grant offered no locality information. In the Marta Tick 
paleofauna, the large Celestus is abundant, although the minimum number 
of individuals and frequency relative to other taxa have not been 
calculated. 

Few preserved specimens of Celestus occiduus exist in museum 
collections (only three in North America), and the species' original 
distribution on Jamaica is unclear. Barbour (1910) discussed three 
specimens that supposedly came from Mandeville, and Gosse (1851) noted 
only that they were to be found in the Great Morass of Westmoreland 
Parish, where they provoked fear and disgust among locals. Males of 
C. occiduus collected in the 19th century attained a snout-vent length 
of 305 mm (Schwartz, 1971). Many of the fossils from Marta Tick Cave 
represent individuals at least this size. 

A second fossil lizard of interest from Marta Tick Cave is the 
extinct tropidurid Leiocephalus cf. L. jamaicensis. This species was 
known previously only by fossils from Dairy Cave and Montego Bay Airport 
Cave on the north coast, and from the Portland Ridge Caves southwest of 
Kingston (Etheridge, 1966). More than one species, however, may be rep- 
resented by these fossils (Pregill, in press), including L. jamaicensis. 
We found scattered remains of Leiocephalus in various layers of sedi- 
ment, but of more interest were the unmineralized bones recovered from 



the cave floor. These essentially contemporaneous skeletal remains 
suggest that Leiocephalus survived until very recently, probably 
historically, but was never detected by the early European naturalists 
that explored Jamaica. Such was the case for other extinct species of 
Leiocephalus that are known from Holocene deposits in the Lesser 
Antilles (Pregill et al . , 1988; Pregill, in press). 

Because Leiocephalus was a recent resident of the Cockpits, we 
might infer that the species itself (be it jamaicensis or something 
else) was much more mesophytic than most other species of the genus. 
Although it is highly unlikely that the humid climate and lush vegeta- 
tion of the southern Cockpits have changed significantly in the past few 
hundred years, Ameiva dorsalis, another open-country species of lizard, 
also occurs in the Marta Tick deposits but is found nowhere near the 
Cockpits today. Hence, there is some faunal evidence to suggest that 
the presently dense primary forest of the Cockpits might in fact be of 
recent origin. 

The scant fossil record of birds from Jamaica includes an extinct 
flightless ibis (Xenicibis xympithecus) , an extinct or extirpated large 
hawk (Accipitridae sp.), the extirpated Burrowing Owl {Athene cunicu- 
laria) , and the extinct nightjar Siphonorhis americana (Olson and 
Steadman, 1977, 1979). Only ten avian fossils were recovered from Marta 
Tick Cave. They represent at least five species, as follows: a manus 
phalanx of Geotrygon versicolor (Crested Quail Dove), a carpometacarpus 
of Columba inornata (Plain Pigeon), a tarsometatarsus of Turdus auran- 
tius (White-chinned Thrush) , a humerus of Turdus jamaicensis (White-eyed 
Thrush), a mandible of Loxigilla violacea (Greater Antillean Bullfinch), 
and five unidentified postcranial bones of passerines (a humerus the 
size of Euneornis campestris, a coracoid and two humeri the size of 
Icterus leucopteryx, and a carpometacarpus the size of Spindalis zena) . 
Each of the five fossil species still occurs in the vicinity of the cave 
except Columba inornata, which we were unable to locate in April 1978 or 
June-November 1983. 

Mammalian fossils from Marta Tick Cave consist of rodents and bats. 
The rodent material includes cranial and postcranial elements of the 
Jamaican cony, Geocapromys browni, a caviomorph rodent apparently now 
uncommon in the Cockpits, and bones of an extinct rice rat, Oryzomys 
palustris. Fossils of bats were present in limited numbers and, though 
not fully identified, most likely represent species currently inhabiting 
the cave and other nearby habitats (Table 4). 

2. Modern Vertebrates 

The amphibian fauna in the vicinity of Marta Tick Cave (Table 2), 
as discussed by Crombie (1977, 1986), consists of hylid and eleuthero- 
dactyline frogs. Of the former, Osteopilus brunneus was calling 
commonly from the forest canopy. Eleutherodactylus cundalli and E. 
grabhami were common on rocks and saplings, whereas E. pantoni was more 
abundant near the ground. There are two species of tiny leaf-litter 
frogs endemic to the area, E. griphus and E. sisyphodemus. Both were 
described by Crombie (1977, 1986) with E. griphus, based in part on 
material we obtained in 1983. 

Four species of Anolis were collected near Marta Tick Cave (Table 



2), but only A. opalinus and A. lineatopus were conspicuously present. 
But for a few leaf-litter geckos (Sphaerodactylus goniorhynchus) , no 
ground-dwelling lizards were found in 1983. 

We recorded 60 species of birds from the Quickstep region of the 
Cockpits (Table 3). Although many species that inhabit the primary 
forest also occur in second-growth forests, most of these species seldom 
or never nest in second-growth habitats, being dependent upon primary 
forest for long-term survival. The diversity of fruiting trees in the 
primary forest is exploited by various pigeons and doves (Davis et al . , 
1985) as well as parrots and thrushes, some of which also feed season- 
ally on fruiting trees in disturbed habitats. The avifauna of the 
primary forest region near Marta Tick Cave differs qualitatively from 
that of disturbed habitats near the Quickstep road. For example, 
primary forest species such as Geotrygon versicolor, Columba caribaea, 
Vireo osburni, and Nesopsar nigerrimus are absent or very rare near the 
road, whereas near the cave we never found Zenaida aurita, Columbina 
passerina, Crotophaga ani, Anthracothorax mango, Tyrannus dominicensis, 
Mimus polyglottos, or Tiaris olivacea. Before people cleared much of 
the forest along the Quickstep road, probably all of the species that 
prefer fields and/or second growth were uncommon or absent north of 
Quickstep village. North American migrant birds, in particular six 
species of parulid warblers, were absent from the Cockpits in June 1983, 
but comprised 14 of 48 birds netted during 22-25 November 1983. 

Seven species of bats were collected within the study area, three 
of which were netted at the mouth of Marta Tick Cave (Table 4). Ptero- 
notus p. parnelli was easily the most numerous of the cave residents. 

3. Vegetation 

The flora of the Cockpit Country is rich and includes a large 
proportion of endemic species, yet there are few published studies on 
the floristics and vegetation (Asprey and Robbins, 1953; Harvey et al . , 
1988; Kelly et al . , 1988). In fact, there is no reliable list of 
vascular plants of the region, and important records undoubtedly await 
discovery. For example, in 1985 we found several fruiting trees that 
fit the description of Ocotea martinicensis, a species collected only 
once from Jamaica in 1907, and for which Adams (1972) found no other 
evidence of its occurrence on the island. 

Marta Tick Cave is situated on a heavily forested, nearly vertical 
hillside. Within a 300 m radius of the cave we collected or identified 
103 species of plants representing 45 families (Adams, 1972; Table 5). 
The forest is structured as a mature, closed canopy with a relatively 
sparse understory. Here and there are patches of second-growth trees 
with semi-open canopies. The height of the closed canopy ranges from 
9 to 12 m with emergent species to 32 m. Among the predominate canopy 
species are Oxandra lanceolata ( "Lancewood" ) , Bauhinia divaricata ("Moco 
John"), Terminalia latifolia ( "Broadleaf " ) , Nectandra antillana ("Sweet- 
wood"), Micropholis rugosa ( "Beefwood" ) , Trichilia spp. ( "Bloodwood" ) , 
and Guarea swartzii ( "Mosswood" ) . Typical successional species consist 
of Miconia rigida, M. laevigata ("Johnny Berry"), Piper amalago ("Black 
giant"), Eugenia spp. ("Rodwood"), and Fagara martinicensis ("Prickly 
yellow"). Common vines include Vitis tilii folia ("Water withe"), Cissus 



sicyoides ("Pudding withe"), and Syngonium auritum ("Five finger"). Of 
ferns, Thelypteris spp. is common. 

SUMMARY 

Throughout the West Indies very few large tracts of undisturbed 
habitat remain. Thus, it is important to tabulate what we have learned 
about the flora and fauna of the Cockpit Country, a unique relict of 
West Indian forest habitat. As field biologists, we are heartened by 
those governments and policy makers who recognize that tropical biotas 
can no longer tolerate exploitation at the rate that has gone on during 
the past two centuries. That human encroachment is affecting the Cock- 
pits as well can be seen in the differences between the avifauna near 
the village of Quickstep and the Quickstep Road versus that of the 
primary forest near the cave. 

The fossil record of vertebrates from the West Indies has demon- 
strated how rapidly prehistoric human settlement of the islands can 
affect an indigenous flora or fauna (e.g., Steadman et al . , 1984; 
Pregill et al . , 1988). The fossil fauna from Marta Tick Cave did not 
reveal the antiquity or diversity of species that one would hope for in 
a glimpse of the late Pleistocene or early Holocene, thousands of years 
prior to human settlement of Jamaica. Yet the bones from Marta Tick 
Cave show that some elements of the vertebrate fauna have been lost in 
the past 100 years — giant diploglossines , Ameiva cf . A. dorsalis, Leio- 
cephalus cf . L. jamaicensis, Columba inornata, and Oryzomys palustris. 
Whatever the causes, their disappearance underscores the delicate com- 
plexity of the Cockpit flora and fauna, about which much remains to be 
learned. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

This project is one of several contributions from ongoing research 
in the Cockpit Country, begun by RIC in 1970 with a grant from the 
American Philosophical Society. For this present work we are, as 
always, grateful to the National Geographic Society for their support 
(grant #2482-82), encouragement, and patience. In Jamaica permits were 
obtained through the cooperation of Patrick Fairbairn of the Department 
of Natural Resources in Kingston. In the field we were privileged to 
have the able assistance and companionship of E. Dyer Moore and Richard 
Thomas. And as in prior and subsequent visits to the Cockpits, we owe 
continuing gratitude to Menocal Stephenson and his family of Quickstep. 
Their hospitality and tireless efforts on our behalf made this expedi- 
tion possible. Their good cheer and company was always an uplift during 
the long hours of field work. This is contribution number 675 of the 
New York State Museum and Science Service. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the 
West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp. 

Arden, D. 1975. Geology of Jamaica and the Nicaragua Rise. Pp. 98-238 
in A. E. M. Nairn and F. G. Stehli (eds.). The Ocean Basins and 
Margins, vol. 3, The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. New York, 
Plenum Press. 

Asprey, G. F., and R. G. Robbins. 1953. The vegetation of Jamaica. 
Ecological Monographs 23(4) :359-413. 

Barbour, T. 1910. Notes on the herpetology of Jamaica. Bulletin of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology 52(15) :273-301 (2 plates). 

Baker, L. L., E. A. Devine, and M. A. DiTonto. 1986. The 1985 expedi- 
tion of the NSS Jamaican Cockpits project. National Speleological 
Society News 44(1):4-15. 

Crombie, R. I. 1977. A new species of frog of the genus Eleuthero- 
dactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from the Cockpit Country of 
Jamaica. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
90(2):194-204. 

1986. Another new forest-dwelling frog (Leptodactylidae: 
Eleutherodactylus) from the Cockpit Country of Jamaica. Trans- 
actions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 21(9) :145-153. 

Cousens , P. N. 1956. Notes on the Jamaican and Cayman island lizards 
of the genus Celestus. Breviora 56:1-6. 

Davis, F. W. , W. B. Hilgartner, and D. W. Steadman. 1985. Notes on the 
diets of Geotrygon montana and Columba caribaea in Jamaica. Bulle- 
tin of the British Ornithologists' Club 105:130-133. 

Grant, C. 1940. The Reptiles. Pp. 61-148 in G. S. Lynn and C. Grant. 
The Herpetology of Jamaica. Bulletin of the Institute of Jamaica, 
Science-Series. 

Harvey, L. E. , F. W. Davis, and N. Gale. 1988. The analysis of class 
dispersion patterns using matrix comparisons. Ecology 69(2) :537- 
542. 

Kelly, D. L., E. V. J. Tanner, V. Kapos , T. A. Dickinson, G. A. 
Goodfriend, and P. Fairbairn. 1988. Jamaican limestone foresets: 
Floristics, structure, and environments of three examples along a 
rainfall gradient. Journal of Tropical Ecology 4:121-156. 

MacPhee, R. D. E. 1984. Quaternary Mammal Localities and heptaxodontid 
rodents of Jamaica. American Museum Novitates 2803:1-34. 

Olson, S. L. , and D. W. Steadman. 1977. A new genus of flightless ibis 
(Threskiornithidae) and other fossil birds from cave deposits in 
Jamaica. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 
90(2): 447-457. 

and . 1979. The humerus of Xenicibis, the extinct flight- 
less ibis of Jamaica. Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 92 ( 1 ) : 23-27 . 

Pregill, G. K. in press. Systematics of the West Indian lizard 
Leiocephalus (Squamata: Iguania: Tropiduridae) . Miscellaneous 
Publications University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. 

Pregill, G. K. , D. W. Steadman, S. L. Olson, and F. V. Grady. 1988. 
Late Holocene fossil vertebrates from Burma Quarry, Antigua, Lesser 
Antilles. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 463:1-27. 



Roberts, L. 1988. Hard choices ahead on biodiversity. Science 
241:1759-1761. 

Schwartz, A. 1970. A new species of large Diploglossus (Sauria: 
Anguidae) from Hispaniola. Proceedings of the Biological Society 
of Washington 82(60) : 777-788. 

1971. A new species of bromeliad-inhabiting galliwasp (Sauria: 
Anguidae) from Jamaica. Breviora 371:1-10. 

Steadman, D. W. , G. K. Pregill, and S. L. Olson. 1984. Fossil verte- 
brates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: Evidence for late Holocene 
human-caused extinctions in the West Indies. Proceedings of the 
National Academy of Sciences USA 81:4448-4451. 



10 

Table 1. Late Holocene Fossil Vertebrates from Marta Tick Cave, 
Trelawny Parish, Jamaica. 



ANURA 

Hylidae 

Osteopilus brunneus 

Hyla spp. 
Leptodactyl idae 

Eleutherodactylus spp. 
SAURIA 

Anguidae 

Celestus cf . C. occiduus 

Celestus species A 

Celestus species B 
Gekkonidae 

Aristelliger sp. 

Sphaerodactylus sp. 
Polychridae 

Anolis sp. A 

Anolis sp. B 

Anolis sp. C 
Tropiduridae 

Leiocephalus cf . L. jamaicensis 
Teiidae 

Ameiva cf. A. dorsalis 
OPHIDIA 

Typhlopidae 

Typhi ops sp. 
Tropidophidae 

Tropidophus cf. T. haitianus 
Colubridae 

Arrhyton sp. 



AVES 

Columbidae 

Geotrygon versicolor 

Columba inornata 
Turdidae (Muscicapidae) 

Turdus aurantius 

Turdus jamaicensis 
Fringillidae 

Loxigilla violacea 
MAMMALIA 

Chiroptera 

> three species 
Capromyidae 

Geocapromys browni 
Cricetidae 

Oryzomys palustris 



11 

Table 2. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Cockpit Country, Trelawny 
Parish, Jamaica. 

* = forest species (i.e., resident but not necessarily restricted) 
? = unconfirmed or distribution unclear 



ANURA 

Bufonidae 

Bufo marinus (margins only) 
Hylidae 

* Osteopilus brunneus 

* 0. crucialis 

* 0. new sp. 

* Hyla marianae 

* H. wilderi 
Leptodactylidae 

* Eleutherodactylus cundalli (semi-arboreal; also caves 

and rocks) 
? E. fuscus (paratype from Quickstep, but see Crombie [1986]) 
? E. gossei (mostly margins, but some heard calling in 

Cockpits) 

* E. grabhami (mostly petricolous) 

* E. griphus (endemic to central Cockpits; leaf litter) 

* E. jamaicensis (calling commonly in deep forest) 
E. johnstonei (margins only) 

* E. junori (crown lands of SE Cockpits) 

E. luteolus (Quickstep road only; leaf litter) 

* E. pantoni (leaf litter) 

* E. sisyphodemus (endemic to central Cockpits; leaf litter) 
SAURIA 

Gekkonidae 

? Aristelliger praesignis (peripheral) 
Sphaerodactlus argus (Quickstep) 

* S. goniorhynchus 

? * S. oxyrhinus (bromeliads) 

? * S. semasiops (endemic to cockpits; bromeliads) 
Polychridae 

* Anolis garmani 

A. grahami (Quickstep and margins) 

* A. "lineatopus" (A. 1. neckeri-like; possibly distinct) 

* A. opalinus 

A. sagrei (Quickstep and margins only) 
A. valencienni (Quickstep) 
Anguidae 

* Celestus barbouri 
? C. crusculus 

? C. hewardi 

C. fowleri (Windsor endemic) 



12 

Table 2. Amphibians and Reptiles (Continued) 



SERPENTES 

Typhlopidae 

Typhlops jamaicensis (marginal, possible records near 
Windsor) 
Boiidae 

* Epicrates subflavus 
Tropidophiidae 

? Tropidophis haetianus 
Colubridae 

? Alsophis ater 
? Arrhyton funereus 
TESTUDINES 

Trachemys terrapen (margins; in streams and rivers of western 
Cockpits, but probably also near Balaclava near S. edge) 



13 

Table 3. Birds of the Quickstep Region of the Cockpits, Jamaica, June 
and November 1983. Many fewer observations and collections were made in 
November than in June. 

* = North American migrant; status based on November observations only 

C = common (seen or heard virtually every day) 

U = uncommon (seen or heard less than every day) 
af = aerial soarer or feeder, generally above canopy 

f = inhabits fields 
pf = inhabits primary forest 
sg = inhabits second-growth forest or edges of primary forest 



Species 



Common Name 



Status 



Cathartidae 

Cathartes aura 

Accipitridae 

Buteo jamaicensis 

Falconidae 

Falco sparverius 

Columbidae 

Zenaida aurita 
Leptotila jamaicensis 
Geotrygon montana 
Geotrygon versicolor 
Columba caribaea 
Columba leucocephala 
Columbina passerina 

Psittacidae 

Amazona collaria 
Amazona agilis 
Aratinga nana 

Cuculidae 

Hyetornis pluvialis 
Saurothera vetula 
Crotophaga ani 

Tytonidae 
Tyto alba 

Strigidae 

Pseudoscops grammicus 

Caprimulgidae 

Chordeiles gundlachii 

Apodidae 

Streptoprocne zonaris 
Cypseloides niger 
Tachornis phoenicobia 



Turkey Vulture 
Red-tailed Hawk 
American Kestrel 



C,af 



U,af 



U.af 



Zenaida Dove 


u, 


sg, 


f 


White-bellied Dove 


u, 


pf, 


sg 


Ruddy Quail Dove 


c, 


pf, 


sg 


Crested Quail Dove 


u, 


pf 




Ring-tailed Pigeon 


C, 


pf 




White-crowned Pigeon 


u, 


■ sg 




Common Ground Dove 


c 


,.f 




Yellow-billed Parrot 


c 


.pf 




Black-billed Parrot 


c 


.pf 




Olive-throated Parakeet 


c : 


,pf ■ 


sg 


Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo 


c 


,pf, 


sg 


Jamaican Lizard Cuckoo 


u 


,pf, 


sg 


Smooth-billed Ani 


c 


,sg, 


f 


Common Barn-Owl 


u 


,pf, 


sg.f 


Jamaican Owl 


u 


,pf, 


sg 


Antillean Nighthawk 


u 


,af 




Collared Swift 


u 


,af 




Black Swift 


u 


,af 




Antillean Palm Swift 


u 


,af 





14 



Table 3. Birds of the Quickstep Region (Continued) 



Species 



Common Name 



Status 



Trochilidae 

Anthracothorax mango 
Trochilis polytmus 
Mellisuga minima 

Todidae 

Todus todus 

Picidae 

Melanerpes radiolatus 

Cotingidae 

Platypsaris niger 

Tyrannidae 

Tyr annus dominicensis 
Tyr annus caudifasciatus 
Myiarchus stolidus 
Myiarchus barbirostris 
Myiarchus validus 
Contopus caribaeus 
Myiopagis cotta 

Hirundinidae 

Hirundo fulva 

Corvidae 

Corvus jamaicensis 

Turdidae 

Turdus aurantius 
Turdus jamaicensis 
Myadestes genibarbis 

Vireonidae 

Vireo altiloquus 
Vireo modes tus 
Vireo osburni 

Parulidae 
* Mniotilta varia 

Limnothlypis swainsonii 
Helmi theros vermi vorus 
Dendroica caerulescens 
Dendroica pharetra 
Seiurus aurocapillus 
Geotblpyis trichas 
Coereba flaveola 

Thraupidae 

Euphonia Jamaica 
Spindalis zena 



Jamaican Mango U.sg.f 

Streamertail Cpf.sg 

Vervain Hummingbird U.pf.sg 

Jamaican Tody C.pf.sg 

Jamaican Woodpecker C,pf 

Jamaican Becard U.pf.sg 

Gray Kingbird U,f 

Loggerhead Kingbird C,sg 

Stolid Flycatcher U,pf 

Tom Fool C.pf.sg 

Rufous-tailed Flycatcher C.pf.sg 

Greater Antillean Pewee U.pf.sg 

Yellow-crowned Elaenia Cpf.sg 

Cave Swallow C.af 

Jamaican Crow C.af 

White-chinned Thrush C.pf.sg 

White-eyed Thrush C,pf,sg 

Rufous-throated Solitaire U.pf.sg 

Black-whiskered Vireo C.pf.sg 

Jamaican White-eyed Vireo Csg 

Blue Mountain Vireo C,pf 

Black-and-White Warbler C.pf.sg 

Swainson's Warbler U.pf.sg 

Worm-eating Warbler C,pf 
Black-throated Blue Warbler Cpf.sg 

Arrow-headed Warbler C.pf.sg 

Ovenbird Cpf.sg 

Common Yellowthroat C sg 

Bananaquit C sg 

Jamaican Euphonia Cpf.sg 

Stripe-headed Tanager U.pf.sg 



Table 3. Birds of the Quickstep Region (Continued) 



15 



Species 



Common Name 



Status 



Icteridae 

Icterus leucopteryx 

Nesopsar nigerrimus 
Emberizidae 

Loxigilla violacea 

Tiaris olivacea 

Tiaris bicolor 

Loxipasser anoxanthus 

Euneornis campestris 



Jamaican Oriole C.pf.sg 

Jamaican Blackbird U,pf 

Greater Antillean Bullfinch C.pf.sg 

Yellow-faced Grassquit C,sg,f 

Black-faced Grassquit U.sg.f 

Yellow-shouldered Grassquit C,sg,f 

Orangequit C,pf,sg,f 



Table 4. Bats Collected in the Vicinity of Marta Tick Cave, Trelawny 
Parish, Jamaica, June 1983. 

t = endemic to Jamaica 

% = netted at entrance of Marta Tick Cave 



* 



Pteronotus p. parnellii 
Mormoops blainvillii 
Macrotus waterhousii jamaicensis 
Glossophaga soricina antillarum 
Monophyllus r. redmani 
Ariteus flavescens 
Phyllonycteris aphylla 



18 
2 
3 

11 
5 

26 
6 



16 

Table 5. Common Woody Plants In the Vicinity of Marta Tick Cave, 
Trelawny Parish, Jamaica. Nomenclature follows Adams (1972). Common 
names were provided by Mr. Menocal Stephenson of Quickstep, Jamaica. 



Species 



Common Name 



Smilacaceae 

Smilax balbisiana 
Dioscoreaceae 

Dioscorea polygonoides 

Dioscorea alata 

Dioscorea rotundata 
Araceae 

Anthurium grand i folium 

Philodendron scandens 

Philodendron lacerum 

Syngonium auritum 
Palmae 

Calyptronoma occidentalis 
Piperaceae 

Piper amalago 

Piper hispidum 

Pothomorphe umbel lata 
Moraceae 

Chlorophora tinctoria 

Trophis racemosa 

Cecropia peltata 

Ficus trigonata 

Ficus perforata 

Ficus maxima 

Artocarpus alt His 
Urticaceae 

Boehmeria jamaicensis 
Polygonaceae 

Coccoloba tenui folium 

Coccoloba longifolia 
Amaranthaceae 

Chamissoa altissima 

Iresine diffusa 
Nyctaginaceae 

Neea nigricans 

Pisonia aculeata 

Guapira fragrans 
Cactaceae 

Hylocereus triangularis 
Annonaceae 

Xylopia muricata 

Oxandra lanceolata 



Chainy root 

Bitter Jessie 

Greater yam, Renta yam 

Guinea yam 

Wild coco 



Five finger 

Long thatch 

Black giant 
Brown giant 
Cow foot 

Fustic tree 
Ramoon 
Trumpet 
Black fig 
Red fig 
White fig 
Breadfruit 

Doctor Johnson 

Wild grape 

Long leaved grape 

Basket withe 
Jubba bush 

Saltwood 
Cockspur 
Beefwood 

Okra 

Odorwood 
Lancewood 



Table 5. Common Woody Plants (Continued) 



17 



Species 



Common Name 



Lauraceae 

Li car i a triandra 

Nectandra antillana 

Nectandra patens 

Nectandra coriacea 

Ocotea leucoxylon 
Menispermaceae 

Hyperbaena prior iana 
Theaceae 

C ley era theaoides 
Quiinaceae 

Quiina jamaicensis 
Clusiaceae 

Clusia flava 

Calophyllum calaba 

Mammea americana 
Papaveraceae 

Bocconia frutescens 
Rosaceae 

Prunus occidentalis 

Prunus myrtifolia 
Caesalplnlaceae 

Bauhinia divaricata 

Peltophorum linnaei 

Haematoxylum campechianum 
Mlmosaceae 

Pithecellobium arbor eum 
Papilionaceae 

Piscidia piscipula 

Andira inermis 

Flemingia strobilifera 
Erythroxylaceae 

Erythroxylum confusum 
Rutaceae 

Fagara martinicensis 

Fagara elephantiasis 

Fagara flavum 

Spathelia sorbifolia 
Simaroubaceae 

Picrasma excel sa 

Simarouba glauca 

Picramnia antidesma 



Pepperleaf sweetwood 
Sweetwood 

Capberry sweetwood 
Fine leaved sweetwood 
Sweetwood 

Beef bone 

Damson 

Mountain bay 

Card gum 
Santa Maria 
Mammee 

Celandine 

Prune 
Goatwood 

Moco John 

Braziletto 

Nickal 

Tamarind 

Dogwood 
Wormwood 
Wild hops 

Greenheart 

Prickly yellow 
Yellow sanders 
Walkerwood 
Bernot 

Bitterwood 
Bitter damson 
Majoe bitter 



18 



Table 5. Common Woody Plants (Continued 



Species 



Common Name 



Meliaceae 

Cedrela odorata 

Swietenia mahagoni 

Trichilia hirta 

Trichilia moschata 

Guarea swart izii 
Euphorbiaceae 

Drypetes ilicifolia 

Ricinus communis 

Omphalea triandra 

Sapium jamaicense 
Anacardiaceae 

Mangifera indica 

Comocladia pinnatifolia 
Sapindaceae 

Exothea paniculata 

Blighia sapida 

Maytayba apetala 
Staphyleaceae 

Turpinia occidentalis 
Rhamnaceae 

Rhamnus sphaerospermus 

Ziziphus chloroxylon 
Vitaceae 

Vitis tilii folia 

Cissus sicyoides 
Malvaceae 

Hibiscus elatus 

Hibiscus clypeatus 
Bombacaceae 

Ceiba pentandra 
Flacourtiaceae 

Caesar ia guianensis 
Bixaceae 

Bixa ore 11 ana 
Combretaceae 

Terminalia latifolia 
Myrtaceae 

Pi men t a dioica 

Psidium guajava 

Eugenia spp. 

Syzygium malaccense 



West Indian cedar 
West Indian mahogany 
Wild mahogany 
Bloodwood 
Mosswood 

Rosewood (?) 
Oil nut 
Pop nut 
Blind eye 

Mango 
Maiden plum 

Wild guinep 

Ackee 

Cobywood 

Drumwood 

Cobo 

Wild cinnamon 

Water withe 
Pudding withe 

Mahoe 
Congo mahoe 

Cotton tree 

Wild coffee 

Anatto 

Broadleaf 

Pimento 
Guava 
Rodwood 
o 



Table 5. Common Woody Plants (Continued) 



19 



Species 



Common Name 



Melastomataceae 
Mi con i a rigida 
Mi con i a impetiolaris 
Mi con i a laevigata 
Clidemia erythropogon 

Sapotaceae 

Manilkara excisa 
Manilkara sideroxylon 
Micropholis rugosa 
Pouter ia multiflora 

Verbenaceae 

Lantana camara 

Solanaceae 

Solanum torvum 
Solanum erianthum 
Capsicum frutescens 

Rubiaceae 

Antirhea jamaicensis 
Faramea occidentalis 

Composltae 

Eupatorium villosum 



Johnny berry 
Bigleaf Johnnv :>?: 
Johnny berry 
Wild Johnny berry 

Sapodilla 
Naseberry bullet 
Beef apple 
Galimenta 

Sage 

Gully bean 
Wild cucumber 
Bird pepper 

Pigeonwood 
Wild coffee 

Bitter bush 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NO. 354 



REEF ENVIRONMENT AND CORAL FAUNA OF SOUTHERN TAIWAN 

BY 
CHANG-FENG DAI 



ISSUED BY 

NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

WASHINGTON D.C., U.SA. 

JULY 1991 



REEF ENVIRONMENT AND CORAL FAUNA OF SOUTHERN TAIWAN 

BY 
CHANG-FENG DAI 



ABSTRACT 

Southern Taiwan is surrounded by well-developed fringing 
reefs inhabited by a relatively rich coral fauna. The 
Taiwanese coral fauna is of considerable biogeographical 
interest since it borders the region with highest coral 
diversity. This report presents a description of the reef 
environment and a revised species checklist of both sclerac- 
tinian and alcyonacean corals from southern Taiwan. 230 
species representing 58 genera of scleractinian corals, 9 
species of non-scleractinian reef -building corals, and 40 
species of alcyonacean corals were recorded. Among them, 8 
genera and 95 species of sclearactinian corals and 28 species 
of octocorals are new records. With regard to the scleracti- 
nian and alcyonacean fauna, southern Taiwan constitutes a 
part of the Indo-Pacific zoogeographical province and its 
species diversity is comparable to adjacent areas such as the 
Ryukyu Islands, Hainan Island, and Guam. 



INTRODUCTION 

Taiwan borders the region of the West Pacific Ocean with 
highest coral diversity, which lies between the Philippines 
and eastern Australia. Because of its central position, and 
because of the lack of main shallow water areas, Taiwan might 
be expected to act as a ' stepping stone ' in the northward and 
eastward dispersal of shallow water organisms. A detailed 
knowledge of the Taiwanese reef fauna and flora will aid in 
understanding both biogeographical and dispersal questions 
concerning the western Pacific Ocean. 

Although Taiwan lies near the northern latitudinal limit for 
the development of extensive fringing or barrier reef 



Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, 
P. 0. Box 23-13, Taipei, Taiwan, R. 0. C. 

Manuscript received 28 January 1991; revised 26 April 1991 



systems, its sublittoral regions possess coral communities 
that rival many of those found in lower latitudes in diver- 
sity (Jones et al. 1972; Dai, 1988). The coral communities 
of Taiwan are distributed along the northern, eastern, and 
southern coasts and are lacking only on the western sandy 
coast. Other areas supporting coral communities are found 
at adjacent islands such as Lanyu (Orchid Island) , Lutao 
(Green Island), Hsiao-Liuchiu, Penghu (The Pescadores) and 
a number of small offshore rocky islets (Fig. 1). Among 
these localities, southern Taiwan has the highest species 
diversity of corals. 

Most previous work dealing with the Recent coral reefs of 
southern Taiwan has been in the form of species checklists 
compiled from scleractinian coral collections. Sugiyama 
(1937) reports 43 species and 24 genera from a coral collec- 
tion made by Ehara in southern Taiwan. Kawaguti (1942, 1943) 
listed 78 species and 34 genera from Garanpi (Oluanpi) and 
compared the coral fauna there with other collections from 
Taiwanese waters. He also discussed the geographic distribu- 
tion of corals along the Taiwanese coast and offshore 
islands. Later he (Kawaguti, 1953) revised the previous 
coral collections from Oluanpi and listed 87 species and 35 
genera. Some publications by Ma (1957, 1958, 1959) reveal 
26 coral species and 18 genera as being collected from 
Oluanpi. Jones et al. (1972) collected 340 coral specimens 
from the reefs of southern Taiwan and provided a list of 52 
genera and 173 species, of which 121 are new to the study 
area. Subsequent investigations by Yang et al. (1976, 1977, 
1982) increased the number to 245 species and 59 genera. 
However, most of these works only present a species checklist 
and a description of the coral fauna but include little 
systematic and ecological studies. Owing to the confused 
status of species at that time and the lack of prudent 
systematic studies, the species lists presented by the 
previous authors include numerous synonyms. Alcyonacean 
corals are among the most abundant benthic organisms on the 
fringing reefs of southern Taiwan, whereas they have rarely 
been given attention (Jones et al. 1972; Yang, 1985). 
Utinomi (1959) reported 15 species of alcyonaceans collected 
from tide-pools of southern Taiwan with the addition of very 
short descriptions. The species described by him were 
synonymized by Verseveldt (1980, 1982, 1983) into 11 species. 

This report presents a brief description of the reef environ- 
ment and a revised species checklist of both scleractinian 
and alcyonacean corals on the fringing reefs in southern 
Taiwan. Detailed taxonomic descriptions of the coral fauna 
have been published elsewhere (Dai, 1989, 1991; Hoeksema and 
Dai, 1991). 



REEF ENVIRONMENT 

GEOGRAPHY 

Taiwan is located on the edge of a continental shelf and, 
hence, has affinities with continental landforms. To the 
east, the submarine topography drops steeply to 4000 m, and 
even to nearly 7000 m in the nearby Ryukyu Trench (Chu, 
1971). Tectonically, Taiwan is situated in a continental- 
arc collision zone between the Asian Plate and the Philippine 
Sea Plate. The neotectonics of this island during the 
Holocene has been very evident by its substantial uplift, 
which may be greater than any other part of the world (Ho, 
1975). The average uplift rate of the island has been 
estimated to range from 4.3 to 5.3 mm/yr (Peng et al. 1977). 

The study area, i.e., Hengchun Peninsula, is located at the 
southern tip of Taiwan (21°55 • -22°00 'N. , 120°40'- 120°52' 
E.). The peninsula is underlain mainly by Miocene rocks and 
capped with Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. The average 
uplift rate of the peninsula since 9000 yr b.p. is 5.3 mm/yr; 
however, the uplift rate has decreased to 2.5 mm/yr since 
2000 yr b.p. (Peng et al. 1977). The high uplift rate of the 
study area may be partly responsible for the relatively 
narrow underwater fringing reefs in southern Taiwan. Raised 
coral reefs are scattered all over the peninsula and they 
form several levels of coastal terraces fringing the penin- 
sula (Hanzawa, 1931). The prominent emergent reefs of the 
coastal area are continuations of the presently growing 
underwater coral reefs (Tsan, 1974). 



CLIMATOLOGY 

Taiwan is influenced by both continental and marine climates. 
The island lies partly in the tropics, with the Tropic of 
Cancer passing through the middle of the island. The 
tropical climate of southern Taiwan is characterized by 
marked seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. Air 
temperatures are generally high, despite significant seasonal 
changes, with mean daily air temperature ranging from 20.1 
in winter to 28.2 C in summer. Of the average annual 
rainfall (2200 mm), the majority (77 %) falls in the warmer 
months (June-September). The extreme seasonal variability 
of rainfall is evident from the long-term monthly mean 
rainfall record (Fig. 2). The strong seasonality of rainfall 
can impart localized seasonal changes in shallow inshore 
water turbidity and salinity as a consequence of terrigenous 
runoff. 

The predominant winds of southern Taiwan are the seasonal 
monsoons. Two monsoon seasons are evident in southern 



Taiwan, i.e., the northeast winter monsoon (October-April) 
and the southwest summer monsoon (May-September). Wind 
velocities are higher in winter and lower in summer with an 
annual average of 4.1 m/sec (Hsu, 1974). The unusually 
strong winter monsoon in the Hengchun area (known as "down- 
hill wind") has a speed of 10-17 m/sec (Hsu, 1974). Since 
the wind blows from NE to SW, the prevailing swell produced 
by this winter monsoon is strongest on the west side of 
Nanwan Bay. 

The tropical location of southern Taiwan places it within the 
zone of typhoon disturbance. On average, the study area 
suffers direct hits (on typhoon tracks) by 1.17 typhoons per 
year. The high winds, high seas and generally intense rain 
accompanying such phenomena can cause considerable changes 
on reef morphology and coral communities (Stoddart, 1962, 
1974; Woodley et al. 1982). Since typhoons that hit southern 
Taiwan usually blow from SE to NW, the west side of Nanwan 
Bay is exposed to the catastrophic damage of storms, whereas, 
the west coast of the Peninsula and the east side of Nanwan 
Bay are less exposed owing to the shielding by mountains. 



OCEANOGRAPHIC SETTING 

Several oceanographic survey programs have been conducted in 
southern Taiwan. Summarized below are data from four major 
sources : ( 1 ) a marine biological data acquisition program 
pertaining to the construction of a power plant at the west 
side of Nanwan Bay (Yang et al., 1976, 1977, 1982); (2) 
ecological surveys on the waters adjacent to the nuclear 
power plant (Hung et al., 1984); (3) ecological investiga- 
tions on the waters of Renting National Park area (Chang and 
Chen, 1986, 1987); and (4) continuously recorded unpublished 
data on water temperature and current of Nanwan Bay provided 
by the Radiation Laboratory of the Taiwan Power Company. 

1 . Water Temperature 

Monthly average sea temperatures at 15 m deep (on reef 
surface) of southern Taiwan range from 22.5 to 28.2°C (Fig. 
3). The variation in sea temperature is seasonal, with its 
high in summer ( July-August ) and low in the winter season 
(December-March), resulting in an annual range of 5-6 °C. 
Differences in daily average sea temperature range from 20.3 
to 29.2 °C. Diurnal variation is less than 5°C. Sea 
temperatures of southern Taiwan are relatively uniform in 
terms of different localities and depths. 

2 . Light and Water Turbidity 

The average Secchi visibility depth for the reef waters of 



Nanwan Bay was higher than 15 m in most areas, except in 
shallow waters in the northern part of the Bay (Hung et al., 
1984). Light attenuation patterns through the water columns 
of Nanwan Bay (Yang et al. 1982) show that the relative light 
intensity at depths of 3-5 m varies widely (20-50 %) at 
different sites and the lowest occurs on the east side of 
Nanwan Bay. Relative light intensity usually falls below 20% 
at 20 m deep. 

Turbidity caused by river discharge is heaviest on the east 
coast of the peninsula and at the east side of Nanwan Bay. 
Yang et al. (1982) reported that the turbidity measured at 
northeast side of Nanwan Bay three days after a heavy 
rainfall was 4.3 J.T.U. (Jackson Turbidity Unit), whereas the 
water turbidity of Nanwan Bay is usually 0.28-1.90 J.T.U. 

3 . Salinity and Nutrients 

Annual variation of salinity measured in Nanwan Bay shows a 
regular annual pattern; ranging from 32.21-34.97 ppt with its 
maximum in winter (January-March) and minimum in summer 
(July-September) . The distribution of salinity values is 
relatively uniform in both winter and summer season (Hung et 
al. 1984). During most seasons, the salinity is within the 
optimal range for hermatypic coral growth (34-36 ppt). River 
discharge has very limited effect on the salinity here. 

Dissolved oxygen in the waters of southern Taiwan ranges from 
3.77 to 5.10 ml/1. Usually the oxygen contents are highest 
in winter and lowest in summer. Seawater pH values in Nanwan 
Bay are relatively homogeneous and range from 7.84 to 8.34. 
Nutrients concentrations measured in the Bay were: nitrate 
(N0 3 "-N), < 0.05 to 25.01 yM; nitrite (N0 2 "-N), < 0.01 to 6.08 
jiM; phosphate (P0 3 "-P), < 0.03 to 6.42 pM; silicate (-Si0 2 2 ~- 
Si), < 0.10 to 52.19 jjM. BOD of the seawater ranges from 
0.00 to 2.33 ± 0.29 ppm. The amount of total lipids ranges 
from 1.14 to 90.2 mg/1. 

Related to concentrations of dissolved nutrients in other 
coral reef waters (Crossland, 1983), the concentrations of 
nitrate, nitrite and phosphate in southern Taiwan are 
unusually high. 

4 . Tides and Currents 

The tidal regime of southern Taiwan is semidiurnal with a 
cycle of 12 hours and 25 minutes. Spring tides alternate 
regularly with neap tides. For Nanwan Bay, the mean spring 
tide range is 1.35 m and the mean neap tide range is 0.63 m. 
The tidal currents flow from east to west during flood tide 
and from west to east during ebb tide (Fig. 4). Hourly 
current recorded at Nanwan Bay shows prominent difference of 



current speed between the west and northeast side of the bay 
(Fan and Yu, 1981). This difference is mainly due to the 
effect of bottom topography. 

The inshore current of the west coast of Hengchun Peninsula 
flows from SSE to NNW during flood tide and from NNW to SSE 
during ebb tide with an average speed of 15 cm/sec (ranges 
from 2 to 53 cm/ sec). The current speed on the northwest 
coast of the peninsula is relatively high indicating its high 
water energy environment. The relatively fast water flows 
of southern Taiwan are partly due to the strong Kuroshio 
current (Fan and Yu, 1981). 



MATERIALS AND METHODS 

SCLERACTINIAN FAUNA 

Scleractinian specimens examined during this study are from 
three major sources: (1) the collections made by Jones et al. 
(1972) including a total of 340 coral specimens which are 
deposited at the Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan 
University (TUIO), Taipei; (2) the collections made by Yang 
et al. (1976-1982) including about 1000 specimens and also 
deposited at TUIO, and (3) personal collections of the author 
made during several dives in 1981-1984 and 1985-87, with a 
total of about 500 specimens, of which representatives of 
species have been deposited at the Peabody Museum of Natural 
History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. 
Collections were made at sites throughout the fringing reefs 
of southern Taiwan (Fig. 1). The identification of the 
scleractinian species was carried out largely following the 
species concepts proposed by Veron and his co-workers (Veron 
and Pichon, 1976, 1979, 1982; Veron et al. 1977; Veron and 
Wallace, 1984; Hoeksema, 1989). 



ALCYONACEAN FAUNA 

Alcyonacean corals were also collected at stations as shown 
in Fig. 1. Whole colonies were collected if size permitted 
and otherwise a longitudinal slice (including capitula, 
stalk, and holdfast) was collected. Morphological characters 
of living colonies were recorded in situ and in addition 
underwater photos were taken. Specimens were placed in 
plastic bags labeled with codes corresponding to photographic 
tags. 

The external morphology of polyps was examined with a 
dissecting microscope. Since different parts of an alcyona- 
cean colony often contain different types of sclerites, four 



sclerite preparations of a colony are prepared for identifi- 
cation, namely (1) surface layer of the capitulum or lobe, 
(2) interior part of the capitulum or lobe, (3) surface layer 
of the stalk, and (4) interior of the stalk. Sclerites were 
isolated by using a 20 % NaOH solution to disintegrate the 
tissues. 

A total of about 220 alcyonacean specimens was examined. 
Species identifications were made using information published 
in Verseveldt (1980, 1982, 1983), Verseveldt and Alderslade 
(1982), Bayer (1981), and references cited therein. The 
specimens are deposited at the following institutions: (1) 
Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New 
Haven, USA; (2) Institute of Oceanography, Taiwan University, 
Taipei; and (3) Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan. 



RESULTS 

SCLERACTINIA FAUNA 

Table 1 presents a preliminary species list of scleractinian 
and non-scleractinian reef-building corals from the reefs of 
southern Taiwan. A review of previous records and the 
bathymetric distribution of each species are also given. A 
few species and genera listed by previous authors are omitted 
here; these have been reassigned to other taxa or have been 
sy nonymi z ed . 

In the present study, 230 species are recognized, represent- 
ing 58 genera of scleractinian corals. Nine species of non- 
scleractinian reef-building corals including Tubipora musica , 
Heliopora coerulea and seven Millepora species are also 
listed here. Among them, 8 genera ( Plerogyra , Physogyra , 
Gardineroseris , Pectinia , Blastomussa , Caulastrea and 
Oxypora ) , and 95 species of sclearactinian corals are new 
records. Most of the species assignments correspond to those 
by Veron and Pichon (1976, 1980, 1982), Veron et al. (1977), 
Veron and Wallace (1984), and Hoeksema (1989) for widespread 
species. Since the collecting effort in southern Taiwan is 
not very intense, there are likely to be some undiscovered 
scleractinian such as Madracis f Physophyllia, Acrhelia, and 
Cynarina . Additional species of particular genera such as 
Acropora , Montipora , and Porites , are also likely to be 
discovered since the traditional taxonomic difficulties 
related to these genera indicate that species may easily be 
overlooked. New species from deep water may similarly exist 
since depths greater than 35 m have rarely been studied in 
the study area. However, the majority of species found in 
southern Taiwan is included in Table 1. 



ALCYONACEAN FAUNA 

Table 2 lists the known shallow water alcyonacean species on 
the reefs of southern Taiwan. The list includes 40 species 
of which 28 are new records. Eight species do not conform 
to previous descriptions and remain unassigned. 

Alcyonacean corals in southern Taiwan are mainly distributed 
in the areas around the two southernmost tips. The most 
extensive and abundant alcyonacean community was found at the 
west side of Nanwan Bay. This area is exposed to moderately 
strong currents and occasional storm surges. Alcyonaceans 
were rarely found on the protected reefs such as the east 
side of Nanwan Bay. 

Although some species are common in tidal pools, alcyonaceans 
rarely appear in very shallow water (0-2 m) possibly due to 
their lack of a strong skeleton. However, they become common 
on deeper flat reef surfaces down to 5 m in depth. In this 
region, the soft corals are represented by large encrusting 
alcyonaceans such as Sinularia exilis , S_. facile , and 
Lobophytum paucif lor urn . Colonies of these species often 
reach 2 m in diameter or more. Alcyonaceans are abundant in 
intermediate waters of exposed reefs such as the submarine 
terrace and the reef front and occur in various shapes and 
colors. The most abundant species are: Sarcophyton troche- 
liophorum, S_. crassocaule, and Lobophytum sarcophytoides . 
They usually form large stands of mushroom-like, bush-like 
or basin-like colonies. In deep waters, alcyonaceans are 
represented by small colonies of Sarcophyton spp. and 
Sinularia spp. 



DISCUSSION 

SCLERACTINIA FAUNA 

With 61 genera and 235 species, the scleractinian fauna of 
southern Taiwan is very rich and is comparable to the richest 
areas in the west Pacific in terms of species diversity. 
Veron (1985) includes Taiwan in the 60 genera contour on the 
map of worldwide coral distributions. This study confirms 
his estimation, however, a significant decrease of species 
diversity from south to north on the island can be expected. 
Probably only southern Taiwan has such high species diver- 
sity. 

Despite this high diversity, there are few coral species 
endemic for southern Taiwan, except Fungia ( Pleuractis ) 
taiwanensis (Hoeksema and Dai, 1991). The apparent small 



degree of endemism is related to the fact that the fauna is 
of relatively recent origin and to the lack of geographical 
isolation of the island. By using radiocarbon methods, coral 
rocks collected from the seashore ( 1-2 m above sea level ) 
around Hengchun Peninsula have been dated as 1300-1500 yr 
b.p. (Peng et al. 1977). These data indicate that the 
living reefs of southern Taiwan may be younger than 1500 
years. The corals of southern Taiwan represent a newly 
colonized fauna; the prevailing northward current passing 
Taiwan, the Kuroshio Current, is responsible for colonization 
from the south. Southern Taiwan is located about 200 miles 
north of Luzon, and there is an additional series of small 
islets lying in between them. The Kuroshio current is a 
continuation of the North Equatorial Current which flows 
north from the central Philippines toward Taiwan at an 
average velocity of 1 . knot (Nitani, 1972). Drift time from 
the Philippines to southern Taiwan is thus about eight days. 
Since coral larvae may remain in the plankton for a few weeks 
(Fadlallah, 1983; Richmond and Hunter, 1990), larvae from 
coral reefs of the Philippines and central Pacific Ocean can 
reach the waters of southern Taiwan and still have the 
ability to settle. Because of its close position to the 
Indo-Pacific scleractinian diversity center and because of 
its favorable environment, southern Taiwan thus has a very 
rich coral fauna despite its small reef area. 

In addition, the scleractinian fauna in southern Taiwan may 
have a high species turnover rate. Catastrophic events such 
as typhoons and heavy sedimentation could be occurring 
frequently enough to cause local extinctions. Indeed, in 
spite of the fact that a large number of species was dis- 
covered during this study, other species reported by previous 
authors in the study area were not observed even under 
intense searching. The high recruitment rates with frequent 
disturbances seem to be the important factors in maintaining 
the species diversity of this fauna. 

205 species (89%) recorded from southern Taiwan also occur 
on the Great Barrier Reef. Most of the species common to 
both regions do not show significant taxonomic differences. 
Similarly, Veron (1986) reported that 89% of the sclerac- 
tinians recorded from Ishigaki I. also occur on the Great 
Barrier Reef. This indicates that the distribution of 
Indo-Pacific corals is generally homogeneous throughout the 
province at both generic and specific levels (Wells, 1969; 
Veron, 1985). 



ALCYONACEAN FAUNA 

The alcyonacean fauna of the study area is a part of the 
Indo-Pacific zoogeographical province. Most of the species 



10 

reported here are widely distributed in the province. The 
species diversity of alcyonacean fauna in southern Taiwan is 
comparable to the Ryukyu Islands (36 species; Utinomi, 1976, 
1977a, b) and Hainan Island (18 species; Li, 1982). However, 
the major species reported in this study represent a rela- 
tively small proportion of species considered valid by 
Verseveldt (1980, 1982, 1983). For example, only 17% of 
Sinularia and Sarcophyton species and 13% of Lobophytum 
species are included in the alcyonacean species list. 

The type locality of Asterospicularia laurae is in southern 
Taiwan (Utinomi, 1951) where it seems to have a restricted 
distribution, mainly in tide pools. The Xeniidae have been 
reported dominant in some reef environments in the Red Sea 
(Benayahu, 1985) and the central Great Barrier Reef (Dinesen, 
1983), but they are relatively rare on the reefs of southern 
Taiwan. Several genera which have been reported abundant on 
some Indo-Pacific reefs, such as Litophyton , Lemnalia , Ef f la- 
tounaria , and Capnella have not been recorded in the study 
area. Due to the systematic complexity of alcyonacean 
corals, their Indo-Pacific fauna is largely undescribed and 
hence it is premature to discuss their biogeography . 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I am grateful to Dr. Bert W. Hoeksema for his efforts on 
taxonomy of Taiwanese mushroom corals and for his critical 
reading of the manuscript. This study was supported by the 
Renting National Park Headquarters, Bureau of Construction, 
Ministry of Interior, R. 0. C. 



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Wells, J. W. 1969. Aspects of Pacific coral reefs. 

Micronesica 5:317-322. 
Woodley, J. D. et al. 1981. Hurricane Allen's impact on 

Jamaican coral reefs. Science 214:749-755. 
Yabe, H. and T. Sugiyama. 1935. Geological and geographical 

distribution of reef -corals in Japan. J. Paleont. 

9:183-217. 
Yabe, H. and T. Sugiyama. 1936. Revised list of the reef 

corals from the Japanese seas and of the fossil reef 

corals of the raised reefs and the Ryukyu limestone of 

Japan. J. Geol. Soc. Japan pp. 379-403. 
Yabe H. and T. Sugiyama. 1941. Recent reef -building corals 

from Japan and the South Sea Islands under the Japanese 

Mandate. Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ. 2nd Ser. (Geol.) 



14 

Special vol. II. P. 67-91, pi. 60-104. 

Yang, R. T. 1985. Coral communities in Nan-wan Bay (Taiwan). 
Proc. 5th Internat. Coral Reef Congr., Tahiti 6:273-278. 

Yang, R. T., C. C. Huang, C. H. Wang, S. Z. Yeh, Y. F. Jan, 
S. L. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. J. Chen, L. F. Chang, C. L. 
Sun, W. Huang and T. F. Tsai. 1976. A marine bio- 
logical data acquisition program pertaining to the 
construction of a power plant in the Nan-wan Bay area. 
Phase I. A preliminary reconnaissance survey. Inst. 
Oceanogr., Nat. Taiwan Univ. Special Publ. 11, 134 p. 

Yang, R. T. , C. C. Huang, C. H. Wang, S. Z. Yeh, Y. F. Jan, 
S. J. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. J. Chen, L. F. Chang and C. 
F. Tsai. 1977. A marine biological data acquisition 
program pertaining to the construction of a power plant 
in the Nan-wan Bay area. Phase II. Biological data 
acquisition. Inst. Oceanogr., Nat. Taiwan Univ., Spec. 
Publ. 11, pp. 1-314. 

Yang, R. T., C. F. Dai, S. Z. Yeh, C. L. Sun, F. Y. Su, S. 
Y. Liao, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Chang, and T. Y. Chou. 1982. 
Ecology and distribution of coral communities in Nanwan 
Bay, Taiwan. Spec. Publ. 40, 74 pp. 



15 



Table 1. The known scleractinian and non-scleractinian 
reef-building corals on the fringing reefs of Southern Taiwan. 
Key to previous records, S: Yabe and Sugiyama (1935, 1936, 
1941), Sugiyama (1937); K: Kawaguti (1942, 1943, 1953); 
M: Ma (1957, 1958, 1959); J: Jones et al. (1972); Y: Yang 
et al. (1976, 1977, 1982); R: Randall and Cheng (1984); 
H: Hoeksema and Dai (1991); N: synonymized from the above 
records. Distribution of coral species is based on collection 
records and field observation records from the following depths: 
A: recorded from 0-5 m; B: recorded from 5-15 m; C: recorded 
from 15-25 m. '*' indicates species not examined in this 
study because specimens were lost or not available. 



Species 



Previous 
record 



Depth 



B 



CLASS ANTHOZOA 
SUBCLASS ZOANTHARIA 
ORDER SCLERACTINIA 



Family ASTROCOENIIDAE 

Stylocoeniella armata Ehrenberg 
S. quentheri Bassett-Smith 

Family THAMNASTERIIDAE 

Psammocora profundacellar Gardiner 
P. digitata Edwards & Haime 
P. contigua (Esper) 
P. brighami Vaughan * 
P. verrilli Vaughan * 

Famliy POCILLOPORIDAE 

Pocillopora damicornis Linnaeus 
P. eydouxi Edwards & Haime 
P. meandrina (Dana) 
P. verrucosa Ellis & So lander 
P. woodjonesi Vaughan 

Seriatopora caliendrum Ehrenberg 
S. hystrix Dana 



J,Y 






+ 


+ 




J,Y 






+ 


+ 




K,Y 






+ 






N 






+ 


+ 




K,Y 






+ 


+ 




K 












K 












S,K, 


J, 


Y 


+ 


+ 




K,J, 


Y 




+ 


+ 


+ 


S,K, 


J, 


Y 


+ 


+ 




K,J, 


Y 




+ 


+ 

+ 


+ 


K,J, 


Y 




+ 


+ 




K,Y 






+ 


+ 





Stylophora pistillata (Esper) 



K,J,Y 



Family ACROPORIDAE 

Acropora pal if era (Lamarck) 

A. cuneata (Dana) 

A. humilis (Dana) 

A. gemmifera (Brook) 

A. monticulosa (Brugemann) 

A. digitifera (Dana) 

A. glauca (Brook) 

A. robust a (Dana) 

A. palmer ae Wells 



K,J,Y 


+ 
+ 




K,J,Y 


+ 
+ 


+ 


J,Y 


+ 


+ 


J,Y 


+ 


+ 


N 


+ 


+ 


N 


+ 


+ 


J,Y 


+ 





16 



Table 1. (continued). 



Spi 


ecies 


Previous 
record 




DeDth 




A 


B C 


A. 


nobilis (Dana) 


N 


+ 


+ 


A. 


grandis (Brook) 


N 


+ 


+ 


A. 


formosa (Dana) 


S,K,J,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


valenciennesi (Edwards & Haime) 


N 




+ + 


A. 


microphthalma (Verrill) 


N 


+ 


+ 


A. 


aspera (Dana) 


N 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


pulchra (Brook) 


N 




+ 


A. 


millepora (Ehrenberg) 


N 


+ 


+ 


A. 


tenuis (Dana) 


Y 


+ 


+ 


A. 


dendrum (Basett-Smith) 




+ 


+ 


A. 


selago (Studer) 


N 




+ + 


A. 


cytherea (Dana) 


N 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


microclados (Ehrenberg) 






+ 


A. 


hyacinthus (Dana) 


K,Y 


+ 


+ 


A. 


anthocercis (Brook) 




+ 


+ 


A. 


latistella (Brook) 




+ 


+ 


A. 


studer i (Brook) 


S,K,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


nana (Studer) 


J,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


azurea Veron and Wallace 




+ 


+ 


A. 


cereal is (Dana) 


K,J,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


nasuta (Dana) 


J,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


secale (Studer) 






+ + 


A. 


valida (Dana) 


J,Y 


+ 


+ + 


A. 


clathrata (Brook) 


N 




+ 


A. 


divaricata (Dana) 




+ 


+ 


A. 


florida (Dana) 




+ 


+ 


A. 


austera (Dana) 






+ + 


A. 


granulosa (Edwards & Haime) 






+ + 


A. 


acuminata Verrill 


J,Y 


+ 


+ 


A. 


angulata (Quelch) * 


K,Y 






A. 


sp 1 




+ 


+ 


A. 


sp 2 




+ 





Anacropora matthaii Pillai 



Astreopora myriophthalma (Lamarck) 

A. listeri Bernard 

A. gracilis Bernard 

A. randalli Lamberts 

A. cucullata Lamberts 

A. suggesta Wells * 

Montipora monaster lata (Forskal) 

M. tuberculosa (Lamarck) 

M. peltiformis Bernard 

M. turgescens Bernard 

M. spumosa (Lamarck) 

M. undata Bernard 



J,Y 



J,Y 

N 
N 



+ + 
+ + 

+ 
+ ♦ 

+ 
+ 

+ + + 
+ + 

+ + 

+ 

+ + 

+ + 



17 



Table 1. (continued). 






Species 


Previous 
record 


DeDth 




ABC 



M. verrucosa (Lamarck) 

M. danae Edwards & Haime 

M. foveolata (Dana) 

M. venosa (Ehrenberg) 

M. angulata (Lamarck) 

M. digitata (Dana) 

M. hispida (Dana) 

M. efflorescens Bernard 

M. nodosa (Dana) 

M. grisea Bernard 

M. stellata Bernard 

M. informis Bernard 

M. foliosa (Pallas) 

M. aequituberculata Bernard 

M. incrassata (Dana) 

M. ehrenbergi Bernard 

M. marshal lens is Wells 

M. lichen Dana 

M. edwardsi Bernard 

M. sp. 1 

M. sp. 2 



K,J,Y 

K,J,Y 
J,Y 

N 
J,Y 



N 

K,J,Y 

S,MjK,J,Y 

N 

N 

Y 

J,Y 

J,Y 

K,J,Y 



Family AGARICIIDAE 
Pavona clavus (Dana) 
P. divaricata Lamarck 
P. decussata Dana 
P. cactus (Forskal) 
P. maldivensis (Gardiner) 
P. varians Verrill 
P. venosa (Ehrenberg) 
P. frondifera (Lamarck) * 
P. lilacea (Klunzinger) * 
P. gardineri Van der Horst * 



M,J,Y 
K,Y 



M,K,Y 

J,Y 

J,Y 

S,K 

S,K 

S,K 



Gardineroseris planulata (Dana) 



N 



Leptoseris hawaiiensis Vaughan 
L. incrustans (Quelch) 
L. explanata Yabe & Sugiyama 
L. yabei (Pillai & Scheer) 
L. tenuis Van der Horst 

Coeloseris mayeri Vaughan 

Pachyseris rugosa (Lamarck) 
P. speciosa (Dana) 



J,Y 




+ 


+ 


J,Y 




+ 


+ 






+ 


+ 






+ 


+ 
+ 


M j K. > J > Y 


+ 


+ 




J,Y 


+ 


+ 


+ 


K,J,Y 




+ 


+ 



18 



Table 1. (continued). 






Species 


Previous 
record 


DeDth 




ABC 



Family SIDERASTREIDAE 

Coscinarea columna (Dana) 



J,Y 



Family FUNGI I DAE 

Fungia (Cycloseris) sinensis (E. & H. ) H 



F. (C. ) cyclolites Lamarck 

F. (C.) fragilis (Alcock) 

F. (C. ) costulata Ortmann 

F. (C. ) vaughani Boschma 

F. (Verrillo fungia) repanda Dana 

F. (V.) concinna Verrill 

F. (Dana fungi a) horrida Dana 

F. (D. ) scruposa Klunzinger 

F. (Fungia) fungites (Linnaeus) 



H 
H 
H 
H 

H 
H 

H 
H 

H 



F. ( We llso fungia) granulosa Klunzinger H 

F. (Pleuractis) moluccensis V. d. Horst H 

H 
H 
H 



F. (P.) taiwanensis Hoeksema & Dai 

F. (P. ) gravis Nemenzo 

F. (P. ) paumotensis Stutchbury 



F. (Lobactis) scutaria Lamarck H 

Ctenactis echinata (Pallas) H 

Herpolitha Umax (Esper) H 

Polyphyllia talpina (Lamarck) H 

Sandalolitha robusta (Quelch) H 

S. dentata Quelch H 

Lithophyllon undu latum (Rehberg) H 

L. mokai Hoeksema H 

Podabacia Crustacea (Pallas) H 

Family PORITIDAE 

Alveopora verrilliana Dana J,Y 
A. fenestrata (Lamarck) 
A. spongiosa Dana 

Goniopora lobata Edwards & Haime 

G. djiboutensis Vaughan 



+ + 



+ + 
+ + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + 

+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ + 

+ + 

+ 

+ + 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + 

+ + 
+ + 



19 



Table 1 . ( cont inued ) . 






Species 


Previous 
record 


Depth 




ABC 



G. minor Crossland 

G. columns. Dana 

G, stuchburyi Wells 

G. tenella (Quelch) 



J,Y 



Porites (Porites) australiensis Vaughan J,Y 



P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 
P. 



(P.) solids (Forskal) 
(P. ) murrsyensis Vaughan 
lichen Dana 
lobats Dana 
lutes Edwards k Blaise 
(P.) cylindrics Dana 
(P. ) nigrescens Dana 
tenuis Verrill 
snnse Crossland 
stephensoni Crossland 
compresss Dana 
cocosensis Wells * 
(Synsrses) rus (Forskal) 
(P.) sp. 



(P.) 
(PJ 
(P.) 



(P.) 
(P.) 
(P.) 
(P.) 
(P.) 



J,Y 

J,Y 

J,Y 

N 

K,Y 

J,Y 



J,Y 
J.Y 
N 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



Faaily FAVIIDAE 

Cyphsstres chslcidicum (Forskal) 
C. microphthslms (Laaarck) 
C. sersilia (Forskal) 



H j IV j J i i 
J,Y 



Csulsstres furcsts Dana 



Diplosstrea heliopors (Laaarck) K,J,Y 

Echinipors lame 1 loss (Esper) K,J,Y 

Fsvis favus (Forskal) J,Y 

F. pallida (Dana) J,Y 

F. rotumana (Gardiner) J,Y 

F. speciosa (Dana) S,M,K,J,Y 

F. stelligera (Dana) J,Y 

F. lsxs (Klunzinger) Y 

F. maxima Veron, Pichon & Wijs«an-Best 

F. maritima Neaenzo 

Favites abdita (Ellis & Solander) N,K,J,Y 

F. chinensis (Verrill) N 

F. complsnsts (Ehrenberg) K,Y 

F, rotundata Veron, Pichon & Wijs»an-Best 

F. flexuosa (Dana) J»Y 

F. russelli (Wells) 

F. pentagona (Esper) M,J,Y 



20 

Table 1. (continued). 



Species 



F. halicora (Ehrenberg) 

Barabattoia amicorum (Edwars & Haime) 

Montastrea valenciennesi (E. & H. ) 
M. curta (Dana) 

Goniastrea australiensis (E. & H. ) 

G. edwardsi Chevalier 
G. aspera (Verrill) 
G. pectinata (Ehrenberg) 
G. retiformis (Lamarck) 

Hydnophora exesa (Pallas) 
H. microconos (Lamarck) 
H. rigida (Dana) 

Leptoria phrygia (Ellis & Solander) 

Oulophyllia crispa (Lamarck) 

Platygyra pini Chevalier 

P. lamellina (Ehrenberg) 

P. daedalea (Ellis & Solander) 

P. sinensis (Edwards & Haime) 

Plesiastrea versipora (Lamarck) M,K,J,Y 

Leptastrea purpurea (Dana) 
L. pruinosa Cross land 
L. transversa Klunzinger 

Family OCULINIDAE 

Galaxea fascicularis (Linnaeus) 
G. cf. astreata (Lamarck) 

Simplastrea versicularis Umbgrove 

Family MERULINIDAE 

Merulina ampliata (Ellis & Solander) 

Scapophyllia cylindrica (E. & H. ) 

Family PECTINIIDAE 

Echinophyllia asper (Ellis & Solander) K,J,Y + + 

Oxypora lacera (Verrill) + + 

0. glabra Nemenzo + + 



Previoi 


IS 




Depth 


record 


A 


B C 


J,Y 




+ 


+ 


N 






+ 


N 




+ 


+ 






+ 


+ 


N 




+ 


+ + 


N 




+ 


+ + 


N 




+ 


+ + 


M ) K » J i 


Y 


+ 


+ + 


K,J,Y 




+ 


+ + 


J,Y 




+ 


+ + 


K 




+ 


+ 


J,Y 






+ + 


M > K > J ] 


Y 


+ 


+ + 


M,J,Y 






+ + 






+ 


+ + 


M, K» J i 


Y 


+ 


+ + 


N 




+ 


+ + 


N 




+ 


+ + 



M , K , J , 


Y 


+ 


+ 


+ 


J,Y 




+ 

+ 


+ 
+ 




K,J,Y 




+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 




J,Y 






+ 




K,J,Y 




+ 


+ 


+ 


J,Y 






+ 


+ 



21 



Table 1 . ( con t inued ) . 






Species 


Previous 
record 


Depth 




ABC 



Mycedium elephantotus (Pallas) N + + 

Pectinia lactuca (Pallas) + + 

P. paeon ia (Dana) + + 

Family MUSSIDAE 

Blastomussa sp. + 

Scolymia cf. vitiensis Bruggemann 

Acanthastrea echinata (Dana) 
A. hillai Wells 

Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) 

L. corymbosa (Forskal) 

L. hataii Yabe, Sugiyana & Eguchi 

Symphyllia recta (Dana) 

S. radians Edwards & Haime 

5. agaricia Edwards & Haime 

S. cf. valenciennesii Edwards & Haime 

Family CARYOPHYLLIIDAE 

Euphyllia (E. ) glabrescens C. & E. 

E. (E. ) cristata Chevalier 

E. (Fimbryaphyllia) ancora V. & P. 

Plerogyra sinuosa (Dana) 

Physogyra lichtensteini (E. & H. ) 

Family DENDROPHYLLIIDAE 

Turbinaria peltata (Esper) 

T. frondens (Dana) 

T. mesenterina (Lamarck) 

T. reniformis Bernard 

T. immersa Yabe & Sugiyama 

Tubastrea aurea Quoy & Gaimard 

Dendrophyllia micranthus (Ehrenberg) 



SUBCLASS OCTOCORALLIA 
ORDER COENOTHECALIA 
Family HELIOPORIDAE 

Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) K,J,Y 











+ 


M ) K , J ) 


Y 


+ 
+ 


+ 


+ 


M,K,Y 






+ 


+ 


K,J,Y 






+ 
+ 


+ 


M , K j J ] 


Y 


+ 


+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


M > K ) J i 


Y 




+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


K,J,Y 




+ 


+ 
+ 




N 




+ 


+ 
+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


K,J,Y 






+ 


+ 


N 






+ 


+ 


N 






+ 
+ 


+ 
+ 


J,Y 






+ 


+ 


J,Y 






+ 


+ 
+ 



22 



Table 1. (continued). 






Species 


Previous 
record 


DeDth 




ABC 



ORDER STOLONIFERA 
Family TUBIPORIDAE 

Tubipora musica Linnaeus 



K,J,Y 



CLASS HYDROZOA 
ORDER NILLEPORINA 
Family NILLEPORIDAE 

Millepora platyphylla H. & E. 

M. dichotoma Forskal 

M. tenera Boschma 

M. murrayi Quelch 

M. intricata Edwards & Haime 

M. foveolata Crossland 

M. tuberosa Boschma 



K,J,Y, 


R 


+ 


+ 


R 




+ 


+ 


K,J,Y, 


R 


+ 


+ 


K,J,R 




+ 


+ 


J,Y,R 




+ 


+ 


R 




+ 


+ 


R 




+ 


+ 



23 



Table 2. A list of alcyonacean corals known from the fringing reefs 
of Southern Taiwan. '*' indicates the species reported by Utinomi 
(1959). Distribution of coral species is based on collection records 
and field observation records from the following depths, A: recorded 
from 0-5 m; B: recorded from 5-15 m; C: recorded from 15-25 m. 



species 



Depth 



CLASS ANTHOZOA 
SUBCLASS OCTOCORALLIA 
ORDER ALCYONACEA 



B 



Family ALCYONIIDAE 

Alcyonium simplex Thomson and Dean 
A. mo lie Thomson and Dean 
A. rotundum Thomson and Dean 

Sinularia densa (Whitelegge) 

S. exilis Tixier-Durivault 

S. facile Tixier-Durivault 

S. flexibilis (Quoy & Gaimard) 

S. gibberosa Tixier-Durivault 

S. grandi lobata- Verseveldt 

S. granosa Tixier-Durivault 

S. halversoni Verseveldt 

S. inexplicita Tixier-Durivault 

S. lochmodes Kolonko 

S. mayi Luttschwager * 

S. mollis Kolonko 

S. mural is May 

S. numerosa Tixier-Durivault 

S. polydactyla (Ehrenberg) * 

S. scabra Tixier-Durivault 

S. sp. 1 

5. sp. 2 

Lobophytum bat arum Moser 

L. crassum Von Marenzeller 

L. mirabile Tixier-Durivault 

L. pauciflorum (Ehrenberg) 

L. sarcophytoides Moser 

L. solidum Tixier-Durivault 

L. sp. 

Sarcophyton crassocaule Moser 

S. ehrenbergi Von Marenzeller * 

S. glaucum (Quoy & Gaimard) 

S. stellatum Kukenthal 

5. tortuosum Tixier-Durivault 

S. troche liophorum Von Marenzeller * 

S. sp. 1 



+ + 
+ + 
+ + 

+ + + 
+ + 
+ + 

+ + 

+ + 

+ + 
+ + + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 
+ + + 
+ + + 
+ + + 

+ 

+ 

+ + 

+ + + 

+ + 
+ + + 

+ + 

+ 

+ 

+ + + 

+ + 

+ + + 

+ 
+ 
+ + 

+ 



24 

Table 2. (continued) 



species Depth 

A B C 

S. sp. 2 ~ 

Cladiella sphaerophora (Ehrenberg) * + 

C. pachyclados (Klunzinger) * + 

C. sp. + 

Family NEPHTHEIDAE 

Nephthea erecta Kukenthal * + + 

N. chabroli Audouin + + 

Paralemnalia thyrsoides (Ehrenberg) * + 

Family XENIIDAE 

Anthelia formosana Utinomi * + + 

Heteroxenia elisabethae Kolliker * + + 

H. sp. + 

Cespitularia stolonifera Gohar * + 

Family ASTEROSPICULARIIDAE 

Asterospicularia laurae Utinomi + 



25°N 




21°55' 



120°40 



120°50' 



Fig. 1. Map of Taiwan and the study area 
"*" indicates the study sites. 





179. V 


•°- 100. 


70 












- 




, 


" 


60 










, 


50 
















o 40 
















RAINFALL* 

IS) CO 

o o 




















10 




























■ 










' 











_. 


i 


i 




\ 


1 



J F M A 



M J J A S 
MONTH 



O N D 



Fig. 2. Seasonal variation of monthly mean rainfall from 
1900 to 1985 in southern Taiwan. Ranges are 
shown in bars. (Data from Hengchun Weather 
Station, Central Weather Bureau, R. 0. C. ) 



o 

o 

LU 
CC 

D 
I- 
< 
CO 
US 

a. 

LU 



29 
28 
27 
26 
25 
24 

23 
22 
21 






J F M A M J J 

MONTH 



A S N D 



Fig. 3. Seasonal variation of monthly mean sea temperature 
in 15 m deep in Nanwan Bay from 1980-1988. (Data 
from the Radiation Laboratory, Taiwan Power Company, 
R. O. C. ) . 



40' 



120°45'E 



50' 



22° 

00' 
N 



21° 
55' 



Flood Tide 




22° 

00' 
N 



21°- 
55' 



Ebb Tide 



40' 



120°45'E 



50' 




Fig. 4. Flow pattern of coastal waters in southern Taiwan 
during flood and ebb tides. (Redrawn from Hung et 
al. 1984 and Chang and Chen, 1987). 



ATOLL RESEARCH BULLETIN 
NOS. 348-354 



NO. 348. PLANTS OF THE REEF ISLANDS OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 
BY F. RAYMOND FOSBERG AND DAVID R. STODDART 

NO. 349. PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND VEGETATION OF THE REEF ISLANDS 
OF THE NORTHERN GREAT BARRIER REEF 
BY DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 

NO. 350. PISONIA ISLANDS OF THE GREAT BARRIER REEF 

PART I. THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND DISPERSAL BY 
SEABIRDS OF PISONIA GRANDIS 
BY T.A. WALKER 

PART II. THE VASCULAR FLORAS OF BUSHY AND 
REDBILL ISLANDS 
BY T.A. WALKER, M.Y. CHALOUPKA, AND B.R. KING 

PART III. CHANGES IN THE VASCULAR FLORA 
OF LADY MUSGRAVE ISLAND 
BY T.A. WALKER 

NO. 351. FLORE ET VEGETATION DE L'lLE DE WALPOLE 

BY ALAIN RENEVIER AND JEAN-FRANCOIS CHERRIER 

NO. 352. PLANTS OF THE JAMAICAN CAYS 

BY DAVID R. STODDART AND F. RAYMOND FOSBERG 

NO. 353. LIVING AND LATE HOLOCENE FOSSIL VERTEBRATES, 

AND THE VEGETATION OF THE COCKPIT COUNTRY, JAMAICA 

BY GREGORY K. PREGILL, RONALD I. CROMBIE, DAVID W. STEADMAN, 

LINDA K. GORDON, FRANK W. DAVIS, AND WILLIAM B. HILGARTNER 

NO. 354. REEF ENVIRONMENT AND CORAL FAUNA OF SOUTHERN TAIWAN 
BY CHANG-FENG DAI 



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HECKMAN LJ 

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JUNE 98 

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